Abstract in English:The presence of glands in insect legs is largely difunded. In bees they are present in solitary and social species. In Centris and Epicharis three different types of glandular structures were found: bag-shaped structures in males femur and tibia, unicelular glandular cells in ali segments of all leg pairs in males and females, but more developed in females, and differentiated epidermis in the basitarsus of both sexes. The tarsal gland present in the distal tarsomere of all legs of males and females are a special type of the bag-shaped structure. The nature of secretion and it use is unknow, but some morphological and stainning properties indicate a lipidic nature.
Abstract in English:A cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae), a Neotropical genus that includes ten species, was made. The cladogram was obtained from eight studied species, based on a data matrix with 21 characters, using the program Hennig86. Character states were polarized following outgroup analysis, and an hypothetical ancestor was included in the analysis in order to root the tree. The options used, "ie*" and "xs w", resulted in four most parsimonious trees with ci = 79, ri = 80 and length 115. The monophiletism of Euprepina was supported by two synapomorphies.
Abstract in English:The diet of pirambeba Serrasalmus brandtii Reinhardt 1874 was studied in four floodplain lakes in São Francisco river. The main food items consumed were chunks of fish flesh, small fishes, scales, fins and aquatic insects. Trophic ontogeny was observed in all lakes. The amount of fishes in the diet of S. brandtii increased with the length of the individuals, while the amount of aquatics insects, fins and scales decreased. Aquatic insects were consumed in greater proportion during the wet season. Fish ingestion, including scales and fins, was correlated with the abundance of fishes.
Abstract in English:The factors involved in the induction of resting eggs development and hatching are poorly understood for Brachionus calyciflorus populations of South Hemisphere. The role of some abiotic factors in controlling the hatching rates of B. calyciflorus resting eggs was investigated. Determination of optimum hatching conditions would be important in developing the use of this species as food for fish larvae in aquaculture. Resting eggs were exposed to different treatments in the laboratory, and monitored for hatching over a period of five days. Optimum hatching conditions were: pH 5-9, water ionic concentrations from 220 to 880 mg.l-1 of selected salts, temperature 25 - 30ºC, photoperiod eight or more hours light per day, and light intensity equal to or greater than 850 lux.
Abstract in English:Specimens of five bee species of the genus Ancyloscelis Latreile, 1836 were sampled during three consecutive years in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with the aim to study their morphology and behavior during flower visits. Characteristics that allow to distinguish the five species are presented.
Abstract in English:A detailed description of laboratory reared first zoea larva of Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 is given. The larvae utilized for this study were reared in vitro in a special incubator. A comparison with larvae of other species is also attempted.
Abstract in English:Sixteen species of mammals have been described from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The region is poorly represented in mammal collections, and many of these species have been synonimized on the basis of geographical proximity, without a serious consideration of their validity. The sixteen species plus one described from Paraná with a paratype from Santa Catarina are listed, with pertinent information on their type localities, correct bibliographical reference, and present status. Type localities are spelled exactly as they appear in the original descriptions.
Abstract in English:The genus Luppetiana Brescovit, 1996 composed actually by nine species, from which five are herein described as new is revised: L. manauara from Brazil; L. levii from Dominican Republic; L. eberhardi from Costa Rica; L. piedra from Cuba; and L. bimini from Bahamas Islands. The species L. perpusilla (Banks, 1909) is synonymyzed with L. parvula (Banks, 1903). Lectotype and paralectotype of L. parvula are designated. The known geographical distribution of the genus ranges from United States of America to north of Brazil.
Abstract in English:Data on immature stages, the behavior and the range of Titaea orsinome Huebner,  are presented. The larva feeds on Eriotheca gracilipes (K. Schum.) O. Robyn (Bombacaceae). Generation (oviposition to imago) lasted 77 days. Egg, larval instars, head capsules, pupa and adults are illustrated in color.
Abstract in English:Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt, 1935 is a common mole crab called "tatuíra" in Brazil, with distribution from Espírito-Santo State (Brazil) to Buenos Aires Province (Argentina). Specimens were collected bimonthly from May/1992 through March/1993 with 4mm siffers mesh, in the intertidal region at Vermelha do Norte Beach, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The animals were sexed and measured with a precision caliper of 0.1 mm (Cl = carapace length). Males presented cl amplitude from 3.4-17.3mm (13.2±2.1mm), and females from 13.8-26.3mm (20.5±1.8mm), showing a well-defined sexual dimorfism for this variable. The population presented a smaller incidence of males in relation to females (0.54:1.00), however in May/1992 an inverse pattern occurred (1.84:1.00). Ovigerous females were present in all samples with exception of May and September/1992 with greater frequencies in July/1992 and January/1993. It is probable that female maturity occurs is reached with 17mm CL, the smallest size in wich ovigerous females were found.
Abstract in English:The following new species are described: Sphenorhina danielssoni sp.n. (from Peru, Huánuco), S. huggerti sp.n. (from Ecuador, Pichincha), S. unifasciata sp.n. (from Ecuador, Napo), S. pichita sp.n. (from Peru, San Ramon, Mina Pichita), S. badia sp.n. (from Ecuador, Azuay), and S. rubrolurida sp.n. (from Bolivia, Yungas del Palmar). New characters of male genitalia are considered in the generic definition.
Abstract in English:Collection data of Euglossinae males from Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (PERD) and Viçosa, both areas with remnants of Atlantic Rain Forest (Mata Atlântica) in Minas Gerais state, Brazil are presented. Comparisons made among three fragments with different sizes and states of disturbance from Viçosa showed differences in abundance of most common species and apparently, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletir, 1841 can be an useful indicator of disturbed sites. Some populations of euglossine bees seems to be restrict to a forest fragment, there being few or no flow of individuals or species of one fragment to another, even when they are only 1 km apart. 15 species of euglossines were sampled in PERD, and the most abundant was Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804). At Viçosa, 10 species were sampled, E. nigrita was the predominant one. Methyl salicylate attracted no males at both sites, in spite of large numbers of species and individuals sampled using this bait in other regions. The majority of species and individuals were collected in the rainy season. Only 0,58% of sampled males carried orchid pollinia (Catasetum Richard, Cycnoches Lindley and Coryanthes Hook) on their bodies. Emergence data of four species of Euglossa Latreille, 1802 reared from trap nests suggest that sex ratio in Euglossini is not a constant within the tribe. A list of 57 euglossine species now known to occur in Mata Atlântica are offered.
Abstract in English:Neolasioptera cerei Rübsaamen, 1905 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated to Selenicereus setaceus (SD) Berg (Cactacae) is redescribed. Until now, only female was known. Male, pupa and larva are described and illustrated herein.
Abstract in English:The response of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824) to the volatiles of its host banana plant (Musa paradisiaca cv. Prata) and conspecific adults was studied. In olfactometer, the attraction of males and females of C. sordidus to rhizome and pseudotem of the banana, fresh or rotting, was observed. The results suggested that the aggregation pheromone is produced by males and that it attracts both sexes, and that there is another pheromone produced by females which attracts males only. The results also suggest that the females are the first responsible for the aggregation of the species, but the male pheromone is mainly responsible for the mass aggregation. Nevertheless, the aggregation phenomenon is a consequence of the mutual action of both pheromones plus the kairomones produced by the banana plant.
Abstract in English:Data on the life cycle and morphology of immature stages of Actinote surima (Schaus, 1902) are presented. The larva feed on leaves of Eupatorium intermedium DC and Eupatorium casarettoi (Rob.) Steyermark (Asteraceae).
Abstract in English:Fourteen genera and 23 species were misplaced and are assigned to their proper families, 11 genera and 10 species are synonymized, one genus and one species are ressurected from synonymy, and 18 species are new combinations.
Abstract in English:The reproductive cycle of the marine catfishes Genidens genidens Valenciennes, 1833 and Cathorops spixii Agassiz, 1839 in the Sepetiba Bay, was assessed by an annual period of sampling from October 1993 to September 1994. The fishes were caught by standardized otter trawl and environmental parameters of temperature, salinity and transparency of water were recorded at each sampling. Five gonadal phases were described, based in macroscopic observations. Changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and in the percentual of stages of gonadal development showed that G. genidens spawns in Summer/early Autumn, coinciding with low salinity and high temperature and transparency. Cathorops spixii spawns in late Spring/early Summer, coinciding with rising temperature and transparency and low salinity. Total spawning are shown for both species, as indicated by length-frequency of oocytes per stages of maturation with two groups synchronic development of oocytes. Fecundity is low (10-23 oocytes, for G. genidens and 24-30 for C. spixii), when compared with other teleosteans, and was not strongly correlated to the total length (G. genidens, r=0.65, C. spixii, r=0.76). Strategy-k is developed by both species as indicated by high brood and enbrions protection and high body length.
Abstract in English:In Tupiperla Froehlich, 1969, the presence or the absence of the s cross-vein in the forewings are useless both as a generic and as a specific character. The relative antenna length and the number of cercomeres may be useful in discriminating between species.
Abstract in English:Conchological and anatomical studies of the glochidium of Diplodon martensi (lhering, 1893) were performed on samples collected in a small river, tributary from the Caí River, that belong to the Jacuí River sub-basin in south-eastern Brazil. The parasitic development of the glochidium was observed in laboratory on a small cichlid fish Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel, 1870).
Abstract in English:The objective of the present study was to characterize the richness (number of species) of large and medium-sized mammals, and the antropic threats in the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (PNSD). In 31 days data were collected through direct observations or evidences (bones, hairs, vocalizations and tracks) along pre-existing trails distributed in different types of vegetation. Wild mammals captured by local people were also considered. They were found 44 species of terrestrial mammals (with the exception of small mammals and bats) and two species of cetaceans, representing 73% of the total predicted, according to the literature and information of local dwellers were registered in PNSD. They exist in the area two species classified by IUCN (1996) as "Endangered" [Cacajao calvus rubicundus (I. Geoffroy, 1806) and Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792)] and five as "Vulnerable" [Ateles chamek (Humboldt, 1812), Callimico goeldii (Thomas, 1904), Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii (Humboldt, 1812), Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 and Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817)]. Given that subsistence and commercial hunting are common in the PNSD, mammals more affected by hunting [Ateles chamek (Humboldt, 1812), Lagothrix lagotricha (Humboldt, 1812), Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795)] were observed only in the more remote areas such as Serra do Divisor, Rio Moa. In comparison with others areas, the results indicate that PNSD has high richness of the mammals, with special attention to the 14 primates species registered.
Abstract in English:The objective of the present study is to describe the karyotype of the fruit fly Tomoplagia rudolphi (Lutz & Lima, 1918). This fly induces the formation of galls on the stems of Vernonia polianthes (Asteraceae). The cytogenetic analysis of cerebral ganglia (larva and pupa) and testis (adults) of T. rudolphi showed a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 10 + xx (female) and 2n = 10 + xy (male). The diploid chromosome number 2n = 12 and the XX/XY sex determination system have been found in most of the species studied. The present investigation constitutes the first cytogenetics study of the genus Tomoplagia Coquilltt, 1910.
Abstract in English:Foraging in the Black Lion Tamarin (L. chrysopygus Mikan, 1823) was observed in the Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, during 83 days between November 1988 to October 1990. These tamarins use manipulative, specific-site foraging behavior. When searching for animal prey items, they examine a variety of microhabitats (dry palm leaves, twigs, under loose bark, in tree cavities). These microhabitats were spatially dispersed among different forest macrohabitats such as swamp forests and dry forested areas. These data indicated that the prey foraging behavior of L. chrysopygus was quite variable, and they used a wide variety of microhabitats, different of the other lion tamarin species.
Abstract in English:In addition to the Survey of the Entomological Fauna in Paraná State, the Sphingidae was studied in its ecological and faunistic aspects. The material was collected using one light trap installed in eight different sites of the State (Antonina, São José dos Pinhais, Colombo, Ponta Grossa, Telêmaco Borba, Jundiaí do Sul, Guarapuava, and Fênix), from October 1986 to September 1987. A total of 813 specimens and 55 species was captured. The highest values of diversity (Brillouin and Shannon) was observed in São José dos Pinhais and Jundiaí do Sul; the highest values of evenness (Berger & Parker, and Simpson) in São José dos Pinhais and Antonina. Besides using ecological indices, the data were also compared by Clustering Analysis and Linear Correlation Coefficient. The results were compared with meteorological and floristic conditions in the eight localities, and with the results of others Sphingidae surveys in the Neotropical region.
Abstract in English:Two new species of Arhysosage are described: A. cactorum sp.n. from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and A. melanothricha sp.n. from Salta, Argentina.
Abstract in English:Three species of whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828, B. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 captured in the Brazilian coast were necropsied for helminths. Balaenoptera borealis and B. physalus were infected by Crassicauda crassicauda (Nematoda, Tetrameridae) and Ogmogaster antarcticus (Digenea: Notocotylidae), which are referred for the first time in Brazil. Balaenoptera borealis was also infected by Lecithodesmus goliath (Digenea, Campulidae) and Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae). Physeter catodon was infected by Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda, Anisakidae), which is a new record to this host in Brazilian waters.
Abstract in English:Morphological characters used for separating Nectomys parvipes Petter, 1979 from N. squamipes melanius Thomas, 1910 are the same used for separating Nectomys from the smaller taxon Sigmodontomys J.A. Allen, 1897. Principal Component analyses grouped N. parvipes holotype with S. alfari specimens and apart from N. s. melanius specimens. Both morphology and morphometry indicated that N. parvipes belongs to the genus Sigmodontomys.
Abstract in English:A malacological survey has been done by the sênior author in Ilha Grande, State of Rio de Janeiro, since 1996. Up to this date the only freshwater gastropods found were specimens of Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954). The snails were collected at a swampy area situated behind the late Penal Colony Cândido Mendes (Ilha Grande Prison).