Abstract in English:Abstract The pharmacological management of adults with chronic-phase Chagas disease is challenging despite it being the recent focus of extensive research. One of the challenges in the current clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) landscape is the existence of non-evidence-based recommendations for the use of laboratory tests in treatment monitoring. This study aimed to systematically assess the quality and consistency of recommendations of CPGs on the pharmacological management of adults with chronic-phase Chagas disease. Systematic literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, SciELO and Google to identify all published CPGs relevant to the pharmacological management of Chagas disease, between January 2010 and March 2016. Three independent reviewers assessed the quality of each CPG using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. A total of five CPGs were included and the overall quality of the guidelines for therapeutic drug monitoring of Chagas disease was moderate-to-low. There was considerable variation in the quality of the CPGs across the AGREE II domains. The domains of scope/purpose, stakeholder involvement, and clarity of presentation were rated well, and the domains of applicability and editorial independence received poor ratings. This review showed that the methodological quality of CPGs for Chagas disease was generally inappropriate, and there was no explicit link between the best available evidence and current recommendations.
Abstract in English:Abstract This meta-analysis, which is based on a previously published systematic review, aims to contribute to the scientific discussion on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in workers who are exposed to domestic and healthcare wastes. Publications were sought which had been made available on the data used by December 2013 and updated to December 2016. The quality of the included studies was assessed according to the guidelines of Loney et al. for the critical appraisal of studies on the prevalence or incidence of a health problem. To verify the presence of heterogeneity between the papers, we used the Chi-squared test based on a Q statistic. A funnel plot was used to test for publication bias. All included studies had across-sectional study design. The association between exposure to waste and positive serology for the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) showed a significant association [odds ratio (OR) 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-2.86; p = 0.0019]. The prevalence rates of HBsAg and anti-HBc seropositivity was 0.04 (95% CI 0.03-0.05) and 0.21 (95% CI 0.14-0.28), respectively (p <0.0001). We found no evidence of publication bias. The results of this meta-analysis indicate a statistically significant association between exposure to solid waste, whether healthcare or domestic, and positive HBV infection markers. Therefore, the working conditions of waste collectors should be analyzed more closely. Immunization against HBV is recommended as the chief preventive measure for all solid waste workers.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important pathogen globally, presents several resistance mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the presence of blaGES in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from various clinical specimens from patients admitted to three different hospitals in Recife, Brazil. The Guiana extended spectrum beta-lactamase (GES) enzymes are responsible for conferring broad spectrum resistance to beta-lactam drugs, including the carbapenems. METHODS: A total of 100 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing to identify bla GES, bla KPC, bla SPM-1, bla IMP, and bla VIM. Additionally, PCR products positive for bla GES were sequenced. The clonal profiles of these same isolates were then determined by means of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR analysis. RESULTS: PCR analysis revealed that four isolates harbored bla GES; DNA sequencing showed that two harbored bla GES-1 and two bla GES-11. Beta-lactamase genes bla SPM-1, bla IMP, bla VIM, and bla KPC were investigated; none of these genes was detected. Automated susceptibility testing methods (Vitek®2, bioMérieux) showed that the bla GES-1-positive isolates were only susceptible to polymyxin B. The patterns obtained with ERIC-PCR methods showed clonal relationship between the two isolates that harbored bla GES-11, whereas different clonal profiles were found in the isolates harboring bla GES-1. CONCLUSIONS: We detected the presence of bacterial isolates positive for two different variants of the enzyme GES in three different hospitals from Recife, Brazil. These enzymes have a great capacity for dissemination among Gram-negative bacteria and confer broad-spectrum resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and to the carbapenems.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, the plague is established in several foci located mainly in the northeastern part of the country, where it alternates between active and quiescent periods. These foci in the State of Ceará have high epidemiological importance. In addition to other plague detection activities, plague areas can be monitored through serological surveys of dogs and cats (domestic carnivores), which, following feeding on plague-infected rodents, can develop mild to severe forms of the disease and produce long-lasting antibodies. This study aimed to characterize the circulation dynamics and spatial distribution of Yersinia pestis antibodies in dogs and cats in plague foci areas of Ceará. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted to analyze the temporal series and spatial distribution of secondary data obtained from domestic carnivore serum surveillance in Ceará’s plague areas from 1990 to 2014. RESULTS: Joinpoint analysis revealed that the overall trend was a reduction in antibody-positive animals. The mean proportion of antibody-positivity during the whole study period was 1.5% (3,023/203,311) for dogs, and 0.7% (426/61,135) for cats, with more than 4% antibody-positivity in dogs in 1997 and 2002. Antibody titers ranging from 1/16 to 1/64 were frequent. Despite fluctuations and a significant reduction, in recent years, there were antibody-positive animals annually throughout the study period, and the localities containing antibody-positive animals increased in number. CONCLUSION: Yersinia pestis is actively circulating in the study areas, posing a danger to the human population.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is an infectious disease that affects more than 5,000 people per year in Brazil. The Federal District (FD) lacks epidemiological studies of human leptospirosis and presents concerning rates of this disease, especially considering its lethality. METHODS: Seventy-nine autochthonous human cases of leptospirosis between 2011 and 2015 were analyzed, with the probable infection location serving as a basis for the collection and analysis of the environmental and epidemiological variables. RESULTS: The incidence of the disease ranged from 0.68-13.39 per 100,000 inhabitants in 21 of the 31 administrative regions that compose the FD. The local profile of human leptospirosis was predominantly associated with urban areas during the rainy season, population access to the sewage network, the treated water network, and the public garbage collection service. The vast majority of cases had a strong association with synanthropic rodents at the infection sites. CONCLUSIONS: In order to prevent and control potentially lethal human leptospirosis infection, the eco-epidemiological characterization of this disease is a valuable tool for public policies of prevention, control, and surveillance. In addition to population awareness, the systematized control of synanthropic rodents could be the main health action to reduce the incidence of this disease in the FD.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infections are the second most common cause of death among patients on hemodialysis. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors associated with central venous catheter-related infections in patients undergoing hemodialysis, and to identify and characterize the type and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the primary microorganisms isolated during one year of follow-up. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in 2014 in a hemodialysis referral center. We included 200 outpatients with acute kidney injury who had no permanent venous access. A nurse assessed the patients for signs of infection three times per week during dressing changes. The clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with and without local or systemic infection were compared. RESULTS: Fifty-five episodes of catheter-related infections occurred in 43 (22%) patients; 38 (69%) were bloodstream infections and 17 (31%) were local infections. Thirty-two (75%) patients with infection had femoral vein catheter placement. In total, 6,240 hemodialysis sessions were performed; the rates of primary bloodstream and local infection were 6.1 and 2.7 episodes per 1,000 patients on daily dialysis, respectively. In the univariate analysis, diabetes was significantly associated with the development of infection, while level of education, ethnicity, age, and sex were not. Gram-negative bacteria were primarily isolated from blood culture specimens (55% of samples). Of the Gram-negative isolates, 56% were resistant to the carbapenems. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a high incidence of catheter-related infections caused by resistant microorganisms in patients undergoing hemodialysis via central venous catheters.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: The production of the Montenegro antigen for skin test poses difficulties regarding quality control. Here, we propose that certain animal models reproducing a similar immune response to humans may be used in the quality control of Montenegro antigen production. METHODS: Fifteen Cavia porcellus (guinea pigs) were immunized with Leishmania amazonensis or Leishmania braziliensis , and, after 30 days, they were skin tested with standard Montenegro antigen. To validate C. porcellus as an animal model for skin tests, eighteen Mesocricetus auratus (hamsters) were infected with L. amazonensis or L. braziliensis , and, after 45 days, they were skin tested with standard Montenegro antigen. RESULTS: Cavia porcellus immunized with L. amazonensis or L. braziliensis , and hamsters infected with the same species presented induration reactions when skin tested with standard Montenegro antigen 48-72h after the test. CONCLUSIONS: The comparison between immunization methods and immune response from the two animal species validated C. porcellus as a good model for Montenegro skin test, and the model showed strong potential as an in vivo model in the quality control of the production of Montenegro antigen.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status has been implicated in the modulation of the immune response, possibly augmenting the pathogenesis of Chagas disease (Cd). We evaluated diet quality and nutritional status in adults and elderly patients with chronic Cd in a tertiary hospital. METHODS: A case-control study of Cd patients was conducted, paired for gender, age, and co-morbidities with non-Cd patients. Anthropometric measurements and food frequency questionnaire was used, and diet quality was assessed by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R). The Estimated Average Requirement cut-off points were used to determine the dietary micronutrient adequacy. The Cd group was further grouped according to Los Andes classification. RESULTS: The study participants were 67 ± 10 years old, 73.6% elderly and 63% female. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal fat was high in both groups; however, Cd group showed a lower prevalence of obesity and increased risk of disease according to waist circumference classification. There was no difference in BHEI-R score between groups (p=0.145). The Cd group had sodium and saturated fat intake above recommendations and low intake of unsaturated fat, vitamin D, E, selenium, magnesium, and dairy products; but higher intake of iron. According to Los Andes classification, group III presented lower intake of whole fruit and dietary fiber. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Cd were overweight and the quality of their diet was unsatisfactory based on the recommended diet components for age and sex.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite the advances of disease control programs, severe forms of schistosomiasis are prevalent. The prevalence of the disease in areas frequented by tourists urges for permanent prevention and control. The aim of this study was to describe the morbidity of schistosomiasis in the district of Antônio Pereira, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: The proportion of positives was defined by Kato-Katz coproscopy and urinary POC-CCA rapid test. Hepatosplenic form was diagnosed using abdominal ultrasound. RESULTS: Out of 180 participants,97 were examined by Kato-Katz, with 4 (4.1%) being positive. Thirty-four (22.1%) out of 154 were positive by POC-CCA. Five (2.8%) of 177 examined by ultrasound had hepatosplenic form. One of them had undergone splenectomy. One (0.6%)participant had myeloradiculopathy. CONCLUSIONS: Severe forms of schistosomiasis are still prevalent in low endemic areas and should be thoroughly investigated.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION Ectopic forms of schistosomiasis are those in which the parasitic element is localized outside the portal system, the natural habitat of the helminth. Although the prevalence rates of schistosomiasis are high in Brazil, clinical and epidemiological data on ectopic forms of the disease are still scarce. METHODS Cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive epidemiological study in which cases with a confirmed histopathological diagnosis of an ectopic form of schistosomiasis were analyzed. The cases were selected from a database of the anatomic pathology files of a referral center. RESULTS Of the 21 cases identified, seven affected the female genital tract and five the male genital tract; four cases were identified in the peritoneum; two cases involved lymph nodes and two involved adipose tissue; and renal involvement was detected in one case. CONCLUSIONS The lack of knowledge of the clinical presentation of ectopic forms of schistosomiasis makes the early identification and treatment of this form difficult, with direct implications in the reduction of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is rare in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Prospective surveillance was conducted over a two-year period in Alagoas State, Northeastern Brazil. The prevalence of anti-hantavirus N-antigen IgM and IgG in human serum samples was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing. RESULTS: High avidity IgG was found in nine of 476 serum samples tested (from 102 patients with clinical manifestations compatible with HCPS, 124 patients with leptospirosis, and 250 healthy rural workers). CONCLUSIONS: Serologic evidence of past hantavirus infection in residents of Alagoas State indicates that hantaviruses are present in northeastern Brazil, even in areas silent for HCPS.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease surveillance requires current knowledge on synanthropic triatomines. We analyzed the occurrence and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates of triatomine bugs in central Brazil, during 2012-2014. METHODS: Triatomines were collected inside or around houses, and T. cruzi infection was determined by optical microscopy and conventional/quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Of the 2706 triatomines collected, Triatoma sordida was the most frequent species in Goiás State, whereas Panstrongylus megistus predominated in the Federal District. Parasites identified were T. cruzi, T. rangeli, and Blastocrithidia sp. CONCLUSIONS: P. megistus and T. sordida sustained the risk of T. cruzi transmission to humans in central Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION Rhodnius stali infection by Trypanosoma rangeli is reported in this study for the first time. METHODS The triatomines were collected from the campus of the Federal University of Acre in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. The identification of T. rangeli was confirmed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS The examinations of two specimens revealed R. stali infection by the epimastigote forms of T. rangeli. CONCLUSIONS The encounter of R. stali infected by T. rangeli generates an alert for the state of Acre, since the simultaneous presence with Trypanosoma cruzi can make the differential diagnosis of Chagas disease difficult.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Wounds can be colonized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS: We evaluated the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in the wounds of patients treated at Basic Health Units in Brazil and identified risk factors associated with their presence. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of S. aureus and MRSA were 51.5% and 8.7%, respectively. There was a correlation between the presence of S. aureus in wounds and nostrils (p<0.01). A positive association was detected between S. aureus infection and previous benzylpenicillin use (p=0.02). No associations were observed for MRSA. CONCLUSIONS: Multidrug-resistant pathogens are present in primary healthcare settings in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is a neglected public health problem in Mexico; however, detailed studies to determine the seroprevalence in some states have not been performed. METHODS: A total 1,504 human serum from thirteen communities in Estado de Mexico, were analyzed with three diagnostics techniques. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 9.1%, with high prevalence among people aged 51-60 years, while people aged 0-29 years were seronegative against T. cruzi. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated the seroprevalence of T. cruzi in the North of the Estado de Mexico, an area considered as non-endemic; however, epidemiological conditions necessary for natural transmission were found.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION Incidence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. from two teaching public hospitals are described. METHODS The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were determined using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute broth microdilution and genomic differentiation using PCR. RESULTS Of 221 Candida isolates, 50.2% were obtained from intensive care unit patients; 71.5% were recovered from urine and 9.1% from bloodstream samples. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto was the most common candidemia agent. CONCLUSIONS We observed variations in Candida species distribution in hospitals in the same geographic region and documented the emergence of non-C. albicans species resistant to azoles.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study analyzed the performance of the Kato Katz technique in detecting intestinal schistosomiasis in the State of Pará. METHODS: Of three stool samples provided by each of 380 participants, a total of 16 Kato Katz slides were examined to define the reference value (RV) of positives for comparisons. RESULTS: The RV revealed 37 (9.7%) infected participants in contrast to 10 (2.6%) according to a single slide. CONCLUSIONS: This significant underestimation of the infection rate gives reason to discuss if the current classification of prevalence levels reflects the real situation, principally in low transmission areas, like the Amazon region.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and to identify risk factors associated therewith in hospitalized children. METHODS: Three fecal samples from each patient were evaluated using three different techniques. The patients’ nutritional and socioeconomic status and hematologic profiles were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 106 children, 32.1% tested positive for intestinal parasitosis. The associated risk factors were low parental education levels and children's nail-biting habit. Eosinophilia, observed in 15 cases, was not associated with parasitosis. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend routine fecal parasitologic examination for hospitalized children and implementation of educational campaigns on the prevention of these diseases.
Abstract in English:Abstract INTRODUCTION: Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are zoonotic reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, and influence diseases in urban areas. METHODS: Free-ranging and laboratory-raised rats from two zoos in southern Brazil were tested for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii using microscopic agglutination and modified agglutination tests, respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 25.6% and 4.6% free-ranging rats tested positive for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii, respectively, with co-seropositivity occurring in two animals. For laboratory-raised rats, 20% tested positive for Leptospira spp. Also, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc and Leptospira noguchii serovar Panama were found. CONCLUSIONS: Serosurveys can show the environmental prevalence of zoonotic pathogens.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hepatitis C is a worldwide endemic disease. However, hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV GT-4) has rarely been reported in Brazil. HCV GT-4 demonstrates high sustained virological response (SVR). Here, we report the case of a 62-year-old HCV GT-4 positive woman complaining of a headache, nausea, and arthralgia. The patient was treated according to the protocol for genotype 4 (12 weeks administration of 400mg sofosbuvir and 60mg daclatasvir daily) and achieved SVR. Although this is not an Amazonas autochthonous case, the presence of genotype 4 is rarely reported in the region.
Abstract in English:Abstract This is the first published case report of an 11-year-old patient with a rupture of a liver hydatid cyst (HC) into the peritoneal cavity after an abdominal trauma in Iran. The disease was diagnosed using focused abdominal sonography for trauma. To date, no cases of traumatic ruptures of liver HCs in children have been reported in Iran. In the endemic regions of the world, where patients suffer from a history of trauma and constant abdominal symptoms or anaphylactic shock, early diagnosis of HC is crucial as it may disseminate to other organs. The condition needs conservative surgery and follow-up.
Abstract in English:Abstract Although histoplasmosis is generally a self-limited disease, disseminated infection can occur in patients lacking effective cell-mediated immunity, reaching virtually every organ, even the genitourinary tract in rare cases. We report a case of epididymo-orchitis in an immunocompetent 38-year-old bricklayer from the rural area of Villeta, Cundinamarca, Colombia. The patient presented with testicular pain and macroscopic scrotal changes requiring a left orchiectomy, with microbiological isolation and molecular confirmation of Histoplasma capsulatum.
Abstract in English:Abstract Sporotrichosis is the most prevalent subcutaneous mycosis and is characterized by a subacute or chronic development of a cutaneous or subcutaneous nodular lesion. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix spp, which may manifest in different clinical forms. The disseminated cutaneous form is uncommon and is more likely to occur in immunocompromised patients. We report a 47-year-old male patient with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules. The patient was diagnosed with disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis based on the isolation and identification of Sporothrix spp. The patient was treated with potassium iodide, which resulted in clinical improvement of the lesions.