• Editorial: The Buffonic Plague Editorial

    LIEBEL, Sılvıa
  • Presentation: Economic, Politic, and Intellectual History of Western Africa: Interchange Logics Dossiê

    MOTA, Thiago Henrique; BA, Idrissa
  • A King’s Heart: Islamic Political Culture as an Antecedent of Muslim Revolutions in West Africa (Senegambia, 16th and 17th Centuries) Dossiê

    MOTA, Thiago Henrique

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Este artigo discute as dinâmicas de produção e difusão de ideias islâmicas na Grande Senegâmbia, nos séculos XVI e XVII. Parte-se da questão: quais foram os fundamentos sociais e intelectuais que conduziram à ascensão política dos muçulmanos? Para respondê-la, são analisadas fontes procedentes de arquivos gambianos, portugueses e senegaleses, além de narrativas publicadas europeias e africanas. Argumenta-se que as revoluções muçulmanas resultaram de um processo de produção, debate e circulação de ideias jurídicas islâmicas, que interagiu com condições materiais, sociais e políticas derivadas da expansão do comércio atlântico. A principal ferramenta conceitual a orientar a pesquisa foi o conceito de cultura política e a metodologia aplicada correspondeu ao cruzamento de fontes documentais orais e escritas. Ao término, conclui-se que as revoluções muçulmanas resultam da socialização de conhecimentos nas escolas corânicas, que subsidiaram a formação de uma nova cultura política, oposta às elites locais, profundamente envolvidas com o tráfico atlântico.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This article discusses the dynamics of production and diffusion of Islamic ideas in Greater Senegambia, during the 16th and 17th centuries. The principal question is: what were the social and intellectual foundations that led to the Muslims political rise? To answer it, sources from Gambian, Portuguese and Senegalese archives are analyzed, as well as published European and African narratives. It is argued that these Muslim revolutions resulted from a process of production, debate and circulation of Islamic legal ideas, which interacted with material, social and political conditions derived from the expansion of Atlantic trade. The main conceptual tool to guide the research was the concept of political culture and the applied methodology corresponded to the intersecting of oral and written documentary sources. We concluded that the Muslim revolutions resulted from the socialization of knowledge in the Quranic schools, which subsidized the formation of a new political culture, opposed to the local elites, and deeply involved with the Atlantic trade.
  • Trans-Saharan Trade and its Logics of Accommodation in Relation to Transatlatic Trade Between the 15th and the 19th Centuries Dossiê

    BA, Idrissa

    Abstract in French:

    Résumé Entre le XIVe et le XVe siècle, le Portugal et l’Espagne ont fini de mûrir les conditions technologiques et pré-capitalistiques qui leur permettront d’initier l’ouverture atlantique et la mise en place du commerce transatlantique. Face à cette nouvelle donne, le commerce transsaharien s’adapte par différentes modalités d’accommodation qui vont s’intensifier et se complexifier jusqu’au XIXe siècle. Ce papier identifie et étudie ces modalités d’accommodation en s’appuyant sur une analyse historiographique: superposition de circuits commerciaux, naissance de circuits religieux, captage de nouveaux produits commerciaux, signature de nouveaux traités, initiation du shurbubba

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Between the 14th and the 15th centuries, Portugal and Spain came up with the technological and pre-capitalistic conditions, which will allow them to initiate the Atlantic opening and the establishment of transatlantic trade. In the wake of this new economic order, trans-Saharan trade is going to adapt, through different accommodation methods, which will intensify and become more complex until the 19th century. This paper identifies and studies these different accommodation methods thanks to an historiographical analysis: superimposition of commercial trades, birth of religious circuits, collection of new commercial products, signature of new treaties, initiation of shurbubba movement
  • “The Wolf in the Sheepfold”: Narrations and Identities of the Bijaa, Conquering Subjects of the Ancient Kingdom of Kasa in Senegambia. Tribute to Stephan Bühnen (1950-2015) Dossiê

    GIESING, Cornelia Bernhardette

    Abstract in French:

    Resumé Cet article présente des narrations bijaa (balanta mané) sur le peuplement, les identités et les divisions territoriales du pays ajaa sur la rive gauche du fleuve Cacheu (Guinée-Bissau) et dans le Balantakunda (Sénégal). Dans ce cas particulier, la possibilité d’intégrer des sources orales et des documents écrits primaires permet de constater une continuité des transmissions depuis le XVIIe siècle à partir des observations des commerçants et témoins directs Lemos Coelho (1669) et Bertrand-Bocandé (1837-1848), des informations du commandant militaire et cartographe Graça Falcão (1894-1897), des Cahiers de recouvrement fiscal à partir des années 1920, et finalement des narrations bijaa sur la fondation des territoires et villages du Jaa. L’ensemble des perspectives, extérieures et locales, donnent l’idée d’une stabilité territoriale à long terme mais aussi d’une énorme fluidité identitaire au niveau des acteurs dominants, bañun/kasanga, mandinka, ajaa. La configuration territoire, sanctuaires, clans/lignages perdure, tandis que les identités ethniques des occupants et conquéreurs successifs se confondent ou superposent. L’article se veut une invitation à des enquêtes - en accord avec de nouvelles approches socio linguistiques (Lüpke, 2018) - sur l’unité culturelle et les mémoires orales partagées par de différents occupants du même espace qui ne parlent pas nécessairement la même langue.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This article presents bijaa (balanta mané) narratives on settlement, identities and territorial divisions of the ajaa country on the southern shore of the Cacheu river (Guinea-Bissau) and in Balantakunda (Senegal). Both oral sources and primary written documents can be integrated to show continuity in traditions since the 17th century, beginning with Lemos Coelho (1669), a merchant and direct observer, as was Bertrand-Bocandé who travelled and studied the area 200 years later (1837-1848), the data collected by the military commander of Farim and cartographer Graça-Falcão (1894-1897), the colonial taxation books from the 1920ies on, and finally the bijaa narratives on the constitution of Jaa. These different outsider and insider perspectives give a picture of enduring territorial stability on the one hand, and on the other show a remarkable fluidity of the identities of dominant actors, such as bañun/kasanga, mandinka, ajaa. The configurations of territories, sacred sites, clans/lineages persist, while the ethnical identities of succeeding settlers and conquerors are superimposed or merge. The article is meant as an invitation to further studies - considering new socio-linguistic approaches (Lüpke, 2018) - on cultural unity and shared memories of different settlers in the same space who do not necessarily speak the same language.
  • "There is No Captive Who Does Not Want to Be Free!": Meanings of Slavery and Freedom Among Senegalese Sailors, 19th Century Dossiê

    FARIAS, Juliana Barreto

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Partindo de um extenso inquérito sobre a abolição da escravidão no Senegal, realizado pela administração francesa no ano de 1844, este artigo busca compreender os significados que a escravidão e a liberdade tinham para os trabalhadores das frotas fluviais e marítimas da cidade de Saint-Louis, conhecidos como laptots (e justamente os principais escravizados e ex-escravos entrevistados), nas primeiras décadas do século XIX. Nesse percurso, tentarei ouvir suas vozes a partir dos registros feitos em 1844, mas também de outros documentos, de naturezas e períodos diversos, incluindo relatórios, processos cíveis e criminais, censos populacionais e mesmo relatos de viajantes estrangeiros que estiveram em Saint-Louis nas primeiras décadas do século XIX, coligidos em acervos e instituições de pesquisa do Senegal e da França.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract From an extensive inquiry into the abolition of slavery in Senegal by the French administration in 1844, this article seeks to understand the meaning that slavery and freedom had for river and sea fleet workers in the city of Saint-Louis, known as laptots (and precisely the main interviewees), in the first decades of the nineteenth century. I will try to hear their voices from the records made in 1844, but also from other documents of various natures and periods, including reports, civil and criminal cases, population censuses, and even reports of foreign travelers who were in Saint-Louis in the early decades of the nineteenth century, collected in archives and research institutions of Senegal and France.
  • Itinerant Images of Banned Potentates from West Africa DOSSIÊ

    CORREA, Silvio Marcus de Souza

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo No final do século XIX, o império colonial francês aumenta os seus domínios na África ocidental. Imagens da rendição e da deportação de potentados africanos como Samory Touré (c.1830-1900) e Béhanzin (1845-1906) foram reproduzidas na imprensa periódica ilustrada. Por meio do método comparativo de análise sobre a (re)produção, circulação e recepção das imagens, a representação visual desses potentados africanos vencidos se inscreve numa lógica de ocupação imagética da África ocidental. O estudo aborda ainda como a mesma iconografia colonial foi utilizada para a construção de figuras heroicas da resistência africana. A partir de imagens de Béhanzin e Samory Touré na imprensa periódica ilustrada e em outros suportes materiais, o artigo discute os novos sentidos dessa iconografia em contexto pós-colonial.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract French colonial expansion in West Africa begins at the end of the 19th century. Images of the surrender and deportation of African potentates like Samory Touré (c.1830-1900) and Béhanzin (1845-1906) were reproduced in the French illustrated press. The visual representation of the enemies of colonial empires is part of a imaginary occupation in West Africa. Through the comparative method of analysis on the (re) production, diffusion and reception of images, the visual representation of these defeated African potentates is part of a logic of imaginary occupation of West Africa. The study also show how the same colonial iconography was used to build heroic figures of the African resistance. Based on images by Béhanzin and Samory Touré in the illustrated press and other material supports, the article discusses the new paths of this iconography in a post-colonial context.
  • Tragicomedy, Translation, Commerce and Circulation of Books in Portugal in the Late Eighteenth Century. The Translation of The faithful shepherd, by Giovanni Guarini ARTIGOS

    DENIPOTI, Cláudio Luiz

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo A segunda metade do século XVIII assistiu, em Portugal, ao surgimento de uma grande quantidade de traduções para o Português de toda ordem de obras publicadas em outras partes da Europa. Esse é o caso da tradução do Pastor fiel, de Giovanni Guarini, feita por Tomé Joaquim Gonzaga. Il pastor fido é um drama pastoral composto no final dos anos 1580 e publicado pela primeira vez em Veneza e Ferrara em 1590. A obra teve uma centena e meia de edições e traduções até o fim do século XVIII, porém, a única tradução portuguesa foi a de Tomé Joaquim Gonzaga. A tradução do Pastor fiel foi apresentada à Real Mesa Censória em 1788, foi aprovada pelos censores e impressa no ano seguinte, para ser proibida por edital em fins daquele ano. A menção, no edital de proibição, às edições italianas e às traduções francesas e espanholas nos faz pensar sobre a circulação desse livro em Portugal, uma vez que se tratou de obra amplamente popular em toda a Europa e não há menções oficiais à proibições antes deste edital de 1789. A imagem que se registra neste caso é contrária àquela de isolamento de Portugal em relação aos países europeus ao norte e revela um pouco das tensões em jogo no mercado editorial, para além das meras relações de lucro e comércio.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract During the second half of the eighteenth century a large number of translations into Portuguese of all kinds of works published in other parts of Europe began to appear in Lusitanian book shops. This is the case of the translation of Giovanni Guarini’s The Faithful Shepherd, by Tomé Joaquim Gonzaga. Il pastor fido is a pastoral drama composed in the late 1580s and first published in Venice and Ferrara in 1590. By the end of the 18th century, this work went through more than 150 editions, appearing in various other languages, but the only Portuguese translation was that of Tomé Joaquim Gonzaga. The translation of the Faithful Shepherd was presented to the Real Mesa Censória in 1788, approved by the censors, and went to print the following year, only to be prohibited later that same year. The sentence of prohibition made mention of various Italian editions and of French and Spanish translations suggesting just how widely the Faithful Shepard must have circulated in Portugal. Clearly, the work was very widely popular throughout Europe, and there are no official references to the prohibitions before this 1789 edict. The image emerging in this case is contrary to the notion of Portugal’s isolation from northern European countries and reveals some of the tensions in play in the publishing business, tensions that went beyond issues of profit and the wider book trade.
  • The Empire Strikes Back. Land, Power, Sovereignty, and Disputes Between the Maori and the British in New Zealand (c. 1840-1870) ARTIGOS

    PASSETTI, Gabriel

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo O artigo analisa as disputas por terras e poder no Império Britânico em meados do século XIX, tendo como foco a Nova Zelândia. Anexada na década de 1840, ela foi central nos debates sobre como os britânicos deveriam atuar globalmente. A partir da análise de cartas de Chefes Maori, missionários, colonos e autoridades civis, imperiais e militares guardadas nos The National Archives de Londres, são debatidas as muitas forças políticas, econômicas e militares envolvidas na expansão imperialista. Ao focar em uma pequena e periférica colônia, o artigo explora as estratégias dos nativos para interagir, participar e resistir à chegada e instalação dos britânicos, suas estratégias discursivas, políticas e militares para garantir poderes e terras. Também é apresentado de que forma os interesses particulares e de grupo dos colonos mobilizaram receios e discursos na metrópole para a transformação dos Maori de civilizáveis a bárbaros a serem combatidos pelo Exército Imperial.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Focusing on New Zealand, the article analyzes the disputes over land and power in the British Empire in the mid-19th century. Occupied in the 1840s, the colony was central to debates about how the British should act globally. Held in the National Archives of London, correspondence exchanged among Maori chiefs, missionaries, settlers, as well as civil, imperial and military authorities reveal how discussions over the deployment of political, economic and military forces evolved along with imperialist expansion. By concentrating on a small and peripheral colony, the article explores the discursive, political and military strategies natives employed as they interacted, participated, or resisted the arrival and installation of the British, i.e. their strategies aimed at securing power and lands. Also examined here are the ways colonists’ private and group interests mobilized fears and discourses in the metropolis for the Maori transformation from civilizable to barbarians who should be quashed by the Imperial Army.
  • Good Neighbor Circuits. Cultural Diplomacy and Educational Exchange Between Brazil and the United States During World War II ARTIGOS

    KROPF, Simone Petraglia

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Este artigo analisa o programa de intercâmbio educacional firmado, em 1938, entre o Instituto Brasil-Estados Unidos (IBEU) e a Universidade de Michigan. A proposta partiu do instituto binacional recém fundado no Rio de Janeiro e veio ao encontro dos interesses daquela universidade em atrair ao meio-oeste dos EUA os estudantes latino-americanos que buscavam o país estimulados pela política da boa vizinhança do governo Roosevelt. Focalizando o percurso e a rede de atores, interesses e práticas que conformaram o Brazilian Fellowship Program, argumenta-se que esse é um caso exemplar das dinâmicas concretas e complexas que conformaram os circuitos da boa vizinhança e da diplomacia cultural interamericana durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Utiliza-se como fontes, preferencialmente, a documentação sob a guarda da Universidade de Michigan. O período analisado se estende de 1938, quando o programa foi formulado, até 1943, quando as relações interamericanas deixaram de ser o carro-chefe da diplomacia cultural e da política externa estadunidense, tendo em vista as expectativas para o pós-guerra. Ao focalizar essa experiência particular de cooperação educacional, em uma fase decisiva na construção da hegemonia global dos EUA, busca-se contribuir para os debates historiográficos sobre a circulação transnacional de saberes, pessoas e práticas enquanto processo marcado por encontros mas também por tensões e assimetrias.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The article analyzes the educational exchange agreement signed in 1938 by the University of Michigan and the Instituto Brasil-Estados Unidos (IBEU), a newly founded bi-national institute in Rio de Janeiro. The IBEU’s proposed Brazilian Fellowship Program meshed well with the university’s interest in drawing Latin American students to the U.S. Midwest as the Roosevelt administration implemented its Good Neighbor Policy. In exploring the pathways and network of actors, interests, and practices that developed over the course of the program, we argue that this case constitutes a fine example of the concrete, complex dynamics that shaped the circuits of the Good Neighbor Policy and inter-American cultural diplomacy during World War II. Our primary source was formed of records held in the custody of the University of Michigan. The period of analysis runs from 1938, when the program was drafted, through 1943, when U.S. cultural diplomacy and foreign policy shifted their focus away from inter-American relations in light of expectations concerning the post-war period. By examining this specific experience in educational cooperation during a decisive phase in the construction of U.S. global hegemony, we hope to contribute to the historiographic discussion about the transnational circulation of knowledge, people, and practices as a process characterized by moments of encounter but also by tensions and asymmetries.
  • Northeast Plagued by Nazis RESENHA

    VAINFAS, Ronaldo
  • The European Ethnonationalist Movement. An Analysis of the Identitarians RESENHA

    GUIMARÃES, Gabriel
Pós-Graduação em História, Faculdade de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627 , Pampulha, Cidade Universitária, Caixa Postal 253 - CEP 31270-901, Tel./Fax: (55 31) 3409-5045, Belo Horizonte - MG, Brasil - Belo Horizonte - MG - Brazil
E-mail: variahis@gmail.com