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Brazilian Oral Research, Volume: 37, Published: 2023
  • Conventional versus flap-protected free gingival graft: a multicenter randomized clinical trial Original Research

    ALMEIDA, Vanessa Camillo de; PANNUTI, Claudio Mendes; FERREIRA, Marcelo Sirolli; LAZARIN, Rafael de Oliveira; ROMITO, Giuseppe Alexandre; JUNG, Ronald Ernst; Tatakis, Dimitris Nikolaos; SILVA, Cleverson de Oliveira e; CESAR NETO, João Batista

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of a modified gingival graft technique, in which the released flap is positioned and sutured over the graft, with the conventional free gingival graft (FGG) procedure, when both are used for gingival augmentation. A 12-month, multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted. Subjects with buccal RT2 gingival recessions and keratinized tissue width (KTW) < 2 mm in at least one mandibular incisor were randomized to control group (n = 20; conventional FGG) or test group (n = 20; modified FGG; flap sutured over FGG using sling sutures). The primary outcome (KTW) was measured at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months, as was keratinized tissue thickness (KTT). Postoperative pain (POP) and analgesic intake were also recorded. Both techniques promoted a significant increase in KTW and KTT when compared to baseline (p < 0.05) with no significant differences between groups (KTW change of 6.1±1.5 mm and 5.4±1.6 mm, for control and test, respectively; p=0.16). However, test group patients reported less POP after 7 days and used less analgesic medication than control group patients (p < 0.05). We concluded that the modified FGG was comparable to conventional FGG in augmenting keratinized tissue width and thickness at mandibular incisors, but resulted in less patient morbidity.
  • Protease-activated receptor type 2 activation downregulates osteogenesis in periodontal ligament stem cells Original Research

    FRANÇA, Bruno Nunes de; GASPARONI, Letícia Miquelitto; ROVAI, Emanuel Silva; AMBRÓSIO, Lucas Macedo Batitucci; MENDONÇA, Nathalia Felix de; HAGY, Marcos Hideki; MENDOZA, Aldrin HUAMÁN; SIPERT, Carla Renata; HOLZHAUSEN, Marinella

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is associated with the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases with inflammatory characteristics, including periodontitis. This study aimed to evaluate how the activation of PAR2 can affect the osteogenic activity of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in vitro. PDLSCs collected from three subjects were treated in osteogenic medium for 2, 7, 14, and 21 days with trypsin (0.1 U/mL), PAR2 specific agonist peptide (SLIGRL-NH2) (100 nM), and PAR2 antagonist peptide (FSLLRY-NH2) (100 nM). Gene (RT-qPCR) expression and protein expression (ELISA) of osteogenic factors, bone metabolism, and inflammatory cytokines, cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red S staining, and supernatant concentration were assessed. Statistical analysis of the results with a significance level of 5% was performed. Activation of PAR2 led to decreases in cell proliferation and calcium deposition (p < 0.05), calcium concentration (p < 0.05), and ALP activity (p < 0.05). Additionally, PAR2 activation increased gene and protein expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL) (p < 0.05) and significantly decreased the gene and protein expression of osteoprotegerin (p <0. 05). Considering the findings, the present study demonstrated PAR2 activation was able to decrease cell proliferation, decreased osteogenic activity of PDLSCs, and upregulated conditions for bone resorption. PAR2 may be considered a promising target in periodontal regenerative procedures.
  • Translation and cultural adaptation of the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised for Dental to Brazil Original Research

    AGUIAR, Marjorie Izabella Batista; BASSO, Bruna Letícia; GOETTEMS, Marília Leão; AZEVEDO, Marina Sousa; COSTA, Vanessa Polina Pereira da; ROCHA, Renata Andréa Salvitti de Sá; GAVIÃO, Maria Beatriz Duarte; BARBOSA, Taís de Souza

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to translate and to perform the cultural adaptation of the instrument Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised for Dental (IPQ-RD) into Brazilian Portuguese. The IPQ-RD consists of 34 items that assess the cognitive and emotional representation/perception of parents/caregivers of children with dental caries, with response options on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from “Strongly agree” (score 1) to “Strongly disagree” (score 5). The higher the score, the lower the perception of the disease. The protocol consists of translation into Brazilian Portuguese, back-translation into English, revision by an Expert Review Committee, and pre-test (application in parents/caregivers of children in dental care). For some questions, the translated versions were identical (T1 = T2); for others, one version was preferred (T1 or T2); for still others, it was decided to modify terms to obtain greater clarity on the item (T3). In the first pre-test, three questions were misunderstood by more than 15% of the sample, after which the items were reviewed by the Expert Review Committee. In the second pre-test, the adapted version was applied to a new sample of parents/caregivers (n = 15) and the questions were understood by more than 85% of the participants. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the IPQ-RD was well understood by the evaluated population.
  • Craniofacial morphology of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate at two stages of skeletal maturation Original Research

    VILLORIA, Eduardo Murad; SOUKI, Bernardo Quiroga; ANTUNES, Flávio Lucena; ASSIS, Marina Araújo Leite; ANDRADE JÚNIOR, Ildeu; OLIVEIRA, Dauro Douglas; SOARES, Rodrigo Villamarim

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional investigation was to perform a 3D analysis of craniofacial morphology of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) at two stages of skeletal maturation. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 52 UCLP patients (34 prepubertal; 18 pubertal) were collected from an outpatient referral center for the treatment of craniofacial deformities. In total 15 multiplanar craniofacial landmarks were identified, 3D virtual surface models were created, and 13 variables were measured to assess the 3D Euclidean distances between landmarks and spatial position of the landmarks in the projected X, Y and Z components. Maxillary and mandibular pitch (clockwise, counterclockwise) rotation relative to the cranial base was also evaluated. The significance level was set at 5%. Maxillary retrusion value relative to the cranial base was higher and statistically significant greater (p = 0.028) in pubertal (SNA, 77.4° ± 6.2; N-ANS Y, 3.3 mm ± 3.1) than in prepubertal patients (SNA 81.0° ± 5.2; N-ANS Y, 5.8 mm ± 2.7). The posterior cranial base length (S-Ba Y) was significantly longer (p = 0.013) in pubertal (20.7 mm ± 3.4) than in prepubertal patients (18.4 mm ± 2.7). The upper facial height (N-ANS Z) was significantly greater (p = 0.01) in pubertal (46.9 mm ± 4.5) than in prepubertal patients (43.4 mm ± 3.0). Prepubertal and pubertal UCLP patients presented distinct patterns of craniofacial morphology, mainly in the sagittal component of the maxilla and in the posterior cranial base length. Pubertal patients had greater maxillary retrusion and posterior cranial base length.
  • Influence of anxiety and catastrophizing on pain perception in orthodontic treatment and its association with inflammatory cytokines Original Research

    Santos, Lucineide Lima dos; Conti, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues de; Oltramari, Paula Vanessa Pedron

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Pain is common in orthodontic treatment, is subject to individual variation, and is associated with anxiety and stress, which can potentially become catastrophizing. The aim of the present study was to determine the variability of pain response after the insertion of orthodontic separators and to assess the association of pain levels with dental anxiety, catastrophizing, tooth sensitivity, and genetic expression of cytokines. To this end, 70 patients of both genders were divided into two equal groups according to the elastomeric separator used: G1 (Dentaurum) and G2 (Orthometric). Two separators were inserted in the mesial and distal sides of the lower right first molar. Participants were instructed to rate the level of pain at T0 (before insertion), T1 (just after insertion), and T2 (24 hours after insertion) on a visual analog scale. The gingival crevicular fluid was collected at T0 and T2. The levels of anxiety, catastrophizing, tooth sensitivity, and cytokine expression were also assessed. Statistical analysis was performed with the Fisher-Freeman-Halton, chi-squared, Spearman’s correlation, and dependent and independent t tests (α=5%). Pain intensity was higher at T2 than at T1, in both groups (P<.05). An association was established (P<.05) between pain intensity at T1 and catastrophizing, and at T2 with anxiety and catastrophizing. Within-group differences in cytokine expression were found between T0 and T2. There was no correlation between cytokine expression and pain levels, anxiety, catastrophizing, and sensitivity at T2. Tooth separation produced variable pain levels, which were influenced by anxiety and catastrophizing, however, pain level was not correlated with increased cytokine expression.
  • Does resveratrol favor peri-implant bone repair in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis? Gene expression, counter-torque and micro-CT analysis Original Research

    ZAMAI, Rodrigo Soler; CORRÊA, Monica Grazieli; RIBEIRO, Fernanda Vieira; CIRANO, Fabiano Ribeiro; CASATI, Marcio Zaffalon; MESSORA, Michel Reis; PIMENTEL, Suzana Peres

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study investigated the influence of resveratrol on peri-implant repair and its effects on bone-related markers in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats. Animals were divided into: OVX+PLAC (n = 10): ovariectomized animals treated with placebo; OVX+RESV (n = 10): OVX treated with resveratrol; OVX+PLAC+ZOL (n = 10): OVX treated with PLAC and zoledronate; OVX+RESV+ZOL (n = 10): OVX treated with RESV and ZOL; and SHOVX+PLAC (n = 10): sham ovariectomy treated with PLAC. RESV and PLAC were administrated after ovariectomy and ZOL after six weeks after OVX, until the end of experiment. One implant was inserted in each tibiae of animals 18 weeks after ovariectomy. After 4 weeks, one implant was removed for counter-torque, and peri-implant tissue was collected for mRNA quantification of several osteogenic markers by PCR. The other tibia was submitted to micro-computed tomography analysis. Reduced counter-torque values, bone-implant contact (BIC) and bone volume fraction (BV/TV), and higher bone porosity (BP) were detected in OVX+PLAC group when compared to SHOVX+PLAC (p < 0.05). OVX+RESV rats presented lower BIC, BV/TV, and trabecular number (Tb.N), and augmented BP and trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) when compared to SHOVX+PLAC (p < 0.05). Higher Tb.N and connectivity density (Conn.Dn) and reduced Tb.Sp were observed in OVX rats treated with ZOL, independently of RESV, when compared to OVX+PLAC and OVX+RESV groups (p < 0.05), whereas the combination ZOL+RESV promoted lower BP when compared to OVT+PLAC and OVX+RESV (p < 0.05). Gene expression was not influenced by RESV (p > 0.05), whereas ZOL promoted up-regulation of BMP-2 (p<0.05). RESV did not improve peri-implant bone repair in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis.
  • Voltage-gated sodium channels gene expression in Burning Mouth Syndrome: a case-control study Original Research

    DOMANESCHI, Carina; CARVALHO, Vanessa Juliana Gomes; MAROTTA, Bruno Munhoz; SUGAYA, Norberto Nobuo; NUNES, Fábio Daumas; GALLO, Camila de Barros

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a condition characterized by painful symptoms of the oral mucosa, despite the absence of any clinical signs. Its etiology is unknown, and there is still no effective treatment to date. Current evidence has shown neuropathic impairment in BMS patients. Neuropathic pain can be related to the dysfunction of voltage-gated sodium channels, considering that these receptors regulate the induction of action potentials in nociceptive neurons. This study evaluated the gene expression of voltage-gated sodium channels Na v 1.7, Na v 1.8 and Na v 1.9 in these patients. The gene expressions of these channels were assessed by real time RT-PCR analysis of fresh-frozen tongue biopsies in a case-control study composed of 12 patients with BMS, and 5 healthy control patients, proportionally matched by sex and age, and analyzed using the 2^(-Delta Delta CT) method. There was no statistically significant difference between the analyzed groups, despite the increase in Na v 1.7 (fold-change = 3.13, p = 0.52) and decrease in Na v 1.9 (fold-change = 0.45, p = 0.36) gene expression in the BMS group. The Na v 1.8 gene was not expressed in any of the samples analyzed. Although the gene expression in the voltage-gated sodium channels in BMS under study seems to be comparable with that of the normal oral mucosa, the functionality of these channels in BMS has not yet been identified, thus suggesting that further research is needed to better understand these voltage-gated sodium channels.
  • The influence of fluoxetine on orthodontic tooth movement in rats Original Research

    MARIN, Gabriela Costa; JOHANN, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues; SILVA, Isteicy Cortêz; ARANTES, Ana Carolina Mastriani; HARDY, Ana Maria Trindade Grégio; IGNÁCIO, Sergio Aparecido; TANAKA, Orlando Motohiro; GUARIZA FILHO, Odilon; CAMARGO, Elisa Souza

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic use of fluoxetine on the amount of orthodontic tooth movement and tissue changes in rats. A total of 192 Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: S, 0.9% saline solution; F, 20 mg/kg of fluoxetine; SM, 0.9% saline solution with orthodontic movement; and FM, 20 mg/kg of fluoxetine with orthodontic movement. After 30 days of daily saline or fluoxetine administration, an orthodontic device (25cN) was used to mesially displace the first molar in animals of the groups SM and FM. The animals were euthanized 2, 7, 14, and 28 days after placement of the orthodontic appliances and animals of groups S and F were euthanized at the same time. The assessment of tooth movement was made in gypsum castings, the collagen neoformation was assessed by polarization microscopy, the number of osteoclasts and root resorption were evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and presence of hyalinized areas was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Fluoxetine did not affect the amount of tooth displacement, percentage of collagen, number of osteoclasts, and presence of hyalinized areas (P>0.05). There was a higher frequency of root resorption areas in the FM group than in the SM group only on the second day (P<0.05). The findings of this study show that chronic use of 20 mg/kg fluoxetine does not affect the amount of tooth movement, collagen neoformation, number of osteoclasts, or hyalinized areas and does not affect root resorption until the last day of orthodontic movement.
  • Synchronous jawbone diseases: a multicenter retrospective study Original Research

    REZENDE, Diogo dos Santos da Mata; SOUZA, Lucas Lacerda de; UCHÔA, Daniel Cavalléro Colares; FERNANDES, Lais Albuquerque; LEMOS, Jeanne Gisele Rodrigues de; SANTOS-SILVA, Alan Roger; LOPES, Márcio Ajudarte; ARBOLEDA, Lady Paola Aristizabal; ROCHA, André Caroli; GONÇALVES, Fábio Luiz Neves; PONTES, Flávia Sirotheau Corrêa; FONSECA, Felipe Paiva; PONTES, Hélder Antônio Rebelo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study is to report an original case series of synchronous jawbone diseases. Data of patients seen over 13 years were extracted from the files of three Oral Radiology and Pathology diagnostic centers in Brazil. The clinical, radiographic, and laboratory characteristics were tabulated and analyzed by the authors; the patients were described according to lesion type. Seventy-two synchronous jawbone diseases were included in this study. Florid osseous dysplasia, Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, and cherubism were the most frequent disorders reported in this case series. In addition, the posterior mandible area was the main site of manifestation. Florid osseous dysplasia and Gorlin-Goltz syndrome represented two-thirds of our samples. With the utilization of adequate demographic, clinical, and radiologic information, it is possible to diagnose most of the synchronous lesions of jawbones. Sometimes, however, we need complementary exams, such as histopathologic and biochemical analysis or dosing of calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase.
  • IL17A and IL17RA gene polymorphisms in Fanconi anemia Original Research

    MOBILE, Rafael Zancan; MENDES, Monalisa Castilho; MACHADO-SOUZA, Cleber; QUEIROZ, Priscila de Mattos; BONFIM, Carmem Maria Sales; TORRES-PEREIRA, Cassius Carvalho; SCHUSSEL, Juliana Lucena

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Fanconi anemia is a rare autosomal recessive disease. In this disease, cytokine pathways can induce the bone marrow failure that is observed in individuals with Fanconi anemia. Interleukin IL-17 exhibits a protective effect in organisms because it induces neutrophil recruitment and shows a pathological role in several models of autoimmune diseases, periodontal disease, cancer, allograft rejection, and graft versus host disease. Polymorphisms in the IL17A and IL17RA genes were evaluated from DNA in saliva, comparing individuals with or without Fanconi anemia, using models of genotypic transmission (additive, dominant, and recessive). Polymorphisms in the IL17A and IL17RA genes (rs2241044 [C allele], rs879577 [C allele], rs9606615 [T allele], and rs2241043 [C allele]) were risk factors for developing Fanconi anemia. We also performed an analysis of gene markers with clinical variables in the Fanconi group. Polymorphisms in the IL17A gene (rs3819025 [A allele] and rs2275913 [G allele], respectively) were associated with an age of less than 20 years (p = 0.026; RP 0.65) and the female sex (p = 0.043; RP 0.88). The IL17RA gene was also associated with age and the presence of leukoplakia (a potentially malignant oral disorder). An age of less than 20 years was associated with rs917864 (T allele; p = 0.036; RP 0.67). The presence of leukoplakia was associated with rs17606615 (T allele; p = 0.042; RP 0.47). To our knowledge, this is the first study that associates IL17A and IL17RA gene polymorphisms with Fanconi anemia and examines rs2241044 polymorphisms in scientific literature thus far.
  • Mothers’ sense of coherence and oral health-related quality of life of preschoolers: a 3-year cohort study Original Research

    MOREIRA-SANTOS, Letícia Fernanda; RAMOS-JORGE, Joana; RODRIGUES, Angélica Beatriz; RAMOS-JORGE, Maria Letícia; PORDEUS, Isabela Almeida; FERNANDES, Izabella Barbosa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess whether mothers’ sense of coherence (SOC) was a predictor of decline in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of preschoolers. A 3-year cohort study was conducted in Diamantina, Brazil. At baseline, 162 preschoolers aged one to three years were randomly selected from among children registered in local Primary Healthcare Units. In the first stage, mothers completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS), and the Brazilian short version of the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13). The total score obtained from the SOC-13 was used to select exposed and unexposed children. Clinical examinations were performed to detect the presence of dental caries, traumatic dental injury, and malocclusion. At follow-up, mothers completed the sociodemographic questionnaire and the B-ECOHIS again. The incidence of severe dental caries and adherence to the proposed treatment at baseline were evaluated. A decline in OHRQoL was considered if there was an increase in the B-ECOHIS score of at least one unit. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were performed. A total of 151 preschoolers participated in the study, among whom 37.7% showed a decline in OHRQoL. Mothers’ SOC was not associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL (RR = 1.24; 95%CI = 0.81–1.88), while the incidence of severe dental caries had a greater impact on the decline in OHRQoL (RR = 2.02; 95%CI = 1.29–3.16). Mothers’ low SOC was not a predictor of decline in the OHRQoL of preschoolers after a 3-year follow-up period.
  • Is self-perception of oral health associated with expectations of employability? Original Research

    D’ERAMO, Luciana Raquel; BORDONI, Noemi Emma; COTELO, Lourdes; PEREZ, Marìa Belen; SÁNCHEZ, Marìa Laura; SALGADO, Pablo Andres; BELTRAN-AGUILAR, Eugenio; SQUASSI, Aldo Fabián

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire that allows a systematic evaluation of the impact of self-perceived oral health on expectations of getting a job on adult population seeking dental care, and to describe its associations with demographic characteristics, job related, and health coverage variables. We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study including men and women aged 18 to 65 years from a population seeking dental services in a walk-in clinic. In a first stage we design and validated an instrument on a sample of 100 subjects. The questionnaire was registered in a Likert scale, with higher scores represented higher impact of the oral status self-perception on employability. We calculated internal consistency, construct validity, and domains validation. The final instrument consisted in an 18-item questionnaire (Cronbach α = 0.814), grouped into two domains based on exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The total variance explained with values >1 was 66 percent, grouping questions into six components. One domain refers to oral health status and importance of dental aesthetics, while the other refers to specific job-seeking elements. In a second stage we applied the questionnaire on 800 participants from the same population of reference. Women, people who intended to change jobs, those younger than 40 years old, having health insurance, and higher educational level showed statistically significant higher scores than their counterparts (p<0.001). We developed a tool that enables evaluating the impact of self-perceived oral health on expectations of getting a job for adults seeking emergency care in a dental clinic.
  • Active search screening for oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer in the city of Piracicaba Original Research

    LINARES, Matheus Ferreira; LOPES, Silvia Maria Paparotto; MOREIRA, Adriana Eliza Brasil; VARGAS, Pablo Agustin; SILVA, Alan Roger dos Santos; LOPES, Márcio Ajudarte

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Oral cancer is a public health problem worldwide with approximately 300,000 new cases diagnosed every year and more than 170,000 deaths annually. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for approximately 90% of all oral malignancies and it is frequently preceded by lesions known as oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). Screening programs for early detection of oral lesions have been conducted. Therefore, the objective of this research was to carry out an active search in a screening program in the city of Piracicaba, Brazil. High-risk patients were identified at the city’s health center through their medical records and referred for dental consultation. Other patients who opportunistically sought dental care were also seen and if they did not present risk factors for SCC, they were considered low-risk. A total of 756 patients were examined, and 445 met the criteria for the high-risk group and 311 for the low-risk group. It was possible to diagnose 27 OPMDs and six SCCs – 21 OPMDs and six SCCs occurred in high-risk patients and six OPMDs in low-risk patients. A chi-square test was applied and a statistically significant value (p = 0.006) was obtained for the detection of OPMD and SCC in patients of the high-risk group. Screening of high-risk patients through active search proved to be an effective program for diagnosing OPMD and SCC. Therefore, we encourage its implementation on a large scale to reduce the current scenario of this disease.
  • Whole-exome sequencing of oral epithelial dysplasia samples reveals an association with new genes Original Research

    ADORNO-FARIAS, Daniela; SANTOS, Jean Nunes dos; GONZÁLEZ-ARRIAGADA, Wilfredo; TARQUINIO, Sandra; SANTIBÁÑEZ PALOMINOS, Rodrigo Alberto; MARTÍN MARTÍN, Alberto Jesus; FERNANDEZ-RAMIRES, Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The genetic basis of oral epithelial (OED) is unknown, and there is no reliable method for evaluating the risk of malignant transformation. Somatic mutations are responsible for the transformation of dysplastic mucosa to invasive cancer. In addition, these genomic variations could represent objective markers of the potential for malignant transformation. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 10 OED samples from Brazilian and Chilean patients. Using public genetic repositories, we identified 41 deleterious variants that could produce high-impact changes in the amino acid structures of 38 genes. In addition, the variants were filtered according to normal skin and Native American genome profiles. Finally, 13 genes harboring 15 variants were found to be exclusively related to OED. High-grade epithelial dysplasia samples showed a tendency to accumulate highly deleterious variants. We observed that 62% of 13 OED genes identified in our study were also found in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Among the shared genes, eight were not identified in oral squamous cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, we have described for the first time 13 genes that are found in OED in a Latin American population, of which five genes have already been observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Through this study, we identified genes that may be related to basal biological functions in OED.
  • The effect of the die material used in the indirect technique on the fracture resistance of a restored molar Original Research

    COSTA, Paulo Victor de Moura; OLIVEIRA, Amanda Alves de; SILVA, Vitória Ariella Silveira e; TORRES, Érica Miranda de; SILVA, Maria Alves Garcia Santos; VERÍSSIMO, Crisnicaw

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different die materials used in the indirect resin composite restorative technique on the fracture resistance and failure mode of restored molars and compare it with the direct resin composite restorative technique. Two flexible die silicone materials for dental models (Die Silicone – Voco and Scan die – Yller) and a type IV dental stone material (Fujirock EP – GC) were evaluated. Sixty third molars were selected and divided into four groups: indirect resin composite restoration – Die silicone (IRCR-DS); indirect resin composite restoration – Scan die (IRCR-SD); indirect resin composite restoration – Fujirock EP (IRCR-FR), and direct resin composite restoration (DRCR). Class II MOD cavities were prepared with 5 mm of buccolingual width and depth. The specimens were restored and subjected to an axial compression load until fracture, and the data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test (α=.05). The fracture mode was classified into restorable and unrestorable fractures. Fracture resistance values were influenced by the die material used for the IRCR fabrication and by the restorative technique (p<.001). Fracture resistance mean values and standard deviation were: IRCR-DS: 1835.5 ± 324.0 A; IRCR-SD: 1732.5 ± 384.1 AB; IRCR-FR: 1419.3 ± 318.8 BC; and DRCR: 1100.6 ± 224.9 C. Restorable fracture was more prevalent. IRCR with flexible die casts promoted higher fracture resistance and lower prevalence of unrestorable fractures.
  • Assessment of the regenerative potential of macro-porous chitosan-calcium simvastatin scaffolds on bone cells Original Research

    GALLINARI, Marjorie de Oliveira; BORDINI, Ester Alves Ferreira; STUANI, Vitor de Toledo; CASSIANO, Fernanda Balestrero; MELO, Camila Correa da Silva Braga de; ALMEIDA, Juliano Milanezi de; CINTRA, Luciano Tavares Ângelo; DE SOUZA COSTA, Carlos Alberto; SOARES, Diana Gabriela

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated the bioactive potential of a macro-porous chitosan scaffold incorporated with calcium hydroxide (CH-Ca) and functionalized with bioactive doses of simvastatin (SV) for bone tissue regeneration. Initially, the bioactive dose of SV in osteoblastic cells (SAOS-2) was determined. For the direct contact experiment, SAOS-2 cells were plated on scaffolds to assess cell viability and osteogenic differentiation. The second assay was performed at a distance using extracts from scaffolds incubated in culture medium to assess the effect of conditioned medium on viability and osteogenic differentiation. The initial screening showed that 1 μM SV presented the best biostimulating effects, and this dose was selected for incorporation into the CH-Ca and pure chitosan (CH) scaffolds. The cells remained viable throughout the direct contact experiment, with the greatest cell density in the CH-Ca and CH-Ca-SV scaffolds because of their higher porosity. The CH-Ca-SV scaffold showed the most intense bio-stimulating effect in assays in the presence and absence of osteogenic medium, leading to an increased deposition of mineralized matrix. There was an increase in the viability of cells exposed to the extracts for CH-Ca, CH-SV, and CH-Ca-SV during the one-day period. There was an increase in ALP activity in the CH-Ca and CH-Ca-SV; however, the CH-Ca-SV scaffold resulted in an intense increase in the deposition of mineralized nodules, approximately 56.4% at 7 days and 117% at 14 days, compared with CH (control). In conclusion, functionalization of the CH-Ca scaffold with SV promoted an increase in bioactivity, presenting a promising option for bone tissue regeneration.
  • Evaluation of the expression of nerve fiber markers in healthy and inflamed dental pulp Original Research

    DE ARRUDA, José Alcides Almeida; GOMES, Heloisa de Sousa; SAMPAIO, Felipe Cavalcanti; BRUNO, Kely Firmino; ESTRELA, Carlos; MENDONÇA, Elismauro Francisco; ARANTES, Diego Antonio Costa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis (IP) depends on clinical data, especially the chief complaint of the patient, visual inspection, response to the application of stimuli, and radiographic examination. The characterization of nerve fibers (NF) in IP may contribute to better interpret painful symptoms, but has been barely explored. This study sought to characterize the density and integrity of NF in 16 samples of IP and in five healthy pulps (HP) using S-100 and PGP 9.5 markers. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the density/mm2 of S-100+ and PGP 9.5+ in NF. The amount of degenerated NF was obtained by subtracting the total NF density from the amount of intact NF. Associations between NF density and integrity and symptomatology were calculated. All samples were positive for S-100 and PGP 9.5. Compared to HP samples (38.20/mm2), IP samples had a lower density of intact NF (6.24/mm2). A significantly higher density of degenerated NF was found in IP samples with spontaneous pain (39.59/mm2) compared to those with provoked pain (23.96/mm2) (p = 0.02). No association was observed between intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate and NF density and integrity (p > 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that pulpitis may involve different stages of degeneration and may be more advanced in cases with spontaneous pain. The symptoms reported by affected individuals do not appear to depend on the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate, but rather on the integrity of NF.
  • Correlation between cleft width and dental arch symmetry in cleft lip and palate: a longitudinal study Original Research

    AMBROSIO, Eloá Cristina Passucci; PUCCIARELLI, Maria Giulia Rezende; SFORZA, Chiarella; SOARES, Simone; MENEZES, Márcio de; CARRARA, Cleide Felício Carvalho; MACHADO, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira; OLIVEIRA, Thais Marchini

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the influence of cleft width on dental arch symmetry of children with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Forty-one children were subjected to impression preoperatively (T1; mean age = 0.31 ± 0.07 years) and postoperatively (T2; mean age = 6 .73 ± 1.02 years). Eighty-two digitized dental casts were analyzed by stereophotogrammetry software. The cleft palate width was measured in the anterior (P-P’), middle (M-M’), and posterior (U-U’) regions. Also, the following measurements were obtained: anterior intersegment (I-C’) and intrasegment (I-C); total intersegment (I-T’) and intrasegment (I-T); cleft-side (C’-T’) and non-cleft-side (C-T) canine tuberosity. Paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient were applied (α = 5%). Cleft width had the following means: 10.16 (± 3.46) mm for P-P’, 12.45 (± 3.00) mm for M-M’, and 12.57 (± 2.71) mm for U-U’. In the longitudinal analysis, I-C’ had a significant reduction, while the other measurements significantly increased (p < 0.001). Asymmetry was verified in the following analyses at T1: I-C’ vs. I-C and I-T’ vs. I-T (p < 0.001); at T2, only in I-C’ vs. I-C (p < 0.001). At T1, P-P’ vs. I-C’ (r = 0.722 and p < 0.001), P-P’ vs. I-T’ (r = 0.593 and p < 0.001), M-M’ vs. I-C’ (r = 0.620 and p < 0.001), and M-M’ vs. I-T’ (r = 0.327 and p < 0.05) showed a positive and significant correlation. At T2, there was a correlation between M-M’ and I-C’ (r = 0.377 and p < 0.05). In conclusion, the anterior and middle cleft widths influenced palatal asymmetry in the first months of life, while middle width influenced residual asymmetry.
  • Psychometric properties of an oral health literacy scale for people living with diabetes Original Research

    MARTINS, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; SANTOS, Ana Maria Rodrigues; ALENCAR, Gizelton Pereira; SOUZA, João Gabriel Silva; SOARES, Maria Alice Aguiar; MARTINS, Maria Barros Lima; SILVEIRA, Marise Fagundes; MAIA, Melissa Barral; FARIAS, Paula Karoline Soares; FERREIRA, Raquel Conceição; PINTO, Rodrigo Alves; CRESPO, Thaisa Soares; FERREIRA, Efigênia Ferreira e

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated the construct validity of the instrument Oral Health Literacy among diabetics. A probabilistic random sample of 239 diabetics from an infinite population answered the 10 items of the questionnaire. The structural validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis and goodness of fit, chi-square per degrees of freedom ratio (X2/df), comparative fit index (CFI), goodness-of-fit index (GFI), and root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA). Internal consistency was estimated by the average variance extracted (AVE) and composite reliability (CR). The scores were dichotomized with the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval as the cutoff point. The three-dimensional model presented good quality parameters (X2 /df = 2.459; CFI = 0.988; TLI = 0.981) and poor RMSEA (0.078). Internal consistency was adequate; AVE for the Access, Understand/appraise, and Apply subscales were 0.831, 0.981, and 0.954 and the CR for these subscales were 0.893, 0.962, and 0.822, respectively. Inadequate literacy ranged from 41.8 to 48.1%. The three-dimensional model identified (access, understand/appraise, and apply) showed structural validity, good internal consistency, and understandability.
  • Longitudinal study for dental caries calibration of dentists unexperienced in epidemiological surveys Original Research

    NABARRETTE, Mariana; SANTOS, Patrícia Rafaela dos; ASSAF, Andréa Videira; AMBROSANO, Glaucia Maria Bovi; MENEGHIM, Marcelo de Castro; VEDOVELLO, Silvia Amélia Scudeler; CORTELLAZZI, Karine Laura

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to make a longitudinal analysis of interexaminer calibration reproducibility in diagnosing dental caries in posterior teeth, by examiners without previous experience in epidemiological studies. A group of 11 inexperienced examiners underwent theoretical-practical training and calibration assessments, assisted by a standard examiner. An examiner who did not participate directly in the research selected 5-year-old children with and without caries. The D3 diagnostic threshold was used to evaluate dental caries, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The initial calibration (baseline) was performed after the theoretical-practical training session, and consisted of examining 20 children; the second calibration occurred three months later, and involved evaluating another 18 children. The interexaminer agreement was obtained by kappa statistics, and by overall percentage agreement. The paired t-test was applied to compare the values for kappa means and overall percentage agreement between the time points studied. At baseline, the values for kappa (> 0.81) and overall percentage agreement (> 95.63%) were considered high. At the 3-month calibration assessment, all the examiners showed some decrease in both kappa (p < 0.0001) and overall percentage agreement (p = 0.0102). The calibration process currently proposed by the WHO is effective. However, reproducibility was not maintained over time for inexperienced examiners evaluating the posterior teeth of 5-year-old children, under epidemiological conditions.
  • Effect of modeling liquids on resin composite roughness and color parameters after staining and toothbrushing Original Research

    MAIA, Thaís Souza; LIMA, Thamires Diogo; RAMOS, Vanessa Miranda; FARIA-E-SILVA, André Luís; MENEZES, Murilo de Sousa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated surface roughness, color stability, whitening index, and opacity of different types of modeling liquids for resin composite coating after exposure to staining and toothbrushing. Disc-shaped resin composite (Vittra APS, FGM) specimens were fabricated and divided into four groups (n = 10 each): control group, Composite Wetting resin (Ultradent Products), Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose adhesive (3M ESPE), and Adper Universal adhesive (3M ESPE). Surface roughness (Ra) was measured using a rugosimeter, while color stability (∆E00), whitening index (WI), and opacity (%) were measured using a spectrophotometer. Assessments were made at four time points: after polishing (baseline, T1), after immersion in red wine for 24 h (T2), and after 5,000 (T3) and 10,000 (T4) cycles of toothbrushing. Scanning electron microscopy images were captured to analyze the scratches created. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey’s honestly significant difference tests (α = .05). Modeling with the Wetting resin resulted in higher surface roughness (p < 0.05) and low color stability, which were attributable to porosities. Higher color change values were observed in the control group after staining. Both adhesives showed the lowest mean ΔE00 values (p < 0.005). WI decreased after staining, except with the use of the Universal adhesive (p < 0.005). The lowest opacity values were observed at baseline for all groups (p < 0.005). The Universal and Scotchbond adhesives had lower surface roughness, better color stability, higher WI, and the lowest opacity values after staining with red wine and toothbrushing.
  • The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil: a study in tertiary dental care Original Research

    XAVIER, João Mykael Alves; FIRMINO, Ramon Targino; PEREIRA, Igor Figueiredo; XAVIER, Myllena Alves; COSTA, Mário César Furtado da; SOARES, Renata de Souza Coelho; RIBEIRO, Ana Isabella Arruda Meira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The pandemic caused by coronavirus has resonated throughout different levels of health care in Brazil and, in this context, the present research aimed to evaluate this impact on tertiary dental care provided by the Unified Health System (SUS). Therefore, an ecological study was conducted with data obtained from the Hospital Information System processed by the Portal of the Department of Informatics of SUS. The sample consisted of patients of all sexes and age groups, whose Hospital Admission Authorizations (AIHs) were approved for dental tertiary care procedures from January 2015 to December 2020. Descriptive analyses and the ANOVA test with a significance level set at p < 0.05 were used. When the annual mean numbers of AIHs approved were evaluated, findings showed that on an average, the Southeast region authorized a higher number of procedures (p-value < 0.001), however, in the pandemic year (2020), a reduction of approximately 24.5% of these hospitalizations occurred throughout Brazil, with the Midwest being the region most affected (32.12%). A percentage increase occurred in the Surgical Treatment of Oral sinus/Oral nasal Fistula (16.1%), in addition to a significant decrease in performing procedures for Resection of Mouth Lesion (33.4%). In the pandemic year, there was a reduction of 14% in expenditures related to hospital services and 23.26% related to professional services. It was concluded that the data presented demonstrated a significant reduction in AIHs for tertiary dental care in the pandemic year.
  • Impact of war on foreign students’ satisfaction with quality of dental and medical education in Ukraine Original Research

    GONCHARUK-KHOMYN, Myroslav; KALIY, Vasyl; POHORILYAK, Renata; CAVALCANTI, Alessandro; KENIUK, Andrii; YAVUZ, Yasemin; OLENA, Boychuk

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in foreign students’ satisfaction with the quality of dental and medical education considering the impact of the war in Ukraine. The present study was organized in the form of a questionnaire-based survey among 300 foreign students of Medical Faculty and Faculty of Dentistry in Ukraine. The questionnaire was ad mistered via Google form in a multiple-choice, closed-ended format. Students’ satisfaction with environment safety and comfort (p < 0.05) and with the collaborative learning offered (p < 0.05) statistically decreased during the war. Sixty percent of the variability in the mean of students’ satisfaction with the quality of education during the war could be explained by the satisfaction rate before the war. The need of migration from Ukraine had a stronger inverse correlation with education quality (r = -0.58) than the fact of the war itself (r = -0.32). The war in Ukraine has had a negative impact on the educational process of foreign medical and dental students, even though the quality of education was considered by students to be as high as before and during the war. The personal effort of professors, the quality of study materials, and adequate technical support could potentially overcome the negative impact of the war on student satisfaction with the quality of medical and dental education by the online mode, if the academic medium could be protected from the direct impact of the war or if the influence of the war within the university community could be minimized.
  • Students’ perception to an interactive web-based response system in oral and maxillofacial pathology teaching Original Research

    SILVA, Luana Rafaela Garcez da; BEZERRA, Hélen Kaline Farias; LEONEL, Augusto César Leal da Silva; CARVALHO, Elaine Judite de Amorim; CASTRO, Jurema Freire Lisboa de; SANTOS-SILVA, Alan Roger; PEREZ, Danyel Elias da Cruz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated dental students’ perceptions and adherence to an interactive web-based response system in the teaching of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Between 2018 and 2019, students from a single Brazilian dental school used the Poll Everywhere® app to answer questions on subjects taught during an Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology course. At the end of the academic semester, the students completed a questionnaire containing 10 questions regarding the app’s use. The study included 123 students. Regarding the devices used to answer the questions on the app, 117 (95.1%) students used a smartphone and 3 (2.4%) used a laptop. Almost all students (121; 98.4%) agreed that this interactive web-based response system provided the teacher with a better overview of students’ understanding and improved their self-assessment of the acquired knowledge of the subjects. Most students (118; 95.9%) preferred classes using this technology and 122 (99.2%) stated that using the app made them feel more engaged in classes. In addition, all students agreed that the app improved student–teacher interactions. Most students (119; 96.7%) considered the digital interactive method more attractive than the conventional teaching approach, and 99 (80.5%) did not have any negative comments regarding the app. In conclusion, the Poll Everywhere® app provides a more dynamic and attractive educational environment for Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology teaching.
  • Dental anomalies in syndromes displaying hypertrichosis in the clinical spectrum Original Research

    CARNEIRO, Vinícius Figueiredo; MACHADO, Renato Assis; BARBOSA, Mauro Costa; DIAS, Verônica Oliveira; MARTELLI, Daniella Reis Barbosa; MARTELLI-JÚNIOR, Hercílio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Hypertrichosis and dental anomalies may occur alone or in combination in the spectrum of many syndromes. To identify genetic entities characterized by hypertrichosis and dental anomalies, a search was performed in the Mendelian Inheritance in Man database with the terms “hypertrichosis” or “hirsutism” and “tooth” or “dental abnormalities.” Nondependent androgen metabolism disturbances were classified as hypertrichosis. Genetic entities with hypertrichosis and dental anomalies were included in the study. Additional searches were performed in the PubMed and Orphanet databases, when necessary, in order to include data from scientific articles. An integrative analysis of the genes associated with the identified syndromes was conducted using STRING to characterize biological processes, pathways, and interactive networks. The p-values were subjected to the false discovery rate for the correction of multiple tests. Thirty-nine syndromes were identified, and dental agenesis was the most frequent dental anomaly present in 41.02% (n = 16) of the syndromes. Causative genes were identified in 33 out of 39 genetic syndromes. Among them, 39 genes were identified, and 38 were analyzed by STRING, which showed 148 biological processes and three pathways that were statistically significant. The most significant biological processes were the disassembly of the nucleosome (GO:0006337, p = 1.09e-06), chromosomal organization (GO:0051276, p = 1.09e-06) and remodeling of the chromatin (GO: 0006338, p = 7.86e-06), and the pathways were hepatocellular carcinoma (hsa05225, p = 5.77e-05), thermogenesis (hsa04714, p = 0.00019), and cell cycle (hsa04110, p = 0.0433). Our results showed that the identification of hypertrichosis and dental anomalies may raise the suspicion of one of the thirty-nine syndromes with both phenotypes.
  • Difficulties of dental practice among left-handed Tunisian students: a cross-sectional survey Original Research

    SAKLY, Emna Hidoussi; CAVALCANTI, Alessandro Leite; NASR, Oumayma

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In dentistry, most equipment is designed for right-handed (RH) individuals. Thus, left-handed (LH) individuals are often forced to adapt to demanding RH working conditions, and therefore, experience difficulties in their practice. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of left handedness among dental students at the Dental Clinic of Monastir, Tunisia, and to investigate the difficulties for LH individuals during clinical practice. A cross-sectional study was conducted among dental students during the academic year from September 2019 to March 2020. An adaptation of the Grad-Corllet Diagram and a specific questionnaire on clinical practices were administered to 221 participants. Data were analyzed using SPSS 24.0 statistical software for descriptive statistics and the chi-square test was performed (with a 5% significance level). The study revealed that 18.1% of dental students were LH. Among which, 82.5% of LH students had difficulties using instruments designed for RH dentists, 47.5% of LH students preferred the 3 o’clock working position, and 77.5% of LH students preferred to work in a sitting position. Most LH students (70%) reported that endodontic treatment was the most difficult procedure to perform. All students, whether RH or LH, presented a higher percentage of pain in the lumbar and neck/cervical regions; however, LH students presented higher values (77.5%) with statistically significant differences being reported for lower back pain (p = 0.026) and neck pain (p = 0.012). This study highlights the difficulties that LH dental students face in performing dental work. Dental Schools should provide LH students with appropriate equipment and a proper learning environment.
  • Is oral health literacy associated with conceptions of care and behavior related to the prevention of COVID-19? Original Research

    ASSUNÇÃO, Luciana Reichert da Silva; PORTELLA, Paula Dresch; FRAIZ, Fabian Calixto; BARBOSA, Mariane Carolina Faria; LIMA, Larissa Chaves Morais de; PINHEIRO, Amanda Palmela; GRANVILLE-GARCIA, Ana Flávia; FERREIRA, Fernanda de Morais

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of oral health literacy (OHL) on conceptions of care and behaviors related to COVID-19. The sample came from two preliminary cross-sectional studies that determined the level of OHL of parents/guardians of six-to-12-year-old children in two major Brazilian cities (Curitiba and Belo Horizonte). Functional OHL was measured using the Brazilian version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (BREALD-30) and the Health Literacy Dental Scale (HeLD-14) for the evaluation of interactive OHL. Participants were recruited through e-mail, social media, and telephone contact. The questionnaire on conceptions of care and behaviors related to COVID-19 was created based on the guidelines of the World Health Organization. Two hundred nineteen individuals participated in the study. There was no significant difference in socioeconomic and demographic variables and in the medians of BREALD and HeLD-14 between the two cities (P>0.05). Higher levels of functional OHL were associated with an appropriate conception that individual care affects collective care (P=0.038), but with an inappropriate conception of seeking medical assistance in cases of mild symptoms (P=0.030). Higher levels of interactive OHL were related to social distancing behavior in the city of Curitiba (P=0.049) and in the overall sample (P=0.040). It is concluded that functional OHL was associated with two of the investigated conceptions about COVID-19, while interactive OHL was associated with social distancing behavior. These data may suggest that different dimensions of the OHL can have an impact on different aspects of coping with the pandemic.
  • Evaluation of the mechanical properties of different materials for manufacturing occlusal splints Original Research

    GUIMARAES, Danielly Mendonça; CAMPANER, Marcio; SANTOS, Rodrigo Wendel dos; PESQUEIRA, Aldieris Alves; MEDEIROS, Rodrigo Antonio de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to compare the mechanical properties of various occlusal plate materials by analyzing surface roughness, Knoop microhardness, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Fifty samples were prepared and classified as SC (self-curing acrylic resin), WB (heat-cured acrylic resin), ME (acrylic resin polymerized by microwave energy), P (resin print), and M (polymethylmethacrylate polymer block for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing). The data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s honestly significant difference test. Surface roughness was the same in all groups. The surface hardness of group M was statistically superior. The samples from groups P and M had higher flexural strength than other samples. The modulus of elasticity of group SC was statistically lower than that of other groups. The mechanical properties of the materials used to make the occlusal plates differed, and group M achieved the best results in all analyses. Therefore, clinicians must consider the material used to manufacture long-lasting and efficient occlusal splints.
  • Background and surrounding colors affect the color blending of a single-shade composite Original Research

    BARROS, Mariana Silva; SILVA, Paula Fernanda Damasceno; SANTANA, Márcia Luciana Carregosa; BRAGANÇA, Rafaella Mariana Fontes; FARIA-E-SILVA, André Luis

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated the background and effect of surrounding colors on the color blending of a single-shade composite used in a thin layer. Disc-shaped specimens (1.0 mm thickness) were built with the Vittra APS Unique composite surrounded (dual specimens) or not surrounded (simple specimens) by a control composite (shade A1, A2, or A3). Simple specimens were also built with only control composites. The specimen color was measured against white and black backgrounds with a spectrophotometer (CIELAB system). The whiteness index for dentistry (WID) was calculated for simple specimens. Differences (ΔE00) in color and translucency parameters (ΔTP00) between the simple/dual specimens and the controls were calculated. The translucency adjustment potential (TAP) and color adjustment potential (CAP) were estimated based on the ratios between data from simple and dual specimens. The Vittra APS Unique composite showed higher WID values than the controls. No differences between ΔTP00_SIMPLE and ΔTP00_DUAL were observed for any of the shades. The composite shade did not affect TAP values. The lowest values of ΔE00_SIMPLE and ΔE00_DUAL were observed for shade A1 regardless of the background color. For the white background, ΔE00_SIMPLE values did not differ from those of ΔE00_DUAL for all shades. Only A1 showed ΔE00_DUAL values lower than ΔE00_SIMPLE when the black background was used. The highest modulus of CAP (negative values for the white background) was observed when shade A1 surrounded the Vittra APS Unique composite. The color blending ability of the single-shade resin composite used in a thin layer was affected by both the surrounding shade and background color.
  • Impact of dental bullying on bruxism associated with poor sleep quality among adolescents Original Research

    BOLSSON, Gabriela Bohrer; KNORST, Jessica Klöckner; MENEGAZZO, Gabriele Rissotto; ARDENGHI, Thiago Machado

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the impact of school bullying and oral health-related verbal bullying on the occurrence of bruxism associated with poor sleep quality among adolescents. This cross-sectional study was nested in a cohort study performed with a sample of children from southern Brazil. Possible sleep bruxism was determined by the question: “Has anyone told you that you grind your teeth in your sleep?” Sleep quality was determined by answering the following question: “How would you classify the quality of your sleep?”. The outcome was created by combining occurrence of sleep bruxism and poor sleep quality. The Sense of Coherence (SOC) was assessed using the SOC-13 scale. Bullying was investigated using the victim scale of the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire and oral health-related verbal bullying using an item from the Child Perceptions Questionnaire-11-14. Demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and clinical data were also collected. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used. Results were expressed as prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A total of 429 adolescents with a mean age of 12.6 (standard deviation 1.3) years were evaluated. The prevalence of bruxism associated with poor sleep quality was 23.7%. Victims of school bullying (PR 2.06; 95%CI: 1.01-4.22) and oral health-related verbal bullying (PR 1.87; 95%CI: 1.18-2.95) presented higher prevalence of bruxism associated with poor sleep quality. Factors such as skin color and SOC were also associated with the outcome. These findings suggest an association between episodes of bullying and bruxism related to poor sleep quality.
  • Pathways that explain racial differences on edentulism among older adults: 2019 Brazil National Health Survey Original Research

    MENEGAZZO, Gabriele Rissotto; CUNHA, Amanda Ramos da; FAGUNDES, Maria Laura Braccini; AMARAL JÚNIOR, Orlando Luiz do; GIORDANI, Jessye Melgarejo do Amaral; HILGERT, Juliana Balbinot; ABREU, Lucas Guimarães; HUGO, Fernando Neves

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the pathways that explain the association between race/skin color and edentulism in elderly Brazilians. This was a cross-sectional study using data from participants aged 60 years or older from the 2019 Brazilian National Health Survey, a nationally representative population-based sample. Data were obtained by a structured interview and participants were classified as edentulous if they reported having lost all natural teeth. Information on race, socioeconomic level, behavioral aspects, psychosocial aspects, and access to dental care was collected by interviewers using a questionnaire. The pathways between race/skin color and edentulism were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The final sample of the study included 22,357 participants. Most participants were white (51.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 50.3–52.6), and 36.8% (95%CI: 35.7–37.9) were edentulous. Race/skin color was indirectly associated with edentulism via enabling factors. These findings suggest that socioeconomic inequalities are key in explaining racial inequalities in edentulism among Brazilian older adults.
  • Impact of dental caries severity and activity on oral health-related quality of life among children aged 8-11 years Original Research

    OLIVEIRA, Thays Torres do Vale; MENEGAZ, Aryane Marques; ROSÁRIO, Andreza Montelli do; ROMANO, Ana Regina; SCHARDOSIM, Lisandrea Rocha; MENDES, Fausto Medeiros; GÖETTEMS, Marília Leão; AZEVEDO, Marina Sousa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Caries disease can lead to strong impact in terms of pain and suffering, to functional impairment, and to negative effects on quality of life. Studies have demonstrated that the impact on quality of life increases with dental caries severity, and few studies have assessed the relationship between caries activity and children’s oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the impact of dental caries severity and activity on the OHRQoL of schoolchildren. The study was conducted with a sample of children aged 8 to 11 years from Pelotas, southern Brazil. Children answered the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 8–10, and socioeconomic data were collected. Children’s dental caries (Kappa value of 0.95), PUFA, traumatic dental injuries, and malocclusion were examined. The Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Poisson regression tests were performed. A total of 119 children were included. Children with initial (mean ratio (MR) of 1.92; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 1.05–3.48), moderate (MR: 2.66; 95%CI: 1.44–4.90), and severe carious lesions (MR: 2.65; 95%CI: 1.46–4.79) had a greater impact on OHRQoL compared with those without carious lesions (p =0 .047). Children with active carious lesions exhibited a greater impact on OHRQoL (MR:1.53 and 95%CI: 1.11–2.11) when compared to those without active lesions (p = 0.019). The findings demonstrate an association between dental caries severity and activity and the OHRQoL of school-aged children.
  • Effect of dentin moisture on the adhesive properties of luting fiber posts using adhesive strategies Original Research

    JITUMORI, Renata Terumi; RODRIGUES, Rafaela Caroline; REIS, Alessandra; GOMES, João Carlos; GOMES, Giovana Mongruel

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentin moisture (moist and dry) on the bonding of fiber posts to root dentin with different adhesive strategies (etch-and-rinse, self-etch, and self-adhesive). Seventy-two extracted single-rooted human teeth were endodontically treated and divided into six groups (n = 12) according to the moisture of dentin surface and adhesive systems as follows: a) etch-and-rinse/moist, b) etch-and-rinse/dry, c) self-etch/moist, d) self-etch/dry, e) self-adhesive/moist, and 6) self-adhesive/dry. The specimens were sectioned into six slices for push-out bond strength (BS), nanoleakage (NL) by SEM, and Vickers microhardness (VHN) of the resin cement. A universal testing machine (AG-I, Shimadzu Autograph) was used at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until post extrusion, with a load cell of 50 kg for evaluation of the push-out strength. Data on BS, NL, and VHN were evaluated by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05). Dentin moisture as the main factor was not significantly different for the push-out test. However, higher BS values can be observed for the etch-and-rinse group. A lower percentage of NL was found in the dry dentin groups. The moisture pattern was not significant in the hardness values for the pre-etching groups. Additional moisture did not increase the evaluated properties.
  • Microbiological analysis of bacterial sealing of internal conical implants with different taper angles Original Research

    CARVALHO, Laura Firmo de; CARVALHO, Alexandre Marcelo de; SOTTO-MAIOR, Bruno Salles; FRANCISCHONE, Carlos Eduardo; MARTINEZ, Elizabeth Ferreira; DIAS, André Luiz; CARVALHO, Liliane Pacheco de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The present study evaluated the effect of the taper angle of different internal conical connection implants and cyclic loading on the implant-abutment bacterial seal. A total of 96 implant-abutment sets were divided into eight groups. Four groups of different taper degrees with cyclic mechanical loading of 500,000 cycles per sample, with a 120-N load at 2 Hz before analysis [16DC (16-degree, cycled), 11.5DC (11.5-degree, cycled), 3DC (3- degree, cycled) and 4DC (4- degree, cycled)] were compared to four control groups without cyclic loading [16D (16-degree), 11.5D (11.5-degree), 3D (3-degree), and 4D (4-degree)]. Microbiological analysis was performed by immersing all samples in a suspension containing Escherichia coli and incubating them at 37°C. After 14 days, the presence of bacterial seals was evaluated. Fisher-Freeman-Halton exact tests and binomial tests were performed (5% significance level). The groups showed significant differences in bacterial seal, and mechanical load cycling improved the bacterial seal in the 3DC group. In all other groups, no significant differences in bacterial seal were found between cycled and uncycled samples. To conclude, the internal conical connection with a 3-degree taper angle showed better results than the other connection with different angles when subjected to load cycling. However, none of the angles tested were fully effective in sealing the implant-abutment interface.
  • Impact of a modified implant macrogeometry on biomechanical parameters and bone-related markers in rats Original Research

    MUSSI, Mounir Colares; RIBEIRO, Fernanda Vieira; CORRÊA, Monica Grazieli; SALMON, Cristiane Ribeiro; PIMENTEL, Suzana Peres; CIRANO, Fabiano Ribeiro; CASATI, Marcio Zaffalon

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study investigated the impact of a modified implant macrogeometry on peri-implant healing and its effect on bone-related molecules in rats. Eighteen rats received one implant in each tibia: the control group received implants with conventional macrogeometry and the test group received implants with modified macrogeometry. After 30 days, the implants were removed for biomechanical analysis and the bone tissue around them was collected for quantifying gene expression of OPN, Runx2, β-catenin, BMP-2, Dkk1, and RANKL/OPG. Calcein and tetracycline fluorescent markers were used for analyzing newly formed bone at undecalcified sections of the tibial implants. These fluorescent markers showed continuous bone formation at cortical bone width and sparse new bone formed along the medullary implant surface in both groups. However, higher counter-torque values and upregulation of OPN expression were achieved by test implants when compared to controls. The modified macrogeometry of implants optimized peri-implant healing, favoring the modulation of OPN expression in the osseous tissue around the implants.
  • Validation of pairs of antagonist teeth for the evaluation of shortened dental arch in epidemiological studies Original Research

    CAMPOS, Fernanda Lamounier; RHODES, Gabriela Aparecida Caldeira; VASCONCELLOS, Walison Arthuso; BOMFIM, Rafael Aiello; SAMPAIO, Aline Araujo; CHALUB, Loliza Luiz Figueiredo Houri; FERREIRA, Raquel Conceição

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of pairs of antagonist teeth (epidemiological criterion) for defining pairs of teeth in occlusal contact (clinical criterion) and to estimate the agreement between the prevalence of “shortened dental arch” (SDA) and “functional dentition” (FD) when occlusal units (OUs) or posterior occluding pairs (POPs) are defined by the epidemiological or clinical criterion. Data were collected in an epidemiological oral health survey conducted in a municipality in Minas Gerais, Brazil. OUs and POPs were defined by the epidemiological criterion (dental crown status) or clinical criterion “gold standard” (carbon paper record of occlusal contacts during habitual maximum intercuspation). SDA corresponded to the presence of an intact anterior region and three to five OUs. FD was based on the concomitant presence of ≥ 1 tooth in each arch, 10 teeth in each arch, 12 anterior teeth, ≥ 3 premolar POPs, and ≥ 1 molar POP bilaterally. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of the epidemiological criterion were calculated. The study included 197 adults. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 88.5, 87.9, 92.5, and 81.9%, respectively, and accuracy was 88.3%. The epidemiological criterion proved to be valid and could be used in epidemiological studies to calculate the prevalence of reduced dental configurations that consider POPs. The assessment of oral functionality is an aspect that should be included in the diagnosis of the clinical condition of patients, contributing to a more effective individual and collective oral health care plan.
  • Association among oral health and academic performance: a longitudinal study in a university in Southern Brazil Original Research

    CORRÊA, Yorrana Martins; POSSER, Renata Uliana; KARAM, Sarah Arangurem; COSTA, Francine dos Santos; SCHWENDICKE, Falk; DEMARCO, Flávio Fernando; CORRÊA, Marcos Britto

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the association between self-perceived oral health, oral-health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL), toothache, and university students’ academic performance or dropout. A cohort of 2,089 students from 64 different courses at a public university in southern Brazil was interviewed in 2016 regarding their self-perceived oral health (Locker instrument; dichotomized into good/poor), OHRQoL (Oral Impacts on Daily Performances instrument, OIDP) and having had any toothache over the last 6 months (yes/no). After three years (2020), the academic records of 1,870 of these students were assessed, their average grade over all courses evaluated, and their dropout status was determined. Multivariable linear or logistic regression adjusting for gender, skin color, age, family income and maternal education was used to associate oral health variables (self-perceived oral health, OIDP, toothache) and academic performance or dropout. In 2016, 28.6% reported negative self-perceived oral health through the Locker instrument and 31.4% had toothache in the last 6 months. Over the next three years, 36.2% had dropped out. In multivariable regression, toothache in the last 6 months had a decrease of 0.32 (β -0.32, CI95% -0.59; -0.04) points in the final grade and were 35% (OR 1.35 CI95% 1.08; 1.69) more likely to dropout than students without toothache. In conclusion, this study showed that worse oral health conditions may be associated with worse academic performance or dropping out.
  • Application of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) posts: evaluation of fracture resistance and stress distribution in the root: in vitro and finite element analyses Original Research

    LIMA, Michele Oliveira; FERRETTI, Marcela Alvarez; CALDAS, Ricardo Armini; BARÃO, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; FRANÇA, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; LIMA, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; MARTINS, Luís Roberto; AGUIAR, Flávio Henrique Baggio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract To evaluate the feasibility of using a milled polyetheretherketone (PEEK) post and core in endodontically treated teeth with or without a ferrule. Sixty bovine tooth roots were endodontically treated followed by cementation of intraradicular retainers (IR), according to each experimental group: a) non-ferrule glass fiber post (f0FP); b) 2-mm-ferrule glass fiber post (f2FP); c) non-ferrule resized glass fiber post (f0PR); d) 2-mm-ferrule resized glass fiber post (f2PR); e) non-ferrule PEEK post and core (f0PPC); and f) 2-mm-ferrule PEEK post and core (f2PPC). Metal crowns were made and cemented. A periodontal ligament was simulated using polyether. A force was applied to the palatine portion of each sample at 45°, until fracture. Fracture resistance data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05). Three-dimensional digital models were developed to calculate the tensions formed in the root using finite element analysis. Models of glass fiber posts and PEEK posts and cores were evaluated with or without a ferrule. The results were analyzed by the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. The type of IR was not influenced by fracture strength (p = 0.243). There were significant statistical differences among the remaining factors. Ferrule groups had greater fracture resistance, and the failure mode of teeth with a ferrule was more catastrophic than the non-ferrule group. A ferrule increases fracture resistance and influences failure mode; the PEEK post and core did not modify the biomechanics of endodontically treated teeth, and resembled the glass fiber post results. The crack initiation point differed between the ferrule and non-ferrule groups.
  • Effects of red and infrared laser on post extraction socket repair in rats subjected to alendronate therapy Original Research

    GONÇALVES, Fernanda Castanheira; MASCARO, Bruno Arruda; OLIVEIRA, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de; SPOLIDÓRIO, Luis Carlos; MARCANTONIO, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated the effect of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) with a red or infrared laser on the repair of post extraction sockets in rats administered alendronate (ALN). Forty male rats were randomly allocated into four groups: Control Group (CTR): subcutaneous administration of saline solution throughout the experimental period; Alendronate Group (ALN): subcutaneous administration of alendronate during the entire experimental period; Alendronate/Red Laser Group (ALN/RL): administration of ALN and irradiation with a GaAlAs laser (λ 660 nm); and Alendronate/Infrared Laser Group (ALN/IRL): administration of ALN and irradiation with a GaAlAs laser (λ 830 nm). The first lower molars were extracted 60 days after the beginning of the administration of the drugs. The PBMT was applied after tooth extraction (7 sessions with intervals of 48 hours between sessions). Thirty days after tooth extraction, the animals were euthanized. Micro-CT and histometric analysis were performed to assess the bone healing and soft tissue repair of the tooth socket. The ALN group presented with more bone than the CTR; however, most of this bone was necrotic. ALN does not affect the bone microarchitecture. On the other hand, PBMT with IRL enhances the bone density due to the increase in the number and reduction in the spacing of the trabeculae. The amount of vital bone and connective tissue matrix was higher in the ALN/RL and ALN/IRL groups than in the ALN and CTR groups. PBMT enhanced the healing of the post extraction sockets in rats subjected to ALN administration. Furthermore, IRL improved the new bone microarchitecture.
  • Exploring online oral health misinformation: a content analysis Original Research

    LOTTO, Matheus; JORGE, Olivia Santana; MACHADO, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; CRUVINEL, Thiago

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Considering the unfavorable implications of health falsehoods and the lack of dental research into information disorder, this study aimed to identify and characterize online oral health misinformation. A total of 410 websites published in English were retrieved using Google Advanced Search and screened by two independent investigators to compile falsehoods through thematic content analysis. Afterward, 318 pieces of misinformation were consensually divided into four groups concerning their informational interest (G1), financial, psychological, and social interests produced/disseminated by non-dental professionals (G2) or by dental professionals (G3), and political interests (G4). Social media (Facebook and Instagram) and fact-checking tool (Snopes) were also screened to determine the spread of falsehoods by identifying corresponding posts and warnings. As a result, misinformation was mainly associated with gum diseases (12.0%), root canal treatment (11.6%), toothache (10.4%), fluoride (10.4%), and dental caries (9.8%), with a special highlight on recommendations for the usage of natural products, toxicity concerns, and anti-fluoridation propaganda. Additionally, most misinformation was allocated in G3 (41.9%), which presented a statistically higher frequency of financial interests than G4. Finally, falsehoods were considerably identified on Facebook (62.9%) and Instagram (49.4%), especially G3 and G4. Nevertheless, Snopes has debunked only 5.9% of these content items. Therefore, misinformation was predominantly produced or disseminated by dental professionals mainly motivated by financial interests and usually linked to alternative/natural treatments. Although these items were shared on social media, fact-checking agencies seemed to have limited knowledge about their dissemination.
  • Acinic cell carcinoma of the oral and maxillofacial region: an international multicenter study Original Research

    KIRSCHNICK, Laura Borges; SILVEIRA, Felipe Martins; SCHUCH, Lauren Frenzel; VASCONCELOS, Ana Carolina Uchoa; GOMES, Ana Paula; SANTOS, Jean Nunes dos; SANTANA, Dandara Andrade; FONSECA, Felipe Paiva; MESQUITA, Ricardo Alves; MENDONÇA, Elismauro Francisco de; SOUSA-NETO, Sebastião Silvério; PONTES, Hélder Antônio Rebelo; ROBINSON, Liam; HEERDEN, Willie van; CARLOS-BREGNI, Román; TAGER, Elena María José Román; SILVA, Luan César da; ZANELLA, Virgílio Gonzales; RIVERO, Luis Fernando; BITTENCOURT, Raquel; MARTINS, Marco Antonio Trevizani; LOPES, Márcio Ajudarte; WAGNER, Vivian Petersen; VARGAS, Pablo Agustin; MARTINS, Manoela Domingues

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, clinicopathological, and prognostic features of acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) of the oral and maxillofacial region. AciCC cases were retrospectively retrieved from 11 pathology centers of three different countries. Medical records were examined to extract demographic, clinical, pathologic, and follow-up information. A total of 75 cases were included. Females (65.33%) with a mean age of 45.51 years were mostly affected. The lesions usually presented as an asymptomatic (64.28%) nodule (95.66%) in the parotid gland (70.68%). The association of two histopathological patterns was the most common finding (48.93%) and the tumors presented mainly conventional histopathological grades (86.11%). Surgical treatment was performed in the majority of the cases (59.19%). Local recurrence was observed in 20% of the informed cases, regional metastasis in 30.43%, and distant metastasis in 12.50%. The statistical analysis showed that the cases with a solid histopathological pattern (p=0.01), high-grade transformation (p=0.008), recurrence (p=0.007), and regional metastasis (p=0.03) were associated with poor survival. In conclusion, high histopathological transformation, presence of nodal metastasis, and recurrence were prognostic factors for AciCC of the oral and maxillofacial region.
  • Oral health policies and decision-making process in Brazil, Colombia and Chile Original Research

    GALANTE, Mariana Lopes; CORNEJO-OVALLE, Marco Antonio; OTÁLVARO-CASTRO, Gabriel Jaime; PATIÑO-LUGO, Daniel Felipe; PISCHEL, Nicole; GIRALDES, Amanda Iida; CARRER, Fernanda Campos de Almeida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Public health policies are crucial for the well-being of the general population; however, the health systems of developed countries still do not include oral health in its system. Thus, it is necessary to understand the process of decision-making in oral health policies to create opportunities for countries to achieve an overall positive health outcome, including oral health. This study aimed to identify the factors influencing the inclusion of oral health on the political agenda in Brazil, Colombia, and Chile. The study sample involved decision-makers at political, technical, and academic levels. The extracted data were analyzed using the software Maxqda® and Kingdon´s theoretical model; defining interactive variables that produce a “window of opportunity” to define the agenda and the insertion of theme in formulating public policies. The decision-making process regarding oral health is influenced by many factors like the need to improve the overall oral health of the population, identified through national epidemiological studies, and the importance of individuals in positions involving political decision-making, who advocate for oral health. Strategies were developed in partnership with the academy that focused on the health rights of the population provided by law; territorial and national programs were also developed. The inclusion and creation of oral health policies depend on actors who advocate for thematic and scientific evidence to support decision-making. A close relationship between academia and stakeholders and knowledge translation is important for the development of public policies that can be effective for health systems.
  • Effect of endodontic sealers on push-out bond strength of CAD-CAM or prefabricated fiber glass posts Original Research

    PINTO, Andréa Pereira de Souza; FRANÇA, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; BASTING, Roberta Tarkany; TURSSI, Cecilia Pedroso; RODRIGUES JÚNIOR, José Joatan; AMARAL, Flávia Lucisano Botelho

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of endodontic sealer (ES) on bond strength (BS) of prefabricated or milled-CAD-CAM (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) glass-fiber-posts (GFP). Canals of 90 single-rooted teeth were prepared for filling by the single-cone technique with gutta-percha and one of the following ES: AH Plus (epoxy resin), Endofill (zinc-oxide and eugenol), and Bio-C Sealer (calcium-silicate). After post-space preparation, tooth-specimens were equally divided in half according to type of GFP to be used. In the half to receive milled-CAD-CAM posts, tooth specimens were molded with acrylic resin to obtain replicas. These were scanned to enable the laboratory to produce the milled-CAD-CAM GFPs (Fiber CAD Lab, Angelus) by the subtractive technique. The other half of samples received prefabricated GFPs (Exacto, Angelus) (n=15). The GFPs were cemented with dual-cure resin cement (Panavia F2.0, Kuraray). Each root was sectioned into two slices per root region (cervical, middle, apical) that were subjected to the push-out BS test, in a universal testing machine. Failure mode (FM) was classified by scores. The BS data were submitted to generalized linear model analyses, while FM was analyzed using the chi-square test (a=0.05). BS showed no significant difference among the three ES (p > 0.05). BS was significantly higher for prefabricated (mean 10.84 MPa) versus milled-CAD-CAM GFPs (mean 6.94 MPa) (p <0.0001), irrespective of ES. The majority showed mixed failures. It could be concluded that type of ES did not affect BS of GFPs to dentin, and prefabricated-GFPs had higher bond-strength than customized-milled-CAD-CAM GFPs.
  • Is bad breath associated with dyspepsia? An association and an equivalence study Original Research

    RODRIGUES, Nádia Cristina Pinheiro; ABRÃO NETO, Alexandre; NADANOVSKY, Paulo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Halitosis affects all populations worldwide. The presence of chronic halitosis may be related to a health problem. Patients with bad breath usually seek a gastroenterologist and, in some cases, invasive and expensive exams, such as digestive endoscopy, are performed to investigate the etiology of halitosis. This study aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of bad breath in patients diagnosed with dyspepsia (any pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen) is higher than or equivalent to that in non-dyspeptic patients. This is a cross-sectional study that included 312 patients from university hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro (141 dyspeptic patients and 171 non-dyspeptic ones). The presence of halitosis was defined based on different cutoff points. Association analyses were performed using a log-binomial model and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the coefficients, adjusting for sex and age. The equivalence test (Westlake) was used to test the hypothesis of equivalence between the proportions of patients with bad breath in the two groups (dyspeptic vs. non-dyspeptic), considering an equivalence band of ± 15%. The prevalence of bad breath ranged from 30% to 64% according to the definition of bad breath. Dyspepsia was not associated with bad breath in any of the three definitions of bad breath (two specific ones and a sensitive one). The proportion of patients with marked bad breath was equivalent in patients with and without dyspepsia.
  • Oral and oropharyngeal cancer: time from first symptoms to treatment initiation and associated factors Original Research

    COSTA, Adriana Aparecida Silva da; CALDEIRA, Patrícia Carlos; SOUSA, Alexandre Andrade; TIBÚRCIO, Jacqueline Domingues; BELLIGOLI, Leonardo de Queiroz Gomes; SANTOS, Viviane Bigodeiro dos; BRETAS, Pedro Messeder Caldeira; NUNES, Louise Lanna; PRADO NETO, Severino Correia do; SILVA, Gustavo Waldolato; SOARES, João Marcos Arantes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the time elapsed from first symptoms to the treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OOC) and to identify variables associated with treatment delay. This is an observational study with retrospective and prospective data collection. Patients with a diagnosis of OOC seen at the Head and Neck Surgery outpatient clinic of a Brazilian public hospital were included and followed up to treatment initiation. Participants answered a questionnaire for the collection of socioeconomic, demographic, cultural, and clinical information, as well as information about the time elapsed from first symptoms to the first appointment with a head and neck surgeon. Time to treatment was classified into four intervals: 1- first symptoms to first medical appointment; 2- first medical appointment to specialized medical care; 3- specialized medical care to preparation for treatment; and 4- preparation for treatment to treatment initiation. Bivariate statistics were computed. Out of 100 participants, nine died before treatment. Mean time to treatment was 217 days. Highest mean time was observed for interval 2 (94 days), followed by interval 1 (63 days), interval 4 (39 days), and interval 3 (21 days). At interval 1, a longer time was associated with severe alcohol consumption, severe smoking, and family history of cancer. At interval 2, the delay was associated with appointment with a general practitioner, clinical diagnosis of disease other than cancer, and antibiotic prescription. At interval 4, delay in treatment was associated with surgical treatment. Patients with OOC experience delays from symptom onset to treatment initiation. The longest interval was associated with professional delay, followed by patient delay in help-seeking.
  • Evaluation of peripheral nerve fibers and mast cells in burning mouth syndrome Original Research

    ARANTES, Diego Antonio Costa; TOLEDO, Ítalo Cordeiro de; DE ARRUDA, José Alcides Almeida; MESQUITA, Ricardo Alves; CASTRO, Luciano Alberto de; BATISTA, Aline Carvalho; RIBEIRO-ROTTA, Rejane Faria

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Emerging evidence has revealed a cross-talk in the etiopathogenesis of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) related to peripheral nerve fibers (NF) and neuropeptides secreted by mast cells. Here, we investigated the S-100+ density and PGP 9.5+ integrity of peripheral NF and the tryptase+ mast cell density in the oral mucosa of BMS patients and healthy individuals. A total of 23 oral mucosa specimens (12 BMS and 11 controls) were evaluated. The clinical diagnosis of BMS was based on a careful examination, excluding other local and systemic causes. Samples were taken from an incisional biopsy of the tongue mucosa of individuals with symptomatic BMS, while the margins of the non-neoplastic tongue biopsy served as controls of healthy individuals. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the density/mm2 of S-100+, PGP 9.5+ peripheral NF, and tryptase+ mast cells. Similar densities of S-100+, PGP 9.5+ peripheral NF, and tryptase+ mast cells were found in cases of BMS, with a median value of 3.70, 0.70, and 29.24/mm2, respectively, and in the control group, with a median value of 2.60, 0.80, and 26.01/mm2, respectively (p > 0.05). Moreover, the relationship between S100+ and PGP 9.5+ peripheral NF was the same in both groups (p = 0.70). This study demonstrated that there were no alterations in the density and integrity of peripheral NF in the tongue of symptomatic BMS patients. However, the sensitization of peripheral NF in this disease may not depend on mast cell density.
  • Influence of bioceramic intracanal medication on the bond strength of bioceramic root canal sealer Original Research

    ESCOBAR, Patrícia Maria; SILVA-SOUSA, Alice Corrêa; CAMARGO, Rafael Verardino de; SIMÕES-CARVALHO, Marco; SILVA-SOUSA, Yara Teresinha; MAZZI-CHAVES, Jardel Francisco; DE-DEUS, Gustavo; SOUSA-NETO, Manoel Damião

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract To investigate the influence of the remaining volume of a new intracanal medication based on bioceramic compounds on the bond strength (BS) and formation of an adhesive interface between calcium silicate-based and epoxy resin-based root canal sealers. For this purpose, the specimens were distributed according to the intracanal medication (n = 26): Bio-C Temp (BCT) and Ultracal XS (UXS). The roots were scanned in microCT, and after 7 days, the medication was removed. Then a new scan was performed to evaluate the volume of medication remaining. Subsequently, 40 specimens were redistributed into 2 subgroups (n = 10) and filled according to the sealer used: AH Plus (AHP) and Bio-C Sealer (BCS), to assess the bond strength by using the push-out test, and the adhesive interface by confocal laser fluorescence microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The t test showed a smaller remainder of BCT (1.77 ± 0.86) compared with UXS (10.47 ± 5.78), irrespective of the root third evaluated. The BS showed that teeth with BCT + BCS had higher bond strength values (3.70 ± 1.22) when compared to the other groups: BCT + AHP (2.15 ± 1.07), UXS + BCS (3.18 ± 1.09) and UXS + AHP (2.11 ± 1.02) (p<0.001). The cervical third had higher BS when compared with the middle and apical thirds (p < 0.001), and higher number of adhesive failures. The adhesive interface in SEM and CLSM images showed better adaptation for the association between BCT + BCS. Intracanal medication and silicate-based endodontic sealer appeared to interact chemically by forming a biomineralizing layer, allowing for an increase in the bond strength and forming an adhesive interface between the materials, with no or less gap formation.
  • Effectiveness of non-operative approaches in active enamel carious lesions: a retrospective longitudinal study Original Research

    ARDUIM, Andressa da Silva; GONÇALVES, Debora Plotnik; SCHERER, Maitê Munhoz; ARAÚJO, Fernando Borba de; LENZI, Tathiane Larissa; CASAGRANDE, Luciano

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of non-invasive and micro-invasive treatments in active enamel carious lesions in high-caries-risk children. Clinical records of children treated in a dental school setting were retrospectively screened for active enamel carious lesions treated non-invasively (topical fluoride applications, oral hygiene instruction, or dietary guidance) or micro-invasively (sealant). The control of active carious lesions was set as the main outcome established by the combination of inactivation and non-progression of the lesions based on Nyvad and ICDAS criteria, respectively. Individual and clinical factors associated with the outcome were analyzed by Poisson regression. The sample consisted of 105 high-caries-risk children with a mean age of 8.3 (± 2.4) years. From a total of 365 active enamel carious lesions, most lesions (84.1%) were active non-cavitated carious lesions (ICDAS scores 1 and 2) and only 15.9% presented localized enamel breakdown (ICDAS score 3). Of these, 72.6% were inactivated and 92.1% did not progress (mean time of 6.5 ± 4.1 months). The prevalence of controlled carious lesions was higher among children older than 6 years (PR:1.43; 95%CI:1.00–2.03; p = 0.04) and in those with better biofilm control (PR:0.99; 95%CI: 0.98–0.99; p = 0.03). Non-operative approaches are effective for controlling active enamel carious lesions. The majority of active enamel carious lesions became inactive and did not progress after treatment. Caries control was associated with older children and better biofilm control.
  • Integrality, absenteeism and resolubility of specialized care for pediatric patients: a cross-sectional study Original Research

    GOUVÊA, Daiana Back; NEVES, Matheus; RODRIGUES, Jonas de Almeida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dental Specialties Centers (CEOs) are clinics representing part of the secondary oral health care system of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). Pediatric dentistry is not a requirement for service accreditation. However, the CEO of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (CEO-UFRGS) has provided dental care for children aged 3–11 years since 2017. The utilization rates of health services are influenced by absenteeism. Therefore, evaluation of absences for dental appointments is of primary importance. This study aimed to evaluate referral characteristics, absenteeism, and resolubility of pediatric dentistry appointments at the CEO-UFRGS. This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the Dental Teaching Hospital of the university and analyzed secondary data from referrals and medical records. From August 2017 to December 2019, 167 referrals and 96 medical records were reviewed, from which data of individual variables related to the referral process and treatment were collected. Data were collected by a single trained examiner and analyzed using SPSS software. The main reasons for referral to secondary care were dental caries and pulpal or periapical diseases associated with difficult-to-manage behavior. An absenteeism rate of 28.1% at the first pediatric dental visit and a resolution rate of 65.6% were found. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that each day of waiting for specialized care resulted in a 0.3% of higher chance of absence for appointment. This also increased the chance by 0.7% in child who attended the first visit to complete treatment, suggesting that the waiting time for attendance was associated with absenteeism and resolubility. Public policies that expand providing child dental care in secondary care are recommended to improve access to and resolubility of services.
  • How does nano-focus computed tomography impact the quantification of debris within the root canal system? Original Research

    RODRIGUES, Clarissa Teles; JACOBS, Reinhilde; EZELDEEN, Mostafa; VASCONCELOS, Karla de Faria; LAMBRECHTS, Paul; TANOMARU FILHO, Mario; PINTO, Jader Camilo; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the quantification of hard-tissue debris by using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and nano-focus computed tomography (nano-CT) after root canal instrumentation. Ten mandibular molars containing an isthmus in the mesial root were scanned in a SkyScan 1172 micro-CT device with a voxel size of 12.8 µm and in a NanoTom nano-CT device with 5.5 µm. The mesial root canals were irrigated with 5 mL of saline solution at the orifice level, instrumented with Reciproc R25 files and a second scanning was performed by micro-CT and nano-CT devices for post-instrumentation images. DataViewer software was used for registering the pre- and post-operative micro-CT and nano-CT images. The root canal and the debris were segmented for quantitative analysis of the volume of the canal and volume of debris using CTAn software. Statistical analysis was performed using the T test for comparison between volume of the canal after instrumentation and volume of debris in both image modalities. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Nano-CT images showed higher values of debris when compared with micro-CT (p < 0.05) after root canal instrumentation. No difference was observed between the volume of the root canal after instrumentation in the two imaging methods used (p > 0.05). Nano-CT technology can be recommended as a more precise method for quantitative analysis of hard-tissue debris. Moreover, in Endodontic research it is a promising method, as it is capable of providing higher spatial and contrast resolution, faster scanning and higher image quality.
  • E-learning as a strategy in dentistry in the context of COVID-19: a path to follow? Original Research

    MARQUES-MEDEIROS, Ana Carolina; MARTINS, Renata Castro; SOUZA, Leandro Napier de; GOMEZ, Ricardo Santiago; SILVA, Maria Elisa de Souza e; MARTINS, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras; ABREU, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The current study aims to assess the effectiveness of e-learning in compliance with the new biosafety recommendations in dentistry in the context of COVID-19 applied to the clinical staff of a dental school in Brazil. A quasi-experimental epidemiological study was carried out by means of a structured, pre-tested online questionnaire, applied before and after an educational intervention, using an e-learning format. After data collection, statistical tests were performed. A total of 549 members of the clinical staff participated in the study in the two collection phases, with a return rate of 26.9%. After the e-learning stage, a reduction was found in the reported use of disposable gloves, protective goggles, and surgical masks. The course had no impact on the staff’s knowledge concerning the proper sequence for donning PPE and showed 100% effectiveness regarding proper PPE doffing sequence. Knowledge about avoiding procedures that generate aerosols in the clinical setting was improved. Despite the low rate of return, it can be concluded that online intervention alone was ineffective in significantly improving learning about the new clinical biosafety guidelines. Therefore, the use of hybrid teaching and repetitive training is highly recommended.
  • Genome sequencing reveals molecular subgroups in oral epithelial dysplasia Original Research

    MÁRQUEZ, Agustín; MUJICA, Isidora; JORDAN, Natalia; BAEZ, Pablo; TARQUINIO, Sandra; NUNES, Jean; ADORNO, Daniela; MARTÍNEZ, Benjamín; MORALES-PISON, Sebastian; FERNANDEZ-RAMIRES, Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to analyze the molecular characteristics of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), highlighting the pathways and variants of genes that are frequently mutated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and other cancers. Ten archival OED cases were retrieved for retrospective clinicopathological analysis and exome sequencing. Comparative genomic analysis was performed between high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and low-grade dysplasia (LGD), focusing on 57 well-known cancer genes, of which 10 were previously described as the most mutated in OSCC. HGD cases had significantly more variants; however, a similar mutational landscape to OSCC was observed in both groups. CASP8+FAT1/HRAS, TP53, and miscellaneous molecular signatures were also present. FAT1 is the gene that is most affected by pathogenic variants. Hierarchical divisive clustering showed division between the two groups: “HGD-like cluster” with 4HGD and 2LGD and “LGD-like cluster” with 4 LGD. MLL4 pathogenic variants were exclusively in the “LGD-like cluster”. TP53 was affected in one case of HGD; however, its pathway was usually altered. We describe new insights into the genetic basis of epithelial malignant transformation by genomic analysis, highlighting those associated with FAT1 and TP53. Some LGDs presented a similar mutational landscape to HGD after cluster analysis. Perhaps molecular alterations have not yet been reflected in histomorphology. The relative risk of malignant transformation in this molecular subgroup should be addressed in future studies.
  • Comparative study of sex estimates in adult skulls using direct measurement and tomographic image reconstruction Original Research

    Ortiz ROSA, Ezequiel; CROSATO, Edgard Michel; CASTRO, Claudio Campi; OLIVEIRA, Rodrigo Elias; BIAZEVIC, Maria Gabriela Haye

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Sex estimation is an important procedure in forensic anthropology for human identification. The development of new technologies, such as three-dimensional computed tomography (CT), has provided excellent alternatives for this purpose. This study examined and compared a morphological method for sex estimation using two different approaches – direct measurement of physical structures and tomographic analysis using 3D images. A total of 111 skulls from the Museum of Human Anatomy at the University of São Paulo (MAH-USP) were used, (60 males and 51 females). All specimens were scanned by Philips Brilliance 64 CT scanner equipment and their corresponding images were reconstructed in three-dimensional (3D) models. The morphological characteristics of the skulls were analyzed by an observer who was blinded to the sex of the specimens. Five cranial structures were analyzed: external occipital crest, mastoid process, supraorbital margin, glabella, and mental eminence. The structures were scored 1 to 5 according to Buikstra and Ubelaker and validated by Walker. The success rates of the sex estimates obtained through direct measurement of the dry skulls ranged from 67.4% to 70.4% as compared to 60.2% to 68.1% for CT reconstruction. When analyzed separately, the maximum accuracy of the method was 68.33% in males and 88.24% in females in the physical analysis of structures. The glabella and mastoid process were the most effective structures to estimate sex through both techniques, respectively. Our results show that 3D CT images can be accurately used in the morphological analysis for sex estimation, representing a viable alternative in forensic anthropology.
  • Deflection of tandem archwire in a specific self-ligating metal bracket system: an in vitro study Original Research

    CATTANI, Lourenço; CORRER-SOBRINHO, Lourenço; NEVES, José Guilherme; VALDRIGHI, Heloísa; SANTOS, Eduardo César Almada; COSTA, Ana Rosa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to quantify the force exerted by tandem archwires in a specific system of passive self-ligating bracket. Forty-eight thermo-activated nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires were separated into four groups (n = 12): G1 – two .014” + .014” round archwires; G2 – two .014” + .016” round archwires; G3 – .014” x .025” rectangular archwire; and. G4 – .016” x .022” rectangular archwire. Brackets were fixed onto teeth 1.5 to 2.5 using a device that represented the upper teeth, maintaining an interbracket distance of 6.0 mm. The deflection tests were performed using the structure representative of tooth 1.1 as support on the Instron testing machine at a speed of 2.0 mm/min. The archwires were evaluated at deflections of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm. The data were analyzed by a generalized linear model, considering values at different deflections as repeated measurements in the same experimental unit (α = 0.5%). At 0.5 mm, higher forces were observed in G2 and G3, which did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The lowest force was observed in G4 (p < 0.05). At 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm, the highest force was observed in G3, followed by G4 and G2 (p < 0.05). The lowest force was observed in G1 (p < 0.05). In general, tandem archwires (same or different calibers) in a specific passive self-ligating bracket exerted lower force when compared with rectangular archwires.
  • Genotoxicity in the oral cells of older people from a Brazilian rural area: a population-based study Original Research

    KUZE, Luana Soares; DE CARLI, João Paulo; PRESOTTO, Júlia Stephanie; COLLARES, Kaue; DELLA BONA, Alvaro

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The purpose of this population-based, observational, and cross-sectional study was to evaluate alterations in the oral cells of a population of older people from a Brazilian rural area, using the micronucleus technique to investigate possible associated genotoxic factors. A questionnaire was applied and clinical examination and collection of oral mucosal cells were performed for all older people (≥ 60 years) from a town in southern Brazil. Demographic and socioeconomic variables, deleterious habits (drinking and tobacco use), presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were considered the exposure variables, whereas metanuclear changes (MCs) and the prevalence of cell micronuclei (MN) were considered outcomes. Out of 489 older people, 447 were included in the study, among whom 50.8% were men with a mean age of 70.9 years and 83.9% had a monthly family income greater than US$ 500.00. GERD symptoms were present in 36.2% of the individuals, and 29.1% used PPIs daily, 53.3% consumed alcoholic beverages, and 46.7% used tobacco. The analysis of 1,000 oral mucosal cells per subject showed a MN frequency of 0–2 per individual, and MCs were detected with an average of 15 units per individual (median = 11 per individual). Poisson regression did not show statistical association between the exposure variables and the outcomes (presence of MN and MCs), except for the use of PPIs, which was a protective factor for the prevalence of MN [PR 0.6 (CI 0.3–0,9)]. Age, sex, family income, tobacco use and drinking, and GERD were not associated with the number of MN and MCs in oral mucosal cells of the investigated older people.
  • Susceptibility of fluorotic enamel to dental erosion-abrasion Original Research

    SILVA, Cristiane Araújo Maia; SOUSA, Frederico Barbosa de; MARTINEZ-MIER, Esperanza Angeles; KELLY, Adam Benjamin; ECKERT, George J.; HARA, Anderson Takeo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dental hard tissue conditions can be of pre- or post-eruptive nature, such as enamel fluorosis and erosive tooth wear (ETW), respectively. Dental enamel fluorosis is caused by the chronic and excessive intake of fluoride during enamel development, leading to increased fluoride concentration and increased porosity. ETW has become a common clinical condition and often impairs dental function and aesthetics. This in vitro study tested the hypothesis that fluorotic enamel presents different susceptibility to dental erosion-abrasion. It consisted of a 3×3×2 factorial design, considering a) fluorosis severity: sound (TF0), mild (TF1-2), moderate (TF3-4); b) abrasive challenge: low, medium, and high; and c) erosive challenge: yes or no. A total of 144 human teeth were selected according to the three fluorosis severity levels (n=48), and subdivided into six groups (n = 8) generated by the association of the different erosive and abrasive challenges. Enamel blocks (4×4 mm) were prepared from each tooth and their natural enamel surfaces subjected to an erosion-abrasion cycling model. After cycling, the depth of the lesions in enamel was assessed by profilometry. ANOVA showed that the three-way and two-way interactions among the factors were not significant (p > 0.20). Enamel fluorosis level (p=0.638) and abrasion level (p = 0.390) had no significant effect on lesion depth. Acid exposure caused significantly more enamel surface loss than water (p < 0.001). Considering the limitations of this in vitro study, fluorosis did not affect the susceptibility of enamel to dental erosion-abrasion.
  • Catastrophizing is associated with pain-related disability in temporomandibular disorders Original Research

    SOUSA, Cintia Regina Andrade; ARSATI, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira Lima; VELLY, Ana Miriam; SILVA, Carlos Alberto Lima da; ARSATI, Franco

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the association of pain-related disability with biopsychosocial factors in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. The study was carried out at the Orofacial Pain Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Feira de Santana, Bahia, from September 2018 to March 2020. The sociodemographic aspects, TMD subtypes, presence of pain-induced disability, pressure pain threshold, perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and catastrophizing were evaluated in 61 patients. The studied variables were compared between patients with and without pain-induced disability. Crude and adjusted logistic regression were performed to obtain estimates of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. With the exception of catastrophizing, there was no association between the biopsychosocial factors and pain-induced disability. The presence of catastrophizing increased the chance of having chronic pain-induced disability by 4.02 times. The results of this study indicate a strong association between pain catastrophizing and disability in individuals with chronic painful TMD.
  • Associations between physical activity domains and oral health: an analysis of a Brazilian population–based study Original Research

    ANJOS, Stefany Duarte dos; FERRO, Rafael Milani; LASKAWSKI, Bernardo Novak; HAAS, Alex Nogueira; PRATES, Rodolfo Coelho; STEFFENS, Joao Paulo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Physical activity comprises four domains (leisure, transportation, domestic, and work activities) that may be differently associated with oral health. The aim of this study was to assess the association between each physical activity domain and oral health conditions in Brazilian adults. A total of 38,539 participants in the 2019 Brazilian Health Survey aged 30 years or older were analyzed. The outcomes were self-perceived oral health (dichotomous) and self-reported number of missing teeth (counts). The presence, frequency, and time of activity in each domain and their combination were analyzed as main exposures. Odds ratios (OR) and mean ratios (MR) were estimated by fitting multivariable models. Higher leisure time physical activity was the only domain associated with better self-perception of oral health (OR = 1.32; 95%CI 1.26–1.38) and lower tooth loss (MR=0.88; 95%CI 0.86–0.90). Higher levels of work, transportation, and household activities were significantly associated with worse self-perception of oral health, while higher levels of work– and transportation–related physical activities were also associated with greater tooth loss. When the total recommended weekly physical activity time was analyzed, no significant associations were found. Sensitivity analysis suggested that this pattern persists in potential periodontitis–related cases, such as when selecting older age or excluding individuals with no tooth loss. In conclusion, leisure physical activity was the only domain with the potential of reflecting the benefits of physical activity on oral health. The inclusion of other domains can confound this association.
  • Association among COVID-19, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and oral health status Original Research

    KILINÇ, Gülser; AKCALI, Aliye; BELET, Nurşen; UZUN, Bilge Cansu; ERBAŞ, Şilem Özdem; ARSLAN, İrem Ceren; GÜZIN, Ayşe Çakıl

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The pathophysiology of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and associated oral symptoms have not been clarified yet. The aim of the present study was to compare the oral health status of children with MIS-C-associated Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and COVID-19. A total of 54 children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 23 with MIS-C-associated COVID-19 and 31 with asymptomatic, mild, and moderate COVID-19 were recruited for the present cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic variables, medical examinations, oral hygiene habits, and extraoral and intraoral findings (DMFT/dmft index, OHI scores, and oral mucosal changes) were recorded. The t-test for independent samples and the Mann-Whitney U test were used (p < 0.05). MIS-C was found to be associated with chapped lips (all patients) and oral mucosal changes, including erythema, white lesion, strawberry tongue, and swelling of the gingiva as compared to the COVID-19 group (frequency of more than one mucosal change: 100% vs. 35%) (p < 0.001). Children with MIS-C presented higher DMFT/dmft scores (DMFT/dmft 5.52 ± 3.16 for the MIS-C group vs. 2.26 ± 1.80 for the COVID-19 group) (p < 0.01). Elevated OHI scores were also associated with MIS-C (mean ± SD: 3.06 ± 1.02 (MIS-C) vs. 2.41 ± 0.97 (COVID-19) (p < 0.05). Oral manifestations, mainly strawberry and erythematous tongue, were characteristic features of MIS-C. Prevalence of oral/dental symptoms was elevated in children with MIS-C when compared to COVID-19. Therefore, dental professionals should be aware of the oral manifestations associated with MIS-C, which may have high mortality and morbidity rates.
  • Elementary school teachers’ knowledge and attitudes toward emergency management of traumatic dental injuries Original Research

    KNEITZ, Fernanda Bello; SCALIONI, Flávia Almeida Ribeiro; TAVARES, Luciana Cláudia Diniz; CAMPOS, Marcio José da Silva; CARRADA, Camila Faria; MACHADO, Fernanda Campos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The consequences of traumatic dental injuries can be even more serious when their emergency management procedures are inadequate. Since traumatic accidents frequently occur at school, it is crucial that teachers be knowledgeable enough to assist an injured child. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of the elementary school teachers of a Brazilian city toward dental trauma in permanent teeth, and its emergency practices. A combination of convenience and snowball sampling methods was used. An online questionnaire was distributed through social media, consisting of three parts: demographic characteristics and professional information; previous experiences and attitudes toward dental trauma; teachers’ knowledge of this subject. Descriptive and statistical analyses were carried out. Pearson chi-squared test (p < 0.05) was used. A total of 217 teachers participated in the study. The power of the sample was 95%. Half of the teachers had already witnessed a dental trauma incident involving students, and 70.5% never received any information on the subject. The teachers who were provided previous information were the ones who opted to search for the tooth fragment (p=0.036) in cases of crown fracture, and for the lost tooth (p = 0.025) in cases of avulsion. They were also the ones who chose to wash the tooth in running water (p = 0.018), and look for a dentist in the first 30 or 60 minutes after the trauma (p = 0.026). Most of the teachers assessed did not have adequate knowledge of dental trauma. Having previous information was associated with more assertive practices in trauma management.
  • Mediating effect of eating pattern on the relationship between television exposure and caries in children Original Research

    SHQAIR, Ayah Qassem; FERNANDEZ, Matheus dos Santos; COSTA, Francine dos Santos; JANSEN, Karen; MOTTA, Janaína Vieira dos Santos; SILVA, Ricardo Azevedo da; COSTA, Vanessa Polina da; GOETTEMS, Marília Leão

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Behavioral characteristics may also take part in the etiology of dental caries. Sedentary behavior, especially watching television, is associated with increased intake of foods high in fat or free sugar, which could influence the occurrence of dental caries. The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effect of eating pattern on the relationship between television exposure time and the presence of dental caries in children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 580 parent-child dyads with children aged 7 to 8 years in 20 public schools in Pelotas, Brazil. Parents or legal guardians were interviewed and provided information on demographic/socioeconomic data, children’s daily television exposure time, and answered the Biological Rhythms Interview for Assessment in Neuropsychiatry for Kids (BRIAN-K-eating pattern domain). Caries was evaluated through clinical examination. The mediating effect of eating pattern on the relationship between television exposure and presence of dental caries was estimated using the parametric g-formula. Prevalence of dental caries was 63%, and 22% of children watched TV 4 or more hours per day. Television exposure had no direct effect on the dental caries experience [odds ratio (OR): 1.05 (95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.92–1.19)]. Nevertheless, difficulty maintaining regular eating pattern mediated the natural indirect effect of television exposure time (≥ 4 hours/day) on dental caries experience [OR: 1.07 (95%CI): 1.01–1.14)]. The results of this study confirm the indirect pathway between television viewing and dental caries and the role of disordered eating patterns in this association.
  • Association of MTR and MTRR genes and oral health-related quality of life in children with dental caries Original Research

    ANTUNES, Lívia Azeredo Alves; FIALHO, Walter; FERNANDES, Thais de Oliveira; DUARTE, Camila; TAVARES, Jhenyfer da Silva; KÜCHLER, Erika Calvano; ANTUNES, Leonardo Santos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to assess whether genetic polymorphisms in MTR and MTRR are potential biomarkers of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children with caries. A cross-sectional study was designed wherein pairs of parents/caregivers and children (aged two–five years) were selected. Clinical examination was used to detect dental caries, which were classified as low-severity and high-severity caries. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) questionnaire was used to assess OHRQoL. Genomic DNA extracted from the saliva was used to analyze two missense genetic polymorphisms: MTR (rs1805087) and MTRR (rs1801394). Mann–Whitney non-parametric test was used to analyze candidate genes with OHRQoL scale and domain, with a significance level of p≤0.05. MTR (rs1805087) was found associated (p = 0.05) with children’s OHRQoL subscale scores in the dominant model (GG + AG). Genetic polymorphisms in MTR may increase the risk of poor OHRQoL in children with caries. Further studies are needed to investigate genetics, molecular factors, and OHRQoL.
  • Agreement between schoolchildren and their parents on rating the child’s oral health-related quality of life Original Research

    OLIVEIRA, Thays Torres do Vale; MENEGAZ, Aryane Marques; ROCHA, Mateus Andrade; COSTA, Vanessa Polina Pereira; BARBOSA, Taís de Souza; GOETTEMS, Marília Leão; AZEVEDO, Marina Sousa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The perceptions of parents/caregivers regarding their children’s oral health can influence the standard of care and decision-making regarding oral health. The children’s perspective on their own oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) may differ from the parents/caregivers’ views. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the agreement between the perceptions of parents/caregivers and schoolchildren regarding OHRQoL. It was conducted with a sample of children between 8 and 11 years old and their parents/caregivers from Pelotas. Children answered the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 8-10 (CPQ), and parents/caregivers answered the short form of the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ). Socioeconomic data were also collected. Children’s dental caries, traumatic dental injuries, and malocclusions were examined. The Spearman’s correlation test was performed. A total of 119 parents/caregivers-children pairs were included. There was an agreement between the total scores of parents/caregivers and children (0.2770; p = 0.003), in the oral symptoms (0.1907; p = 0.038), and functional limitations (0.2233; p=0.015) domains. The Bland-Altman graph showed an agreement between children’s and parents/caregivers’ OHRQoL total score, but there was an underestimation of approximately two points in the parents/caregivers’ perception compared to the children’s score. There was an agreement between the reports of parents/caregivers and children regarding children’s OHRQoL.
  • Initial oral microbiota and the impact of delivery mode and feeding practices in 0 to 2 month-old infants Original Research

    GARCÍA-QUINTANA, Alejandra; FRATTAROLI-PERICCHI, Annabella; FELDMAN, Sonia; LUENGO, Jesus; ACEVEDO, Ana María

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the initial oral microbiota and how delivery mode and feeding practices impact its diversity in 0-2-month-old infants. This was a cross-sectional study that consisted of one collection of saliva samples from 0-2-month infants at baseline. Ten pairs of mothers and infants were selected. Medical health history, pregnancy, birth, feeding practices (breastfeeding or milk formula), and infant health status was obtained. Pooled microbial samples were obtained from the oral surfaces using a sterile cotton swab. Infants did not receive any breast milk before sampling. After collection, each swab was analyzed through microbiological culture-based procedures, using selective mediums. Cultures were analyzed for the presence of Streptococci, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacterium , and Candida albicans . Twenty percent of the samples were serially diluted (10-2) to assess the number of bacteria expressed as CFU. Bacillota was the leading phylogenetic group in the infant’s pooled microbial sample. The most prevalent genera were Streptococcus, Lactobacillus , and Staphylococcus . Two participants had a positive growth of Candida albicans . The association between genus group, type of delivery, and feeding practices was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Lactobacillus genus was frequently present in the cesarean delivery group but with slightly higher counts in a vaginal delivery study subject. Exclusively breastfed infants showed presence of Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus . The oral microbiome in infants (0-2 month-old) is highly heterogeneous and dynamic. Microbiota composition seems to be impacted by mode of delivery, with slight differences among groups. Breastmilk appears as an essential factor in maintaining the oral microbiome’s stability and diversity.
  • Influence of awake bruxism behaviors on fatigue of the masticatory muscles in healthy young adults Original Research

    BARRAGÁN NUÑEZ, Maria Isabel; FLORES, Dyanne Medina; DE LA TORRE CANALES, Giancarlo; QUEVEDO, Henrique Müller de; CONTI, Paulo Rodrigues; COSTA, Yuri Martins; BONJARDIM, Leonardo Rigoldi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The present cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the relationship between awake bruxism and fatigue of masticatory muscles in healthy young adults. For this purpose, 121 graduate students participated in this study. Frequency of awake bruxism was collected for 7 consecutive days by ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using an online survey (mentimeter). Muscle fatigue was tested one day after EMA assessment, which consisted of voluntarily and continuously clenching at 30% (kgf/cm2) of maximum bite force (MBF) until exhaustion. The percentage of change in MBF after the clenching task, as compared to the MBF before the clenching task was measured. The average frequency of awake bruxism was 45.5% during 7 days. Sustained clenching resulted in a significant reduction in MBF values in the total sample (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, no significant correlation was found between frequency of awake bruxism behaviors and percent of change in MBF and endurance time during the fatigue test. Therefore, it can be concluded that young healthy adults present a relatively high frequency of awake bruxism behaviors that do not seem to impact the degree of masticatory muscle fatigue.
  • Longitudinal assessment of dental erosion-abrasion by cross-polarization optical coherence tomography in vitro Original Research

    Romero, Maria Jacinta Rosario; Bezerra, Sávio José Cardoso; Fried, Daniel; Lippert, Frank; Eckert, George Joseph; Hara, Anderson Takeo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study tested a novel in vitro dental erosion-abrasion model and the performance of cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) in longitudinally monitoring the simulated lesions. Thirty human enamel specimens were prepared and randomized to receive three dental erosion-abrasion (EA) protocols: severe (s-EA, lemon juice/pH:2.5/4.25%w/v citric acid), moderate (m-EA, grapefruit juice/pH:3.5/1.03%w/v citric acid) and no-EA (water, control). EA challenge was performed by exposing the specimens to acidic solutions 4x/day and to brushing 2x/day with 1:3 fluoridated toothpaste slurry, for 14 days. Enamel thickness measurements were obtained using CP-OCT at baseline (D0), 7 (D7) and 14 days (D14) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) at D14. Enamel surface loss was measured with both CP-OCT and optical profilometry at D0, D7 and D14. Data was analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA and Pearson's correlation (r) (α = 0.05). CP-OCT enamel thickness decreased over time in the s-EA group (D0 >D7 > D14, p < 0.001) and m-EA group (D0 > D14, p = 0.019) but did not change in the no-EA group (p = 0.30). Overall, CP-OCT and micro-CT results at D14 correlated moderately (r = 0.73). CP-OCT surface loss was highest for s-EA (p <0.001) but did not differ between moderate and no-EA (p = 0.25). Enamel surface loss with profilometry increased with severity (no-EA>m-EA>s-EA, p < 0.001). D14 surface loss was higher than D7 for both methods except for the no-EA group with profilometry. CP-OCT and profilometry had moderate overall correlation (r = 0.70). Our results revealed that the currently proposed in vitro dental erosion-abrasion model is valid and could simulate lesions of different severities over time. CP-OCT was a suitable method for monitoring the EA lesions.
  • Health literacy and self-efficacy associations with non-adherence to dental treatment among young adults Original Research

    Morais, Fernanda Dandara Marques Gomes de; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz; Oliveira, Michelli Caroliny de; Moraes, Katarinne Lima; Bulgareli, Jaqueline Vilela

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate associations of health literacy (HL), general self-efficacy (GSE), and sociodemographic variables with non-adherence to dental treatment among Brazilian young adults. This is a cross-sectional study based on a cohort study of 248 young adults aged 19 to 25 years followed up in an earlier study. The participants completed the perceived general self-efficacy scale (GSE), a questionnaire on socioeconomic and demographic variables and were examined for oral conditions. HL was measured using the Brazilian version of the health literacy questionnaire (HLQ-Br), which provides nine individual scores based on an average of the items within each of the nine scales. Dental treatment adherence was evaluated as the decision of young adults to seek a dentist to finish the recommended restorative treatment for dental caries. The effects of HL domains on the adherence to dental treatment were analyzed by logistic regression and the effect was adjusted for sex, age, family income, paternal and maternal education, type of housing, and self-efficacy. The results of the adjusted analysis showed associations among young adults who did not adhere to dental treatment with lower self-efficacy levels, living in non-owner-occupied homes, and lower HL levels in almost all of the HL domains (p < 0.05). Only the HLQ6 domain “Ability to actively engage with healthcare providers” was not associated with the outcome (p>0.05). Adherence to dental treatment in primary care among young adults was associated with their general self-efficacy levels, socioeconomic characteristics, and individual's lower HL aspects.
  • Cost-effectiveness of selective caries removal versus stepwise excavation for deep caries lesions Original Research

    Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo; Decourt, Roberto Frota; Paula, Lilian Marly de; Mestrinho, Heliana Dantas; Maltz, Marisa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract A multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of two treatments for deep caries lesions in permanent molars - selective caries removal (SCR) to soft dentin with restoration in a single visit, and stepwise excavation (SW) - regarding pulp vitality for a 5-year follow-up period. The present study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of these treatments. Treatments were conducted in two Brazilian cities (Brasília and Porto Alegre). At baseline, 299 permanent molars (233 patients) were treated and 229 teeth (174 patients) were evaluated after 5 years. The discounted cash flow method was adopted. The total cost of each treatment was calculated, and the failure cost (endodontic treatment + restoration) was added to the final cost, according to the 5-year failure rates of each therapy (20% for SCR and 44% for SW). A public health service unit composed of three dentists in 4-hour work shifts was used to calculate the monetary value of the treatments, assuming a total of 528 treatments/month. Considering the 229 teeth evaluated after 5 years (115 SCR and 114 SW), SCR provided savings of 43% (amalgam) and 41% (resin composite) per treatment, compared to SW. The SCR technique provides benefits for public finances (direct economy) and for public health services (increase in the number of treatments performed). Considering that maximizing profit and reducing costs are powerful motivating factors for adopting a certain treatment, this study provides data to better support the decision-making process, regarding the management of deep caries lesions in permanent molars.
  • Root coverage with platelet-rich fibrin or connective tissue graft: a split-mouth randomized trial Original Research

    Carrera, Thaisa Macedo Iunes; Machado, Laryssa Moraes; Soares, Marco Thúlio Rocha; Passos, Gustavo Patrício; Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel de; Ribeiro Júnior, Noé Vital; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Pigossi, Suzane Cristina

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This study aimed to compare the use of connective tissue grafts (CTG) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) associated with the tunnel technique (TT) for the treatment of multiple gingival recessions (GR). Fourteen patients with multiple bilateral GR [type 1 recession (RT 1)] in the maxillary incisors, canines, and/or premolars were included. The TT was performed on both sides (split-mouth model); CTG (36 GR) was used on one side, and on the other, PRF (36 GR) was used. Clinical parameters, including recession depth (RD), probing depth, clinical attachment level (CAL), and keratinized gingiva thickness/width (GT/KTW), were obtained at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, and 16 months. Lower RD (0.81 ± 0.68 vs. 1.23 ± 0.71 mm) and CAL (2.54 ± 0.63 vs. 2.73 ± 0.82 mm) were observed for CTG compared to PRF after 16 months. Higher GT was obtained for CTG compared to PRF after 3 (1.81 ± 0.56 vs 1.43 ± 0.47 mm) and 6 months (1.67 ± 0.61 vs. 1.38 ± 0.55 mm, p < 0.05). The recession coverage (RC) was higher for CTG (55.42% ± 37.14) in comparison to PRF (29.53% ± 34.08) after 16 months (p < 0.05). Similarly, CTG presented a more complete coverage of the recession (15; 41.66%) than PRF (9; 24.32%). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of surgery time, postoperative pain, or healing patterns. Greater esthetic satisfaction was obtained with CTG. It was concluded that CTG combined with TT showed clinical and esthetic results superior to those of PRF in multiple GR treatments.
  • Development and validation of the Brazilian Version of Lay Persons’ Social Judgements about Cleft-lip Scale (B-LSojCleft-S) Original Research

    Maia, Ana Carolina Del-Sarto Azevedo; Grimaldi, Débora Evelyn do Amaral; Jural, Lucas Alves; Lima, Stefanni Olga Aguiar Sales; Magno, Marcela Baraúna; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Prado, Fabio Ornellas

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to develop and analyze the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Version of Lay Person's Social Judgement about Cleft-lip Scale (B-LSojCleft-S). A standardized photograph of a 16-year-old girl was manipulated by using photo editing software, to simulate different cleft-lip situations. The cleft-free image was used as a control. The researchers structured an initial questionnaire that was evaluated by experts and a sample of the target population to evaluate the construct. After analysis by the researchers, a final version of the B-LSojCleft-S containing 14 items was generated. Each answer was awarded score from 1 to 3 points, yielding a total score of 14 to 42 points. Higher scores represented better social judgements. The B-LSojCleft-S was applied online to 103 test participants and 73 retest participants with an interval of 20 days between application. Aspects of acceptability, discriminant property, internal consistency, reliability and construct validity were evaluated. Construct validity was assessed using the Friedman test (p < 0.05). Reliability was determined using an intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.70, and internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha > 0.81. The B-LSojCleft-S showed high acceptability, strong discriminant property, excellent internal consistency and reliability, but had a floor and ceiling effect. The instrument reached valid and reliable scores and had acceptable psychometric properties to evaluate the social judgments of lay persons about different cleft lip situations in a Brazilian population.
  • Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on completed treatments and referrals during urgent dental visits Original Research

    Zajkowski, Luciéli Andréia; Scarparo, Roberta Kochenborger; Silva, Heloisa Grehs e; Celeste, Roger Keller; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This ecological study assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on completed treatments (CTs) and referrals during urgent dental visits to primary health care units in Brazil, and their associations with socioeconomic, geodemographic, and pandemic index factors in Brazilian municipalities. The difference in rates of procedures 12 months before and during the pandemic was calculated. Data were extracted at baseline from health information systems of all municipalities that provided urgent dental care (n = 5,229 out of 5,570). Multiple logistic regression predicted the factors associated with referrals and CTs. The number of dental urgencies increased from 3,987.9 to 4,272.4 per 100,000 inhabitants. The rates of referrals decreased in 44.1% of the municipalities, while 53.9% had lower rates of CTs. Municipalities with a greater number of oral health teams in the primary health care system (OR = 1.52, 95%CI:1.21–1.91) and with specialized services (OR = 1.80, 95%CI:1.50–2.16) were more likely to decrease referrals during the pandemic. Higher HDI and GDP per capita were associated with a larger decrease in referrals and smaller decrease in CTs. The calamity generated by the long pandemic period resulted in a greater demand for urgent visits. Less developed and larger cities seem to have been more likely to not complete treatments during urgent visits in primary dental care units in times of calamity. Primary dental care offices in smaller and less developed municipalities should be better equipped to provide appropriate assistance and to improve the problem-solving capacity of dental services during emergencies.
  • Influence of bioactive particles and onium salt on the physicochemical properties of experimental infiltrants Original Research

    Mathias, Caroline; Gomes, Rafael Soares; Pfeifer, Carmem Silvia; Pedreira, Priscila Regis; Damasceno, Janaina Emanuela; Marchi, Giselle Maria

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated physicochemical properties of experimental infiltrants after addition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp) or 58S bioactive glass (BAG) and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate (DPI). The resin matrix was composed of TEGDMA/Bis-EMA (3:1), 0.5 mol% CQ, and 1 mol% EDAB. The blends received or not 0.5 mol% DPI and 10% wt BAG or HAp. Icon was used as commercial control. The groups were characterized by XRD, FT-IR spectrometry, and SEM before and after simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion for up to 7 days. Polymerization kinetics (n =3 ), water sorption and solubility (n=10), and viscosity (n = 3) were surveyed. For polymerization kinetics, the samples were polymerized for 5 min and the data were obtained from 40 s and 5 min. Statistical analysis was made using ANOVA and Tukey's test (a = 0.05). After 7 days of SBF immersion, XRD and FT-IR showed that the HAp crystalline phase was present only in the HAp groups. A lower degree of conversion (DC) and polymerization rate were observed for the Icon and BAG groups, whereas HAp showed higher values. For the BAG group, DPI increased polymerization rate and DC in 40 s. After 5 min, all groups presented DC above 80%. In groups with particles, the HAp groups exhibited higher viscosity, whereas DPI groups showed a decrease in viscosity. Icon had the highest water sorption. To conclude, BAG neither improved the physicochemical properties studied, nor did it show bioactive properties. The addition of DPI reduced viscosity caused by particle addition and also attenuated the DC decrease caused by BAG addition. The addition of bioactive particles to infiltrants should be seen with caution because they increase viscosity and may not bring major clinical improvements that justify their use. DPI might be indicated only if any component is added to the infiltrant to act as a compensation mechanism.
  • Evaluation of trabecular bone changes according to the type of prosthesis in patients using bisphosphonates: a retrospective study Original Research

    Kurşun, Begüm Ünlü; Akan, Ender

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of the study was to retrospectively compare the fractal size values calculated in the trabecular bone according to the type of complete removable denture, removable partial denture, and partial fixed prosthesis between patients using bisphosphonates and healthy patients, retrospectively. Panoramic radiographs of a total of 200 patients, (100 using bisphosphonates,100 control group), were taken from the right and left molar regions before and after treatment with 72 × 72 pixels. The fractal dimension (FD) was computed by using ImageJ Software using the box-counting method on the images obtained. There was an interaction effect between the trabecular bone change-patient group-the type of prosthesis used and the parameters of the area (p < 0.05). In patients using complete removable dentures and removable partial dentures in the maxilla and mandibula in the molar region, a greater decrease in FD values was observed in the control group than in the patient group using bisphosphonates. An increase in FD values over time was observed in the patient group using bisphosphonates with partial fixed maxillary and mandibular prostheses compared to the control group. Partial fixed prostheses should be preferred primarily instead of complete removable or removable partial dentures in patients using bisphosphonates to prevent osteonecrosis due to dental trauma.
  • Parental oral health literacy influences preschool children's utilization of dental services Original Research

    Menoncin, Bruna Leticia Vessoni; Crema, Aline Fabris de Araujo; Ferreira, Fernanda de Morais; Zandoná, Andrea Ferreira; Menezes, Jose Vitor Nogara Borges de; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Parental behavior towards their children's oral health is strongly influenced by parent's Oral Health Literacy (OHL) level. This study evaluated the impact of parental OHL on preschool children's utilization of dental services. A cross-sectional study was conducted with parents of 419 children aged 3 to 5 years who answered a self-administered questionnaire about their perception of their children's oral health and whether their children had already been to a dental visit. Parental OHL level was assessed by the validated version of the Oral Health Literacy Adult Questionnaire (OHL-AQ) translated into Brazilian Portuguese. Univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses with robust variance were used for the data analysis (α = 0.05). Most children had already been to a dental visit (73%). Overall, 31.7% of the parents or guardians reported that their children had experienced dental pain or dental caries. Parental OHL level was classified by tercile as low, medium, and high. The final model showed independent associations between children who had already been to a dental visit and higher parental OHL level (PR = 1.16; 95%CI = 1.00-1.35) when compared to the lowest OHL level, higher parental educational level (PR = 1.39; 95%CI = 1.03–1.87) when compared to lower educational level, the report of children's pain and dental caries (PR = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.09–1.36) and married parents or parents in a common-law marriage (PR = 1.17; 95%CI = 1.03–1.93). The prevalence of children who had already been to a dental visit was higher among those parents with a higher OHL level when compared to those with a lower OHL level.
  • Acquired enamel pellicle protects gastroesophageal reflux disease patients against erosive tooth wear Original Research

    MARTINI, Tatiana; RIOS, Daniela; DIONIZIO, Aline; CASSIANO, Luiza de Paula Silva; SILVA, Cíntia Maria de Souza e; TAIRA, Even Akemi; VENTURA, Talita Mendes Oliveira; CÂMARA, João Victor Frazão; Araujo, Tamara Teodoro; MAGALHÃES, Ana Carolina; CARVALHO, Thiago Saads; BAUMANN, Tommy; LUSSI, Adrian; OLIVEIRA, Ricardo Brandt de; PALMA-DIBB, Regina Guenka; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to compare the protein profile of the acquired enamel pellicle (AEP) formed in vivo in patients with or without gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and with or without erosive tooth wear (ETW). Twenty-four volunteers were divided into 3 groups: 1) GERD and ETW; 2) GERD without ETW; and 3) control (without GERD). The AEP formed 120 min after prophylaxis was collected from the lingual/palatal surfaces. The samples were subjected to mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) and label-free quantification by Protein Lynx Global Service software. A total of 213 proteins were identified, or 119, 92 and 106 from each group, respectively. Group 2 showed a high number of phosphorylated and calcium-binding proteins. Twenty-three proteins were found in all the groups, including 14-3-3 protein zeta/delta and 1-phosphatidylinositol. Several intracellular proteins that join saliva after the exfoliation of oral mucosa cells might have the potential to bind hydroxyapatite, or participate in forming supramolecular aggregates that bind to precursor proteins in the AEP. Proteins might play a central role in protecting the dental surface against acid dissolution.
  • Associations between maternal mental health, child dental anxiety, and oral health of 6- to 12-year-olds in Nigeria Original Research

    ADENIYI, Abiola Adetokunbo; FOLAYAN, Morenike Oluwatoyin; CHUKWUMAH, Nneka Maureen; OZIEGBE, Elizabeth Obhioneh; EL TANTAWI, Maha

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Maternal mental health affects their children’s oral health. This study assessed the associations between maternal mental health and dental anxiety level, dental caries experience, oral hygiene, and gingival status among 6- to 12-year-old children in Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study that recruited mother-child dyad participants through a household survey conducted in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Data collected included the independent (maternal mental health risk, depressive symptoms, and child’s dental anxiety), and dependent (caries experience, oral hygiene status, and gingival health status) variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the associations between dependent and independent variables after adjusting for confounders (mothers’ age, child’s age, sex, and socioeconomic status). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Of the 1411 mothers recruited, 1248 (88.4%) had low mental health risk, and 896 (63.5%) had mild depressive symptoms. As for the children, 53 (3.8%) had caries, 745 (52.8%) had moderate to high dental anxiety, 953 (63.0%) had gingivitis and 36 (2.6%) had poor oral hygiene. The maternal mental health risk was not significantly associated with the child’s caries experience (AOR: 1.012; 95%CI: 0.860–1.190; p = 0.886), poor oral hygiene (AOR:1.037; 95%CI: 0.975–1.104; p=0.250), and moderate/severe gingivitis (AOR:0.887; 95%CI: 0.764–1.030; p = 0.115). Maternal depression status was not significantly associated with the child’s caries experience (AOR: 0.910; 95%CI: 0.802–1.033; p = 0.145), poor oral hygiene (AOR: 1.016; 95%CI: 0.976–1.057; p = 0.439), and moderate/severe gingivitis (AOR: 0.963; 95%CI: 0.861–1.077; p = 0.509). Maternal mental health risk and depression do not seem to be risk factors for schoolchildren’s oral health in Nigeria. Further studies are needed to understand these findings.
  • Association of salivary parameters and erosive tooth wear in preschool children Original Research

    PEREZ, Mayra Manoella; LUS, Ana Clara Magalhães; CAMPOS, Priscila Hernandez; AMARAL, Stella Ferreira do; LUSSI, Adrian; DINIZ, Michele Baffi; GUARÉ, Renata Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aims of this study were to 1) assess the association between erosive tooth wear (ETW) according to the BEWE (Basic Erosive Wear Examination) scoring system and salivary parameters and 2) compare salivary parameters according to ETW severity in the subgroup of children with ETW. This cross-sectional study included 52 preschool children aged 5 years paired by sex. A calibrated examiner assessed ETW using BEWE criteria, and stimulated saliva was collected to determine salivary flow, osmolality, pH, and buffering capacity. The children were divided into two groups: without ETW (n=26; BEWE score 0) and with ETW (n=26; BEWE scores 1 and 2). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the magnitude of the association between ETW and salivary parameters and estimates of odds ratios (OR). In the unadjusted analysis, the ETW group was more likely to have lower salivary flow (OR = 0.079; 95%CI = 0.013–0.469; p = 0.005) and lower osmolality (OR = 0.993; 95%CI = 0.985–1.000; p = 0.049). In the adjusted analysis, salivary flow remained significantly associated with ETW (OR = 0.087; 95%CI = 0.014–0.533; p = 0.008). Lower salivary osmolality values were observed in ETW, especially in preschool children with more severe ETW (BEWE score 2). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) determined a salivary osmolality cutoff point of < 201 for the presence of ETW. In conclusion, salivary flow rate was significantly associated with ETW prevalence. Lower values of salivary osmolality were observed in preschool children with distinct erosive lesions with significant loss of tooth structure (BEWE 2).
  • Impact of social marginalization on oral health-related quality of life in older adults Original Research

    MEDINA GÓMEZ, Oswaldo Sinoe; VILLEGAS LARA, Beatriz; ESCOBEDO DE LA PEÑA, Jorge

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the association between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and social marginalization in people aged 60 years and older enrolled in social security in Mexico. A cross-sectional and analytical study was carried out in older adults. To assess the OHRQoL, the OHIP-14 instrument was applied, and the degree of social marginalization and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed. Measures of central tendency and dispersion, simple frequencies and proportions were estimated. Student’s t-test was used for comparison of means, and prevalence ratio (PR) and logistic regression were used to assess associations, all with a significance value of 0.05 and 95% confidence intervals. Perceived OHRQoL in the population measured through the OHIP-14 reached an average value of 9.84 ± 8.91, with the highest value in the dimension of physical pain (2.06 ± 1.91). Perceived treatment need was higher among people with social marginality (p = 0.011). The multivariate analysis shows that marginalized people have a lower OHRQoL. Socially marginalized older adults showed a low a better perception of OHRQoL, independent of demographic and clinical factors.
  • Effect of whitening toothpastes and activated charcoal powder on enamel wear and surface roughness Original Research

    CARNEIRO, Bruna Tavares; KURY, Matheus; LOPES, Jovana Cacique; GONÇALVES, Rafael Silva; SUZUKI, Thais Yumi Umeda; PICOLO, Mayara Zaghi dal; GIANNINI, Marcelo; ANDRÉ, Carolina Bosso

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate surface roughness (Sa), roughness profile (Rv), and enamel wear after brushing with different whitening toothpastes and charcoal powders. Sixty (n = 10) bovine enamel blocks (6 × 6 × 3 mm) were randomly distributed into six groups according to toothpaste type: regular toothpaste (CONT), toothpaste containing 2% hydrogen peroxide (HP), toothpaste containing titanium dioxide (TiO2), toothpaste containing charcoal (COAL), toothpaste containing charcoal and TiO2 (COAL+TiO2), and activated charcoal powder (COAL_PWD). Each block was subjected to 30,000 reciprocal cycles at a 1:3 proportion slurry. After brushing, the blocks were analyzed using an optical profilometer to determine Sa, Rv, and enamel wear. In addition, representative 3D images of each group and wear profiles were obtained. Sa was analyzed using generalized linear models followed by Bonferroni correction, whereas Rv was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. After brushing, COAL and COAL+TiO2 showed higher Sa values than COAL_PWD. However, no significant difference was observed in Sa between whitening toothpaste and COAL_PWD, and CONT (p > 0.05). In addition, no differences were observed among the groups in Rv (p > 0.05). Conversely, enamel wear was higher for TiO2, COAL, COAL+TiO2, and COAL_PWD than for CONT. CONT showed the least enamel wear, whereas HP showed intermediate values. Representative 3D images and line profiles showed lower step-height and lower mean surface losses for the CONT and HP groups than for the other groups. Whitening toothpastes and COAL_PWD did not increase Sa or Rv compared with CONT, while CONT demonstrated lower enamel wear.
  • Impact of access cavities on root canal preparation, restorative protocol quality, and fracture resistance of teeth Original Research

    PRADO, Heitor Silva; PETEAN, Igor Bassi Ferreira; FRANCO, Natália Junqueira Saud; CAMARGO, Rafael Verardino; CARVALHO, Kleber Kildare Teodoro de; MAZZI-CHAVES, Jardel Francisco; LOPES-OLHÊ, Fabiane Carneiro; SILVA-SOUSA, Yara Teresinha Corrêa; SOUZA-GABRIEL, Aline Evangelista; SOUSA-NETO, Manoel Damião

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The survival of endodontically treated teeth depends on the remaining tooth structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different access cavities on root canal preparation, restorative protocol, and fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Fifty-six mandibular molars were divided into control (n=8) and experimental (n=16) groups according to access cavity: Traditional, Conservative, and Truss; and redistributed (n=8) according to instrumentation protocols: Reciproc Blue and R-motion. After, teeth were scanned in micro-CT and then filled and redistributed according to composite resin restoration (n=8): Filtek One BulkFill and Filtek Z350. A new micro-CT scan was performed to analyze the restorative material. Then, samples were submitted to fracture resistance testing and the failure pattern was determined. Data were analyzed using paired T-test, ANOVA, Tukey, and chi-square tests (α=0.05). In Truss, R-Motion promoted less transportation in different thirds of root canals. Higher percentages of voids (5.05%) and filling material (11.7%) were observed in Truss. Fracture resistance values were higher for the control group, followed by Truss, Conservative, and Traditional. The predominant failure pattern was type-II. In Truss, reciprocating instruments with smaller taper showed less canal transportation. Also, Truss provided higher values of fracture resistance, although it presented a higher percentage of voids and remaining filling material. Thus, in Truss, reciprocating files with smaller taper showed less canal transportation, and these cavities provided higher values of fracture resistance, although it presented a higher percentage of voids and remaining filling material.
  • Improvement on oral health related quality of life after orthosurgical treatment: a mixed methods study Original Research

    FOLCHINI, Stella; MARONEZE, Marília Cunha; JUNG, Letícia Bohn; ARDENGHI, Diego Machado; SCHEFFER, Miguel Angelo Ribeiro; MARQUEZAN, Mariana; FERRAZZO, Vilmar Antônio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to understand the influence of orthosurgical treatment on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patients with Class II and III skeletal malocclusion by conducting a mixed method case series study. Nineteen patients submitted to orthosurgical treatment in a private practice in Brazil were included in the sample. Data were collected retrospectively and interviews were held from March 2020 to July 2021. Patients answered to the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) in the first part of the interview and subsequently answered the qualitative questions. The overall mean of OHIP-14 after treatment was 4.21 (SD 4.68). The qualitative data were analyzed according to thematic analysis and four themes emerged from the interviews: a) concept of quality of life, b) pre-treatment life, c) post-treatment life, and d) positive and negative aspects of treatment. Quality of Life was reported by the patients as the absence of feeling pain, having emotional and physical health, having a satisfactory esthetic appearance and self-esteem. Before treatment, most Class II patients used to complain about breathing and sleeping problems, while Class III patients complained more intensely about esthetics. Pain was a common problem reported by both Class II and Class III patients. In general, improvement was perceived in self-esteem, esthetics, function and pain. Complaints about negative aspects of the treatment were restricted to the postoperative period. The orthosurgical treatment was important for improving the OHRQoL of patients in terms of esthetic, functional and psychosocial aspects.
  • A retrospective multicenter study of oral and maxillofacial lesions in older people Original Research

    CUNHA, John Lennon Silva; CAVALCANTE, Israel Leal; RODRIGUES, Ana Beatriz Rocha; CATÃO, Niely Enetice de Sousa; CRUZ, Vitória Maria Sousa; TURATTI, Eveline; CAVALCANTE, Roberta Barroso; FONSECA, Felipe Paiva; GORDÓN-NÚÑEZ, Manuel Antonio; ALVES, Pollianna Muniz; NONAKA, Cassiano Francisco Weege; ANDRADE, Bruno Augusto Benevenuto de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Few studies on the distribution of oral diseases in older people are available in the literature. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and demographic characteristics of oral and maxillofacial lesions in geriatric patients (age ≥ 60 years). A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study was performed. Biopsy records were obtained from archives of three Brazilian oral pathology centers over a 20-year period. Data on sex, age, anatomical site, skin color, and histopathological diagnosis were collected and analyzed. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to evaluate differences in the frequency of the different oral and maxillofacial lesion groups. A total of 7,476 biopsy records of older patients were analyzed. Most cases were diagnosed in patients aged 60 to 69 years (n = 4,487; 60.0%). Females were more affected (n = 4,403; 58.9%) with a female-to-male ratio of 1:0.7 (p < 0.001). The tongue (n = 1,196; 16.4%), lower lip (n = 1,005; 13.8%), and buccal mucosa (n = 997; 13.7%) were the most common anatomical sites. Reactive and inflammatory lesions (n = 3,840; 51.3%) were the most prevalent non-neoplastic pathologies (p < 0.001), followed by cysts (n = 475; 6.4%). Malignant neoplasms were more frequent (n = 1,353; 18.1%) than benign neoplasms (n = 512; 6.8%). Fibrous/fibroepithelial hyperplasia (n = 2,042; 53.2%) (p < 0.001) and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1,191; 88.03%) (p < 0.001) were the most common oral lesions in older adults. Biopsy data allow the accurate characterization of the prevalence of oral and maxillofacial lesions, supporting the development of public health policies that can enable the prevention, early diagnosis, and appropriate treatment of these lesions. Also, they bring valuable information that helps dentists and geriatricians diagnose these diseases.
  • Effect of micro-CT acquisition parameters and individual analysis on the assessment of bone repair Original Research

    IRIE, Milena Suemi; SPIN-NETO, Rubens; TEIXEIRA, Lucas Henrique Souza; RABELO, Gustavo Davi; REIS, Nayara Teixeira de Araújo; SOARES, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate whether two acquisition parameters, voxel size and filter thickness, used in a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scan, together with the examiner’s experience, influence the outcome of bone repair analysis in an experimental model. Bone defects were created in rat tibiae and scanned using two voxel sizes of 6- or 12-µm and two aluminum filter thickness of 0.5- or 1-mm. Then, bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) were analyzed twice by two groups of operators: experienced and inexperienced examiners. For BV/TV, no significant differences were found between scanning voxel sizes of 6 and 12 µm for the experienced examiners; however, for the inexperienced examiners, the analysis performed using a 12-µm voxel size resulted in higher BV/TV values (32.4 and 32.9) than those acquired using a 6-µm voxel size (25.4 and 24.8) (p < 0.05). For Tb.Th, no significant differences between the analyses performed by experienced and inexperienced groups were observed when using the 6-µm voxel size. However, inexperienced examiners’ analysis revealed higher Tb.Th values when using the 12-µm voxel size compared with 6 µm (0.05 vs. 0.03, p < 0.05). Filter thickness had no influence on the results of any group. In conclusion, voxel size and operator experience affected the measured Tb.Th and BV/TV of a region with new bone formation. Operator experience in micro-CT analysis is more critical for BV/TV than for Tb.Th, whereas voxel size significantly affects Tb.Th evaluation. Operators in the initial phases of research training should be calibrated for bone assessments.
  • Does bullying due to oral conditions influence cigarette smoking in adolescents? A structural equation modeling Original Research

    BRONDANI, Bruna; KNORST, Jessica Klöckner; AGOSTINI, Bernardo Antonio; RAMADAN, Yassmín Hêllwaht; MENDES, Fausto Medeiros; ARDENGHI, Thiago Machado

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to explore the pathways that can influence cigarette smoking among adolescents. This population-based cohort followed a random sample of 12-year-old adolescents from southern Brazil for 6 years. Regular cigarette smoking was assessed through a self-reported question, previously used in the Brazilian National Survey of Scholar Health. We also gathered data on bullying, dental caries at baseline, incidence of caries, sex, friend network, and Sense of Coherence (SOC). Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics were also collected. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the pathways. Of the 1,134 adolescents examined at baseline, 768 were re-evaluated (67.7% retention rate). The prevalence of smoking was 37.6%. This prevalence was directly affected by low SOC (SC: -0.14, p < 0.01), low household income (SC: -0.12, p < 0.01), and male sex (SC: 0.15, p < 0.01). Presence of dental caries at baseline indirectly influenced the occurrence of dental bullying at follow-up via the incidence of dental caries (SC: 0.01, p < 0.05). Dental bullying indirectly influenced cigarettes consumption via SOC (SC: 0.62, p < 0.05). Friend network also indirectly influenced the consumption of cigarettes via SOC (SC: 0.32, p < 0.05). Psychosocial factors influence adolescent cigarette consumption through its higher direct and indirect effects (via bullying). In addition, behavioral, sociodemographic, and clinical factors also influence the occurrence of smoking.
  • Level of natural fluoride in public water supply: geographical and meteorological factors in Brazil’s Northeast Original Research

    ROMÃO, Maria Eliza Dantas Bezerra; FORTE, Franklin Delano Soares; FRAZÃO, Paulo; SAMPAIO, Fábio Correia; NUNES, Jocianelle Maria Félix Fernandes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study analyzed the relationships between the concentration of natural fluoride in public water supply and meteorological and hydrographic factors in a northeastern region of Brazil. This was a descriptive, analytical, ecological, longitudinal, and field study conducted by collecting water in 23 municipalities (2019 to 2020) of four macroregions of Paraíba (Brazil): coast (1), borborema (2), agreste (3), and outback (4). Four collection sites were selected per municipality: two near and two distant from the water treatment plant. Fluoride concentration was determined using a combined ion-specific electrode and classified according to the Collaborating Center of the Ministry of Health in Oral Health Surveillance. Meteorological, hydrographic, and population characteristics were also collected. All analyzed samples showed natural fluoride; macroregions 2 and 4 showed the highest mean fluoride concentration, macroregion 4 presented the highest mean temperature, and all macroregions showed a similar pattern of precipitation. The mean fluoride concentration of the four macroregions was below the appropriate value to prevent caries. An increase in precipitation would decrease the fluoride concentration in water. In conclusion, the concentration of natural fluoride varied according to meteorological and hydrographic factors. The concentration in surface waters increased during periods of low precipitation. Therefore, this study provided important information to support implementation of community water fluoridation in this region.
  • Diamond–coated ultrasonic tip decreases debris and uninstrumented surface after preparation of curved canals with isthmus Original Research

    GIOSTER–RAMOS, Maria Luiza; PIVOTO–JOÃO, Mariana Mena Barreto; PINTO, Jáder Camilo; GUERREIRO–TANOMARU, Juliane Maria; TANOMARU–FILHO, Mário

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate root canal preparation with nickel titanium rotary instruments and complementary preparation with ultrasonic tip in curved canals of mandibular molars with isthmus. Twenty–eight mesial roots of mandibular molars with curvature between 20° and 40° and presence of isthmus throughout the entire extension of the root canals were prepared using ProDesign Logic CM (PDL) up to size 40.05, or HyFlex EDM (HFEDM) up to size 40.04. Complementary preparation was performed in the isthmus region using the ultrasonic insert E18D (Helse, Istmo Diamantada). The root canals were scanned using micro–CT (SkyScan 1176) at 9 µm voxel size before and after each preparation step. Transportation, percentage of increase in volume, debris and uninstrumented surface (UNS) were evaluated. Mann Whitney, Wilcoxon, paired and non–paired t–tests were used for statistical analysis (α = 0.05). The canals prepared with PDL and HFEDM obtained similar results for all the variables assessed before using E18D (p > 0.05). E18D significantly decreased the percentage of debris and UNS values in both Groups (p < 0.05). The complementary preparations with E18D caused a smaller quantity of debris in the isthmus of the canals previously prepared with PDL in comparison with HFEDM (p < 0.05). PDL and HFEDM provided similar root canal preparation. PDL promoted a smaller quantity of Debris in the isthmus than HFEDM after using E18D. E18D significantly improved cleaning, and reduced Debris and UNS.
  • Clarity of publications on HPV in Instagram profiles of official health agencies in Brazil Original Research

    NUNES, Wanúbia Barbosa; FIRMINO, Ramon Targino; MARINHO, Angélica Maria Cupertino Lopes; BARRETO, Lílian de Sá; SOUSA, Myrelle Leal Campos; SILVA, Samara Ellen da; COSTA, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; PERAZZO, Matheus França; GRANVILLE-GARCIA, Ana Flávia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The study analyzed the clarity of publications on human papillomavirus (HPV) in the Instagram profiles of official Brazilian health agencies. An infodemiological study analyzed publications on HPV in the 81 Instagram profiles selected from the Health Ministry, States’ Health Departments, and dental councils and associations. The following data were collected: classification of content, type of profiles, type of media, how the content was addressed, number of posts, frequency, likes, comments, viewings, and hashtags, and how the HPV vaccine was addressed. The clarity of the educational publications was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Clear Communication Index (BR-CDC-CCI). Data analysis was performed with Spearman’s correlation and the Mann-Whitney test (p < 0.05). A total of 504 publications on HPV were found. The average number of likes was 528.3 (SD = 2388.2) and the average BR-CDC-CCI score was 67.1 (SD = 14.1). The quality and clarity of the information was considered adequate (BR-CDC-CCI score ≥ 90) in 6.9% of the publications. A weak positive correlation was found between the number of likes and both the BR-CDC-CCI score (r = 0.195) and number of posts (r = 0.124). Publications from the Health Ministry had a significantly higher BR-CDC-CCI score (72.9) compared to the other profiles analyzed (p = 0.01). Most publications concerned government actions, had low engagement, and written educational information was of low clarity and quality. However, the effort to reach the population was evident, with an increase in publications over the years.
  • Early-life sugar consumption and breastfeeding practices: a multicenter initiative in Latin America Original Research

    FELDENS, Carlos Alberto; ALVAREZ, Licet; ACEVEDO, Ana María; CEPEDA, Veronica; CHIRIFE, Maria Teresa; GÁLVEZ, Carmen Aminta; DEZAN-GARBELINI, Cássia; GUDIÑO-FERNÁNDEZ, Sylvia; MARTIGNON, Stefania; PÉREZ, Vidal; PAIVA, Saul Martins; ZAMBRANO, Olga; ZELADA, Diana; VILLENA, Rita

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this multicenter study was to explore the early-life sugar consumption and dietary practices in Latin America as well as to investigate the association between breastfeeding duration and the age at which foods and beverages with added sugars are introduced. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 805 1- to 3-year-old children from 10 Latin American countries, as a complementary study to the Research Observatory for Dental Caries of the Latin American Region (OICAL). A Food Frequency Questionnaire previously tested in different countries was applied to children’s mothers and data on breastfeeding and age at introduction of sugary foods and beverages was collected. Statistical analysis included the Kruskal-Wallis test and Poisson regression with robust variance, with the calculation of crude and adjusted mean ratios (MR) and 95% of confidence intervals (CI). The average age at introduction of sugary foods and beverages was 10.1 months (95%CI 9.7–10.4) and 9.6 (95%CI 9.2–9.9) months, respectively, with a significant variation between countries (p < 0.001). The average daily frequency of sugary foods-beverages was 3.3 times per day (95%CI 3.1–3.5) and varied significantly between countries (p = 0.004). Breastfeeding duration of over six months was associated with an increase in the age of introduction of sweet drinks (16%; MR 1.16; 95%CI 1.05–1.28) and foods (21%; MR 1.21; 95%CI 1.10–1.33). In conclusion, most children from vulnerable settings in Latin America start consuming sugary products in the first year of life and a high frequency of consumption was reported through early childhood. Additionally, breastfeeding contributes to a delay in the introduction of sugary products.
  • Predictors associated with malocclusion in children with and without sleep disorders: a cross-sectional study Original Research

    GRANJA, Gélica Lima; LEAL, Tiago Ribeiro; LIMA, Larissa Chaves Morais de; SILVA, Samara Ellen da; NEVES, Érick Tássio Barbosa; FERREIRA, Fernanda Morais; GRANVILLE-GARCIA, Ana Flávia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors of malocclusion in Brazilian schoolchildren eight to ten years of age based on a causal directed acyclic graph model. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 739 schoolchildren eight to ten years of age. Parents/guardians provided information on sleep disorders of the child (Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children) and family characteristics (Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale). The diagnosis of malocclusion was performed by four trained examiners using the Dental Aesthetic Index. Control variables were selected using a directed acyclic graph. Descriptive analysis was performed, followed by robust logistic regression analysis for complex samples (α = 5%). The following variables were associated with malocclusion in the final model: sleep disorders (OR = 2.61; 95%CI: 2.43–2.86), mouth breathing (OR = 1.04; 95%CI: 1.02–1.99), non-nutritive sucking habits (OR = 2.45; 95%CI: 2.37–4.85), and obesity (OR = 1.54; 95%CI: 1.02–2.33). Sociodemographic characteristics, family functioning, and premature tooth loss did not remain associated with malocclusion. Sleep disorders, mouth breathing, sucking habits, and obesity are predictors of malocclusion in schoolchildren eight to ten years of age.
  • Clinicopathologic analysis of oral dermoid and epidermoid cysts: a Brazilian multicenter study Original Research

    CUNHA, John Lennon Silva; ANDRADE, Allany de Oliveira; CAVALCANTE, Israel Leal; BARROS, Caio César da Silva; SOUSA NETO, Sebastião Silvério de; BARROS, Joyce Magalhães de; LEITE, Larissa Sandy da Silva; FÉLIX, Fernanda Aragão; TURATTI, Eveline; CARVALHO, Francisco Samuel Rodrigues; SOUSA, Sílvia Ferreira de; MENDONÇA, Elismauro Francisco de; ANBINDER, Ana Lia; PIRES, Fábio Ramoa; ALVES, Pollianna Muniz; NONAKA, Cassiano Francisco Weege; ANDRADE, Bruno Augusto Benevenuto de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dermoid cysts (DCs) and epidermoid cysts (ECs) are uncommon developmental cysts affecting the oral cavity. This study aims to evaluate patients with oral DCs and ECs and their demographic and clinicopathologic features. A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 105,077 biopsy records of oral and maxillofacial lesions from seven Brazilian oral pathology centers were analyzed. All cases diagnosed as oral DCs and ECs were reviewed, and clinical, demographic, and histopathological data were collected. The series comprised 32 DCs (31.4%) and 70 ECs (68.6%). Most of the DCs occurred on the floor of the mouth (n = 14; 45.2%) of women (n = 17; 53.1%) with a mean age of 34.6 ± 21.6 years. All DCs were lined partially or entirely by stratified squamous epithelium (100%). Chronic inflammatory cells, melanin pigmentation, multinucleated giant cell reaction, and cholesterol clefts were observed in the fibrous capsule . Most of the ECs affected the labial mucosa (n = 20; 31.7%) of men (n = 39; 56.5%) with a mean age of 48.0±19.8 years. Microscopically, most ECs (n = 68; 97.1%) were lined entirely by stratified squamous epithelium. Two cysts (2.9%) showed areas of respiratory metaplasia. Chronic inflammatory cells, melanin pigmentation, multinucleated giant cell reaction, and cholesterol clefts were also observed in the fibrous capsule. Conservative surgical excision was the treatment of choice in all cases. Oral DCs and ECs are uncommon and often clinically misdiagnosed lesions. Clinicians should consider DCs and ECs in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions in the oral cavity, mainly located on the floor of the mouth and labial mucosa.
  • Social capital and possible bruxism during the COVID-19 pandemic among Brazilian undergraduates Original Research

    EMMANUELLI, Bruno; ARAUJO, Gabriela de; KNORST, Jessica Klockner; TAGLIARI, Camila Vieira da Cunha; BALDISSERA, Bruna Slomp; TUCHTENHAGEN, Simone

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study investigated the prevalence of possible bruxism and its association with social capital among undergraduates during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a private university in Southern Brazil. Data were collected through a self-administered electronic questionnaire (Google Forms). Possible bruxism was measured using the following question: “Do you grind your teeth or clench your jaws?”. Social capital was evaluated using individual social networks. Data on self-perceived oral health, anxiety, sociodemographics, and information related to university graduates were also collected. Adjusted logistic regression models with a hierarchical approach were used to evaluate associations. The results are presented as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). Altogether, 345 undergraduates participated in the study, with a mean age of 21.8 years (standard deviation = 5.21). The prevalence of bruxism in the sample was 57.1%. Undergraduates with low social capital had 2.06 times greater odds of bruxism than their counterparts (OR 2.06; 95%CI 1.11–3.83). Female undergraduates (OR 2.40, 95%CI 1.39–4.12), those who were in the final year of university (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.04–1.21), and those who perceived they needed dental treatment (OR 1.91; CI: 1.21–3.02) also had greater odds of possible bruxism. In conclusion, the prevalence of possible bruxism was high among undergraduate students during the COVID-19 pandemic and associated with lower social capital levels. Knowledge of these factors is important to identify risk groups and plan strategies to control bruxism in this population.
  • Cortical microarchitecture and remodeling-associated gene expression related to oral cancer prognosis Original Research

    LOPES, Daniella Guedes de Figueiredo; PATRICIO, Érica Fernanda; ASSIS, Neuza Maria Souza Picorelli; COUTINHO-CAMILLO, Cláudia Malheiros; ALVES, Fabio de Abreu; KOWALSKI, Luiz Paulo; JÄHN-RICKERT, Katharina; BUSSE, Björn; RABELO, Gustavo Davi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the remodeling-associated gene expression in the mandible of patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), investigating the cortical microarchitecture, and their influence on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates. A total of twenty-four patients who underwent mandibulectomy for OSCC treatment had two bone fragments harvested from the mandible for gene expression (RANK, RANKL, OPG, and SOST), and microarchitecture analysis, including bone volume, surface, mineral density, degree of anisotropy, and fractal dimension. The prognosis of the patients was assessed. The results revealed that RANK, RANKL, and SOST were predominantly downregulated, while OPG was completely downregulated. Tumors located adjacent to the posterior region of the mandible (p = 0.02), with a bone mineral density below 1.03 g/cm3 HA (p = 0.001), and a bone volume less than 86.47% (p = 0.03) were associated with poor outcomes. In conclusion, bone-remodeling-associated genes exhibited downregulation in the cortex of the mandible in OSCC patients. Additionally, the tumor’s location within the mandible, bone volume, and cortical bone mineral density were identified as factors impacting DFS.
  • Factors associated with periodontal diseases in pregnancy: Findings of the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study Original Research

    OLIVEIRA, Luisa Jardim Corrêa de; CADEMARTORI, Mariana Gonzalez; SFREDDO, Camila Silveira; SILVEIRA, Mariângela Freitas da; BARROS, Fernando Celso; CORREA, Marcos Britto; DEMARCO, Flávio Fernando

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Although periodontal disease is common during pregnancy, little is known about socioeconomic, behavioral, or biological determinants related to clinically assessed periodontal condition during this period. We assessed the prevalence of periodontal disease and associated factors in pregnant women. This population-based survey used data used from the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Brazil. Pregnant women expected to give birth between December 2014 and May 2016 were interviewed and clinically examined by trained dentist, with periodontal measures collected in all teeth, six sites per tooth. Outcomes were periodontitis (using the 2012 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology criteria) and gingivitis (by the 2018 European Federation of Periodontology/ American Academy of Periodontology classification). Multivariate hierarchical Poisson regression was used to assess the associations between socioeconomic, systemic, and clinical oral factors and periodontal disease. A total of 2,474 pregnant women participated in the study. Prevalence of periodontitis and gingivitis was 14.63% and 21.67%, respectively. Lower educational level and calculus were associated with higher prevalence periodontitis and gingivitis (P<0.05). Smoking was also associated with periodontitis (P=0.05), and lower frequency of toothbrushing (P=0.005) with gingivitis. Periodontal disease, especially gingivitis, was prevalent in pregnant women and their determinants were socioeconomic, environmental, and clinical oral health factors.
  • Association between dental environment stress and sense of coherence in dental students: a cross-sectional study Original Research

    FERNANDEZ, Matheus dos Santos; CASARIN, Maísa; ORTIZ, Fernanda Ruffo; MUNIZ, Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore associated variables with sense of coherence (SOC), and dental environment stress (DES) in a sample of dental students. All undergraduate (n = 474) and graduate (n = 105) dental students enrolled in the first semester of 2020 at a public university in southern Brazil were invited to participate. Data collection was performed by an online questionnaire, which included information related to sociodemographic and educational characteristics, biopsychosocial factors, aspects related to feelings experienced in the COVID-19 pandemic, and the SOC scale. The study outcome (DES) was measured by a validated tool. Linear regression analyses were performed to identify the associations between the outcome and all independent variables. A total of 408 students were included (response rate: 70.5%). The overall mean score of the DES scale was 73.95 (SD: 24.13). Students with higher SOC scores were observed to have significantly lower DES scores (βGRADUATE: -0.376; 95%: -0.482 to -0.271; βUNDERGRADUATE: -0.478; 95%:-0.658 to -0.297). Female undergraduate students (β: 11.788; 95%CI: 7.161–16.415) had higher DES scores compared with undergraduate male students. In addition, the presence of anxiety symptoms when providing dental care to patients with symptoms or suspected COVID-19 infection was associated with higher DES scores (β: 10.460; 95%CI: 5.644–15.277) among undergraduate dental students. The level of stress was higher in non-white undergraduate students than white (β: 8.912; 95%CI: 3.581–14.244). Among both undergraduate and graduate dental students, higher SOC scores were associated with lower DES.
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibition enhances mineral nodule formation by cementoblasts in vitro Original Research

    ABDALLA, Henrique; STORINO, Rafael; BANDEIRA, Amanda; TEIXEIRA, Lucas; MILLÁS, Ana; LISBOA-FILHO, Paulo; KANTOVITZ, Kamila; NOCITI JUNIOR, Francisco

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate whether GSK-3 inhibition (CHIR99021) effectively promoted mineralization by cementoblasts (OCCM-30). OCCM-30 cells were used and treated with different concentrations of CHIR99021 (2.5, 5, and 10 mM). Experiments included proliferation and viability, cellular metabolic activity, gene expression, and mineral nodule formation by Xylene Orange at the experimental time points. In general, CHIR99021 did not significantly affect OCCM-30 viability and cell metabolism (MTT assay) (p > 0.05), but increased OCCM-30 proliferation at 2.5 mM on days 2 and 4 (p < 0.05). Data analysis further showed that inhibition of GSK-3 resulted in increased transcript levels of Axin2 in OCCM-30 cells starting as early as 4 h, and regulated the expression of key bone markers including alkaline phosphatase (Alp), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2), osteocalcin (Ocn), and osterix (Osx). In addition, CHIR99021 led to an enhanced mineral nodule formation in vitro under both osteogenic and non-osteogenic conditions as early as 5 days after treatment. Altogether, the results of the current study suggest that inhibition of GSK-3 has the potential to promote cementoblast differentiation leading to increased mineral deposition in vitro.
  • Sense of coherence and oral health-related quality of life among southern Brazilian male adolescents Original Research

    LOCK, Nicássia Cioquetta; GAZOLA, Maria Laura Castro Alves Ribeiro; MARQUEZAN, Patrícia Kolling; ZENKNER, Julio Eduardo do Amaral; ALVES, Luana Severo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study evaluated the association between sense of coherence (SoC) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among conscripts of the Brazilian Army, in two cities of southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study included all 18-19-year-old adolescents who joined the Brazilian Army as draftees for mandatory military service in the cities of Itaqui, RS, and Santiago, RS (n = 505). Data collection was conducted from 2019 to 2021, and included the application of questionnaires and a clinical oral examination to record gingivitis, malocclusion, and dental caries. OHRQoL was collected through the Brazilian short version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP), composed of 14 questions. The adolescents’ SoC was assessed using the validated Brazilian version of the SOC-13 scale. The primary outcome of this study was OHRQoL, modeled as a discrete variable (OHIP-14 scores). The main predictor variable was SoC, categorized as low, moderate, or high. The association between predictor variables and OHRQoL was assessed by Poisson regression models using a hierarchical approach. Unadjusted and adjusted rate ratios (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. All the analyses were performed using STATA software version 14.2. Adolescents with a moderate and high SoC had 27% (RR = 0.73, 95%CI = 0.64–0.84) and 51% (RR = 0.49, 95%CI = 0.41–0.58) lower mean OHIP-14 scores, respectively, than those with a low SoC score, after the inclusion of behavioral and clinical variables. This study showed a significant association between SoC and OHRQoL among 18–19-year-old southern Brazilian adolescents. Strengthening the SoC as a psychosocial resource may improve the well-being and OHRQoL of adolescents.
  • Effect of thickness and shade of CAD/CAM composite on the light transmission from different light-curing units Original Research

    MAZÃO, Julia Dantas; RIBEIRO, Maria Tereza Hordones; BRAGA, Stella Sueli Lourenço; ZANCOPÉ, Karla; PRICE, Richard Bengt; SOARES, Carlos José

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The thickness and shade of a restoration will affect the transmission of light from the light-curing unit (LCU). This study determined the power (mW), spectral radiant power (mW/nm), and beam profile of different LCUs through various thicknesses and shades of a CAD-CAM resin composite (BRAVA Block, FGM). Five thicknesses: 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; 1.5, and 2.0 mm, in three shades: Bleach; A2 and A3.5 of a CAD-CAM resin (n = 5). Two single-peak LCUs: EL, Elipar DeepCure-S (3M Oral Care); and OP, Optilight Max (Gnatus), and one multiple-peak LCU: VL, VALO Grand (Ultradent), were used. The LCUs were positioned touching the surface of the BRAVA Block. The power and emission spectrum were measured using a fiberoptic spectrometer attached to an integrating sphere, and the beam profiles using a laser beam profiler. The effect of the material thickness on the light attenuation coefficients was determined. VL and EL delivered more homogeneous beam profiles than OP. The type of the BRAVA Block had a significant effect on the transmitted power, and wavelengths of transmitted light (p < 0.001). There was an exponential reduction in the power and emission spectrum as the thickness of the BRAVA Block increased (p < 0.001). The light transmission through the A2 shade was least affected by the thickness (p < 0.001). The attenuation coefficient was higher for the violet light and higher for A3.5 than the A2 or Bleach shades. No violet light from the VL could be detected at the bottom of 2.0 mm of the BRAVA Block.
  • Effect of systemic administration of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 on apical periodontitis Original Research

    ARAUJO, Lisa Danielly Curcino; SEGATO, Raquel Assed Bezerra; REIS, Thaís de Paula Colen; SALVADOR, Sérgio Luis de Souza; FURLANETO, Flávia Aparecida Chaves; MESSORA, Michel Reis; NELSON-FILHO, Paulo; ALMEIDA, Lana Kei Yamamoto de; LUCISANO, Marília Pacífico; SILVA, Clara Marina Pereira Cavalcanti; SILVA, Léa Assed Bezerra da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) HN019 in drinking water on the development of apical periodontitis (AP) in rats. In total 60 animals were divided into a control group (sound teeth); Group I - regular water without AP; Group II - probiotic water without AP; Group III - regular water with AP; Group IV - probiotic water with AP. AP was induced after 3 days in the control groups and after 7, 21, and 42 days in groups III and IV. The animals were euthanized, and the mandibles were subjected to histotechnical processing. Samples were stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) to identify root canal features, apical and periapical regions. Additionally, histoenzymology was performed to detect osteoclasts, immunohistochemistry was used to identify osteoclastogenesis markers, and the Brown & Brenn technique was applied for microbiological analysis. The data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism 8.0.1 with a significance level of 5%. Although no statistical differences were observed, the groups administered with probiotics showed better conditions in terms of histological aspects seen microscopically. Furthermore, there were no differences in the number of osteoclasts (p > 0.05). The RANKL marker was not found in the probiotic group at 42 days, unlike in group III.
  • COVID-19 and changes in dental practices in the Brazilian Public Health System: perception of the oral health team Original Research

    MOIMAZ, Suzely Adas Saliba; NASCIMENTO, Carolina Carvalho Menez Pinto; SALIBA, Tânia Adas; GARBIN, Cléa Adas Saliba; SALIBA, Nemre Adas

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to verify the perception of the oral health team regarding work safety and aspects related to changes in dental practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. A descriptive, exploratory, quantitative, and qualitative cross-sectional study was conducted using an electronic questionnaire sent via email to health professionals (n = 197) affiliated with the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS), from December 2020 to September 2021, in a municipality located in the northeast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The variables of interest were sociodemographic characteristics and those related to the professionals’ perception of oral health care during the pandemic and its impact on these workers’ occupational safety. Descriptive statistics were performed, and the absolute and relative frequencies of quantitative variables were calculated, whereas lexical analysis was performed for textual content using the descending hierarchical classification (CHD). Out of the total sample, elective and urgent/emergency care was provided by 58.95% (n = 56); physical barriers were absent between the teams in 54.74% (n = 52); minimally invasive techniques were applied in 71.58% (n = 68); personal protective equipment (PPE) was replaced in 81.05% (n = 77) between appointments; and occupational safety was reported by 49.47% (n = 47). Textual analysis showed a decrease in appointments and consultations, with a longer interval between appointments. The professionals noticed changes in dental practices during the pandemic, mainly regarding the use of PPE, the type of treatment performed, the number of treated patients, and the greater time interval between consultations. The physical infrastructure of health units and the availability of PPE to patients needed some adjustments. A significant number of workers felt safe in providing dental care during the pandemic.
  • Virtual learning object about oral ulcerative lesions: controlled educational intervention study Original Research

    ZIEGER, Renata de Almeida; HUGO, Fernando Neves; THIEME, Stéfanie; JARDIM, Luisa Comerlato; KUPSTAITIS, Lorenzo Costa; FRICHEMBRUDER, Karla; WAGNER, Vivian Petersen; CARRARD, Vinicius Coelho; MARTINS, Manoela Domingues; MARTINS, Marco Antonio Trevizani

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a virtual learning object (VLO) to teach undergraduate dental students about the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to oral ulcerative lesions. The VLO was developed with information on the diagnostic process, lesion classification, and clinical-surgical management of oral ulcerative lesions. The VLO content was initially validated by a group of specialists. Learning was evaluated in a sample of 58 undergraduate dental students, divided into control group (conventional theoretical class, n = 29) and intervention group (interaction with VLO, n = 29). All students answered a pre-test and post-test questionnaire. The VLO group also answered a specific questionnaire on the evaluation of the VLO. Both quantitative and qualitative descriptive analyses were performed. The validation showed that professors and students considered the VLO adequate. The use of the VLO was recommended by 100% of professors and 86.6% of students. In the intervention group, the results showed a significantly higher number of correct answers in the post-test (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the VLO proved to be a useful tool for teaching oral medicine, contributing significantly to the knowledge of ulcerated lesions in the mouth.
  • Toothpaste-related interests of Google users from different countries Original Research/behavior Science

    DI PROFIO, Bruna; LOTTO, Matheus; AGUIRRE, Patricia Estefania Ayala; VILLAR, Cristina Cunha; ROMITO, Giuseppe Alexandre; BRAGA, Mariana Minatel; CRUVINEL, Thiago; PANNUTI, Cláudio Mendes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Internet is a growing source of knowledge and can provide information about oral health. This ecological study aimed to characterize the interests in toothpaste among Google users from different countries. Our hypothesis was that there would be an increase in Google users’ interest in information about toothpaste. This retrospective longitudinal ecological study analyzed the toothpaste-related interest of Google users from 10 countries between January 2004 and December 2020. The monthly variation in relative search volume (RSV) and the main related queries were determined using Google Trends. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) forecasting models were built to establish the predictive RSV values for toothpaste for an additional 12 months. Autocorrelation plots and the generalized additive model (GAM) were used to diagnose trends and seasonality in RSV curves. Additionally, the influence of social isolation related to the outbreak of COVID-19 was analyzed. Although not detected by autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation function (PACF) analyses, the heuristic analysis showed an increase in the interest in toothpaste-related information in all countries, with a stable trend observed in the 12-month forecasts, except for the increases in the United Kingdom and South Africa. Also, GAM analyses demonstrated a non-significant monthly or quarterly seasonal influence on data. In addition, social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic did not influence the online information-seeking behavior of Google Search users linked to this topic. We confirmed the hypothesis that the interest of Google Search users in information about toothpaste increased in all of the 10 assessed countries.
  • Associated factors and treatment options for sleep bruxism in children: an umbrella review Systematic Review

    SCARPINI, Samanta; LIRA, Adriana de Oliveira; GIMENEZ, Thais; RAGGIO, Daniela Prócida; CHAMBRONE, Leandro; SOUZA, Rafael Celestino de; FLORIANO, Isabela; MORIMOTO, Susana; TEDESCO, Tamara Kerber

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Data on clinical management options for sleep bruxism in the primary dentition are inconclusive. This umbrella review aimed to synthesize the available evidence from systematic reviews (SRs) on the associated factors and treatment approaches for clinical management of sleep bruxism in children. A search was conducted in the MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and OpenGrey databases up to March 2022. SRs published on sleep bruxism in children containing data on associated factors or treatment outcomes were included. The AMSTAR-2 tool was used to assess the methodological quality of SRs. The search identified 444 articles, of which six were included. Sleep conditions, respiratory changes, personality traits, and psychosocial factors were the associated factors commonly identified. Treatments included psychological and pharmacological therapies, occlusal devices, physical therapy, and surgical therapy. All SRs included presented a high risk of bias. Overlapping of the included studies was considered very high. The best evidence available to date for the management of sleep bruxism in children is based on associated factors, with sleep duration and conditions, respiratory changes, as well as personality traits and psychosocial factors being the most important factors commonly reported by studies. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to make recommendations for specific treatment options.
  • Effects of tobacco on the DNA of smokers and non-smokers affected by OSCC: systematic review and meta-analysis Systematic Review

    SCHUCH, Lauren Frenzel; VIANA, Karolina Skarlet Silva; DE ARRUDA, José Alcides Almeida; ABREU, Lucas Guimarães; AGUIAR, Maria Cássia Ferreira de; BERNARDES, Vanessa Fátima

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Scientific evidence about genetic and molecular changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) among smokers and non-smokers is inconclusive. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of tobacco on the DNA of individuals with OSCC based on protein mutations. Electronic searches were conducted on PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and Scopus to identify observational studies published up to January/2022. The Joanna Briggs Institute tool was used for the critical appraisal of studies. The certainty of the evidence was evaluated. Twenty-three studies assessing 4,060 individuals (2,967 smokers vs. 1,093 non-smokers) were included in this review. Fifteen groups of proteins/genes were investigated. Analysis of the quality of articles revealed low risk of bias in most studies. The certainty of the evidence was very low. The meta-analysis confirmed no significant difference between smokers and non-smokers with respect to damage to GSTM1 (OR: 0.60; 95%CI: 0.30–1.18), GSTT1 (OR: 1.18; 95%CI:0.49–2.83), hydrolase proteins (Ku70 and Ku80) (OR: 0.74; 95%CI: 0.18–3.05), and transferase proteins (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3) (OR: 0.74; 95%CI: 0.47–1.18). Most of the studies included showed that smokers are more likely to exhibit genetic instability. However, the meta-analysis revealed that smokers do not necessarily have more genetic alterations in the DNA than non-smokers.
  • Consistency of recommendations of clinical practice guidelines in periodontology: a systematic review Systematic Review

    ALARCÓN, Marco Antonio; ARIZA-FRITAS, Tania; CHAVEZ-VEREAU, Natali; LÓPEZ-PACHECO, Andrea; PANNUTI, Claudio Mendes; MÁLAGA-FIGUEROA, Lilian

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the methodological quality and the consistency of recommendations of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in Periodontology. An electronic search was conducted in two databases, MEDLINE and EMBASE, eight CPGs databases, and home pages of scientific societies in Periodontology up to April 2022. Three reviewers independently assessed methodological quality using the AGREE II instrument. In addition, we evaluated the consistency of the recommendations. Eleven CPGs were included, and the topics developed focused on prevention, diagnosis, risk factors, surgical and non-surgical periodontal treatment, antimicrobial therapy, root coverage, and maintenance. We found that the AGREE domains 2 (Stakeholder involvement) and 5 (Applicability) obtained the lowest scores. Domains 1 (Scope and purpose), 3 (Rigor of development) and 4 (Clarity of presentation) obtained the highest scores among the evaluated CPGs. The clinical recommendations for treatment of periodontal diseases were mostly consistent. Overall, the quality of CPGs used in periodontics was high. There was consistency of recommendations in specific fields. These findings may help researchers to promote CPGs focused on different fields of periodontics that have not yet been developed. Furthermore, the clinician will be able to make better clinical decisions.
  • Perception of malocclusion and school performance in adolescents: a systematic review Systematic Review

    COSTA, Ana Carla Souza; PAULO, Djessyca Miranda e; VIDIGAL, Maria Tereza Campos; VIEIRA, Walbert de Andrade; CARDENAS, Andres Felipe Millan; PARANHOS, Luiz Renato

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to assess the potential association between perception malocclusion and school performance in children and adolescents. An electronic search was performed in ten databases. Based on the PECO acronym (Population, Exposition, Comparator, and Outcome), the eligibility criteria included observational studies that compared the school performance of children and adolescents with and without the perception of malocclusion. There were no restrictions on the language or year of publication. Two reviewers selected the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias by using the Joanna Briggs Institute tool for cross-sectional studies. School performance was measured by analyzing student grades; levels of absenteeism; and child or adolescent self-perception and/or the perception of parents, guardians, close friends, and teachers regarding the impact of malocclusion on school performance. The data were described narratively/descriptively. The search resulted in 3,581 registers, of which eight were included in the qualitative synthesis. These studies were published between 2007 and 2021. Two studies concluded that there was no significant association between school performance and perception of malocclusion, five studies found that only some of the children with malocclusion had their school performance affected, and one study concluded that there was a significant association between perception of malocclusion and low school performance. Considering all variables and the very low certainty of evidence, the perception of malocclusion seems to negatively impact school performance when associated with external and subjective factors. Further studies using additional measurement standards are required.
  • Methodological quality of network meta-analysis in dentistry: a meta-research Systematic Review

    MONTAGNER, Anelise Fernandes; ANGST, Patricia Daniela Melchiors; RAGGIO, Daniela Prócida; VAN DE SANDE, Françoise Helène; TEDESCO, Tamara Kerber

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This meta-research aimed to provide an overview of the methodological quality and risk of bias of network meta-analyses (NMA) in dentistry. Searches for NMA of randomized clinical trials with clinical outcomes in dentistry were performed in databases up to January 2022. Two reviewers independently screened titles/abstracts, selected full texts, and extracted the data. The adherence to PRISMA-NMA reporting guideline, the AMSTAR-2 methodological quality tool, and the ROBIS risk of bias tool were assessed in the studies. Correlation between the PRISMA-NMA adherence and the AMSTAR-2 and ROBIS results was also investigated. Sixty-two NMA studies were included and presented varied methodological quality. According to AMSTAR-2, half of the NMA presented moderate quality (n = 32; 51.6%). The adherence to PRISMA-NMA also varied. Only 36 studies (58.1%) prospectively registered the protocol. Other issues lacking of reporting were data related were data related to the NMA geometry and the assessment of results consistency, and the evaluation of risk of bias across the studies. ROBIS assessment showed a high risk of bias mainly for domains 1 (study eligibility criteria) and 2 (identification and selection of studies). Correlation coefficients between the PRISMA-NMA adherence and the AMSTAR-2 and ROBIS results showed moderate correlation (rho < 0.6). Overall, NMA studies in dentistry were of moderate quality and at high risk of bias in several domains, especially study selection. Future reviews should be better planned and conducted and have higher compliance with reporting and quality assessment tools.
  • Do patients with molar incisor hypomineralization have more dental anxiety and behavior management problems? A systematic review with meta-analysis Systematic Review

    REIS, Patrícia Papoula Gorni; JORGE, Roberta Costa; FERREIRA, Daniele Masterson Tavares Pereira; MARAÑÓN-VÁSQUEZ, Guido Artemio; MAIA, Lucianne Cople; SOVIERO, Vera Mendes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This systematic review evaluated the available evidence on whether children with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) have more dental fear and anxiety (DFA) and dental behavior management problems (DBMPs) than those without MIH (Prospero CDR42020203851). Unrestricted searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Lilacs, BBO, Embase, Cochrane Library, APA PsycINFO, Open Grey, and Google Scholar. Observational studies evaluating DFA and/or DBMPs in patients with and without MIH were eligible. Reviews, case reports, interventional studies, and those based on questionnaires to dentists were excluded. The methodological quality assessment was based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to synthesize data on DFA. The certainty of evidence was performed according to GRADE. Seven studies that evaluated a total of 3,805 patients were included. All of them presented methodological issues, mainly in the comparability domain. Most studies observed no significant difference in DFA between children with and without MIH. The meta-analysis did not show a significant effect of MIH on the standardized units for the DFA scores (SMD = 0.03; 95%CI: -0.06–0.12; p = 0.53; I2 = 0%). Synthesis including only the results for severe cases of MIH also did not show a significant effect of the condition on DFA scores (MD = 8.68; 95%CI: -8.64–26.00; p = 0.33; I2 = 93%). Two articles found DBMPs were significantly more frequent in patients with MIH. The overall certainty of evidence was very low for both outcomes assessed. The current evidence suggests no difference in DFA between children with and without MIH; DBMPs are more common in patients with MIH. This information should be viewed with caution because of the very low quality evidence obtained.
  • Does radiotherapy treatment alter the pulp condition in patients with head and neck cancer? A systematic review Systematic Review

    RIBEIRO, Thalles Eduardo; NOVAIS, Veridiana Resende; ESTRELA, Carlos; SANTANA, Maria Luiza Lima; ROSSI-FEDELE, Giampiero; DECURCIO, Daniel de Almeida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The main purpose of this study was to answer the question: “Can radiotherapy cause changes in the dental pulp condition of patients treated with irradiation in the head and neck region?” Clinical observational studies in adults with head and neck cancer undergoing treatment with ionizing radiation, longitudinal or cross-sectional follow-up to measure oxygen saturation (SpO2), and/or pulp sensitivity test to cold stimulation, were considered eligible. A systematic literature search was performed in six different databases, including the gray literature, and in article references. Two independent evaluators selected the studies, extracted the data, recorded the data on electronic spreadsheets, and then evaluated the methodological quality using the Checklist for Quasi-Experimental Studies tool devised by JBI. The data were assessed qualitatively using the Synthesis Without Metanalysis (SWiM) guidelines. After removing the duplicate articles, carefully analyzing the titles and abstracts, and reading the papers in full, seven studies were included. Four of the studies evaluated applied the cold sensitivity test, two associated pulse oximetry and cold sensitivity, and only one used just pulse oximetry. Evaluation using the cold sensitivity test and pulse oximetry in the initial periods before radiotherapy showed a decrease in the sensitive response and in SpO2 levels during a maximum period of 1 year. However, analyses thereafter indicated a normal response in both tests from 5 to 6 years after the end of radiotherapy treatment. Radiotherapy causes changes in pulp behavior patterns in the short term; however, recovery and return to average values occurs after long periods.
  • Prevalence of Enterococcus species in adults with periodontal health or with periodontitis: a systematic review Systematic Review

    ESPÍNDOLA, Laís Christina Pontes; OLIVEIRA, Adriana Miranda de; MASTERSON, Daniele; MAIA, Lucianne Cople; SOUTO, Renata Martins do

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Enterococcus species in the mouth of adults with periodontal health and periodontitis. A systematic search was made in databases in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. The search for articles was conducted in Medline/PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS), Cochrane Library, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science databases and in the System of Information on Grey Literature in Europe (SINGLE) and included articles published in English up to April 25th, 2021. Observational studies in humans with and without periodontitis were evaluated to identify the prevalence of Enterococcus species. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed and classified to determine the quality rating in good, fair, and poor. A new detailed checklist for quality assessment was developed based on the information required for applicable data extraction in reviews. The study design, sample size, demographic data, periodontal clinical parameters, microbial analysis method, biological sample, prevalence of Enterococcus spp., and correlations with periodontal clinical parameters were assessed. After screening and full-text reading, 8 articles met the inclusion criteria. All selected studies showed a significantly higher prevalence of Enterococcus spp. in patients with periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy patients. Thus, the present systematic review suggests that the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in the mouth of periodontitis individuals is higher than that of periodontally healthy individuals.
  • Prevalence of dental caries, periodontal disease, malocclusion, and tooth wear in indigenous populations in Brazil: a systematic review and meta-analysis Systematic Review

    REBELO VIEIRA, Janete Maria; PEREIRA, Juliana Vianna; SPONCHIADO JÚNIOR, Emílio Carlos; CORRÊA, Alana Cristina Caldeira; SANTOS, Ana Beatriz Santos dos; SILVA, Thaís Soares da; VIEIRA, Walbert de Andrade; QUADROS, Larissa Neves; REBELO, Maria Augusta Bessa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this review was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries, periodontal disease, malocclusion, and tooth wear in indigenous in Brazil. A systematic review of observational studies was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines (CRD42020218704). The search strategy involved the electronic databases of Embase, LILACS, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and the CAPES Theses and Dissertations for gray literature. The eligibility criteria consisted of publications that assessed the prevalence of oral conditions in indigenous populations in Brazil. Studies with indigenous people living in urban area were excluded. The risk of bias was evaluated by using JBI Critical Appraisal for prevalence studies. Thirty studies were included in the review, and the majority showed a low risk of bias. A meta-analysis of 20 studies was conducted using the random-effects model and a 95% confidence interval. Several ethnicities were studied in isolation or in groups (n = 7,627 for dental caries; n = 2,774 for periodontal disease; n = 1,067 for malocclusion; n = 150 for tooth wear). The prevalence of caries ranged from 50% among indigenous people aged 18-36 months to 100% among those aged 65–74 years. The prevalence of periodontal disease ranged from 58% to 83%. The prevalence of malocclusion was 43%. Tooth wear was assessed in only one ethnic group and showed a prevalence of 100% in indigenous people aged >18 years. The certainty of evidence assessed by the GRADE system ranged from very low to moderate. This systematic review showed significant differences in the prevalence of dental caries, periodontal disease and malocclusion between indigenous population groups and territories in which indigenous people live.
  • The use of micronucleus assay in exfoliated oral cells in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy: a systematic review with meta-analysis Systematic Review

    SOUZA, Daniel Vitor de; TAKESHITA, Wilton Mitsunari; CASTRO, Glaucia Monteiro de; RENNO, Ana Claudia Muniz; SANTOS, Jean Nunes dos; RIBEIRO, Daniel Araki

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate published papers regarding the micronucleus assay in oral mucosal cells of patients undergoing orthodontic therapy (OT). A search of the scientific literature was made in the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases for all data published until November, 2021 using the combination of the following keywords: “fixed orthodontic therapy,” “genetic damage”, “DNA damage,” “genotoxicity”, “mutagenicity”, “buccal cells”, “oral mucosa cells,” and “micronucleus assay”. The systematic review was designed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Nine studies were retrieved. Some authors demonstrated that OT induces cytogenetic damage in oral mucosal cells. Out of the nine studies included, two were classified as strong, five as moderate, and two as weak, according to the quality assessment components of the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). Meta-analysis data revealed no relationship between mutagenicity in oral cells and OT in different months of treatment. At one month, the SMD = 0.65 and p = 0.08; after three months of OT, the SMD = 1.21 and p = 0.07; and after six months of OT, the SMD = 0.56 and p = 0.11. In the analyzed months of OT, I2 values were >75%, indicating high heterogeneity. In summary, this review was not able to demonstrate that OT induces genetic damage in oral cells. The study is important for the protection of patients undergoing fixed OT, given that mutagenesis participates in the multi-step process of carcinogenesis.
  • Efficacy of mouthrinses in reducing oral SARS-COV-2 load: a review Critical Review

    PANNUTI, Claudio Mendes; REIS, Isabella Neme Ribeiro dos; SOUZA, Nathalia Vilela; SOUTO, Maria Luisa Silveira; SILVA, Carlos Guillermo Benítez; BEZINELLI, Leticia Mello; MACHADO, Clarisse Martins; ROMITO, Giuseppe Alexandre; VILLAR, Cristina Cunha

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Accumulated evidence has shown that the oral cavity may be an important reservoir for SARS-CoV-2. Some authors have suggested that the use of mouthrinses could reduce SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the saliva. Thus, the aim of this review was to synthesize evidence about the efficacy of mouthrinses in reducing the salivary viral load of SARS-CoV-2. 2. Nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the efficacy of different mouthrinses in reducing salivary SARS-CoV-2 loads. Various active ingredients have been tested in these trials: 0.5%,1% and 2% povidone-iodine, 0.2% and 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX), 0.075% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), 0.075% CPC with Zinc lactate, 1% and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide (HP), 1.5% HP + 0.12% CHX and ß-cyclodextrin and citrox. The studies reported an intra-group reduction in the salivary levels of the virus, when compared with the baseline. However, the majority of these trials failed to demonstrate a significant inter-group difference between active groups and the control group relative to the decrease in salivary SARS-CoV-2 loads. Although promising, these results should be confirmed by larger trials.
  • The continuous increase in the number of systemic lupus erythematosus cases in Brazil in the COVID-19 era Short Communication

    MARQUES, Nelson Pereira; MARQUES, Nádia Carolina Teixeira; LUCENA, Edson Hilan Gomes de; MARTELLI, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Oliveira, Eduardo Araújo; MARTELLI-JUNIOR, Hercílio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aims to reevaluate and compare the data from the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) on the number of diagnoses of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the pre-pandemic period with those in the pandemic period, as well as to compare the first year (2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil with the last year (2021), to update the data, and to verify whether SLE disease control measures were effective in 2021. There was a consistent and significant increase in the incidence of SLE cases all over Brazil between the first and second pandemic years and between the pre-pandemic triennium and the second pandemic year. Therefore, it is inescapable to have larger clinical studies with different populations to better understand the relationship between these two conditions and find measures to improve the control of this disease.
  • Propolis effects in periodontal disease seem to affect coronavirus disease: a meta-analysis Meta-Analysis

    SALES-PERES, Silvia Helena de Carvalho; AZEVEDO-SILVA, Lucas José de; CASTILHO, Ana Virginia Santana Sampaio; CASTRO, Marcelo Salmazo; SALES-PERES, André de Carvalho; MACHADO, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effects of propolis on the severity of coronavirus disease symptoms by reducing periodontal disease. PubMed, EMBASE, SciELO, Web of Science, and SCOPUS databases were systematically searched. Studies have been conducted analyzing propolis’s effects on COVID-19 and periodontitis. The study was conducted according to the PRISMA statement and registered in PROSPERO. Risk of Bias (RoB) assessment and meta-analysis of clinical studies were performed (Review Manager 5, Cochrane). The certainty of the evidence was assessed using GradePro (GDT). Studies have shown propolis flavonoids inhibit viral replication in several DNA and RNA viruses, including coronaviruses. Propolis components have an aminopeptidase inhibitor activity that can inhibit the main proteases of SARS viruses and seem to inhibit protein spikes, which are sites of most mutations in SARS-CoV strains. The meta-analysis showed favorable results with the use of propolis on probing depth (95%CI: 0.92; p < 0.001), clinical attachment level (95%CI: 1.48; p < 0.001), gingival index (95%CI: 0.14; p = 0.03), plaque index (95%CI: 0.11; p = 0.23), and blending on probing (95%CI: 0.39; p < 0.001). The antibacterial activity of propolis could be mediated through its direct action on microorganisms or the stimulation of the immune system, activating natural defenses. Thus, propolis inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 as well as its bacterial activity. Treatment with propolis improves general health and facilitates the activation of the immune system against coronavirus.
  • Erratum: Associated factors and treatment options for sleep bruxism in children: an umbrella review. Braz Oral Res. 2023;37:e006 Erratum

  • Erratum: Effects of tobacco on the DNA of smokers and non-smokers affected by OSCC: systematic review and meta-analysis. Braz Oral Res. 2023;37:e008. Erratum

  • Erratum: Evaluation of the expression of nerve fiber markers in healthy and inflamed dental pulp. Braz Oral Res. 2023;37:e020. Erratum

  • Erratum: Consistency of recommendations of clinical practice guidelines in periodontology: a systematic review. Braz Oral Res. 2023;37:e029. Erratum

  • Association among COVID-19, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and oral health status. Braz Oral Res. 2023;37:e072. Erratum

  • Comparative study of sex estimates in adult skulls using direct measurement and tomographic image reconstruction. Braz Oral Res. 2023;37:e064 Erratum

  • Association between toothbrushing frequency and dental caries and tooth loss in adolescents: a cohort study Original Research/cariology

    BRUSIUS, Carolina Doege; ALVES, Luana Severo; MALTZ, Marisa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This cohort study assessed the association between toothbrushing frequency and the increment of dental caries and tooth loss in a population-based sample of southern Brazilian adolescents, to investigate whether there is any additional benefit in performing a third daily brushing. At baseline, 1,528 12-year-old schoolchildren attending 42 schools were examined for gingivitis and dental caries, and answered a questionnaire. After a mean period of 2.5 years, 801 schoolchildren were re-examined. Dental caries and tooth loss increment were outcomes of the study. The main predictor variable was toothbrushing frequency (≥3 times/day vs. twice/day or ≤1 time/day). Poisson regression models were used to estimate the risk for caries and tooth loss increment. Incidence risk ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. The final model adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical variables showed that brushing twice/day afforded 40% greater risk (IRR = 1.40; 95%CI: 1.02–1.92) for caries increment than ≥3 times/day. Regarding the tooth loss increment, adolescents who brushed their teeth twice/day had a fourfold greater risk (IRR = 3.92; 95%CI: 1.23–12.49) than those who brushed ≥ 3 times/day. Sex, school type, and gingivitis were found to act as effect modifiers, inasmuch as a third daily brushing presented advantages against tooth loss only for girls, public school attendees, and those with ≥ 50% of bleeding sites. This study suggests that adolescents benefit from a third daily toothbrushing. Increasing brushing frequency to 3 times/day may be a suitable strategy to control dental caries and tooth loss among high-risk adolescents.
  • Is there an association between family structure and the oral health of socially vulnerable children? Original Research/cariology

    MACIEL, Isadora Passos; BASSO, Maurício Bartelle; PIOVESAN, Érica Torres de Almeida; RIBEIRO, Carolina Diniz Pagani Vieira; QUEIROZ, Ingrid Quaresma Diniz de; ALVES, Júlia Barros; KOMINAMI, Paula Akemi Albuquerque; LEAL, Soraya Coelho

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the family structure on the oral health status of socially vulnerable children in the Federal District of Brazil. A total of 471 schoolchildren with a mean age of 8.12 (± 0.90) years were examined for dental caries using the CAST instrument. Dental biofilm and oral pain were also registered. Children’s guardians were interviewed about socioeconomic variables and oral hygiene habits. The association between oral pain in the previous 30 days and the child’s maximum CAST score were analyzed using the Pearson chi-squared test. Multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to determine the predictors of presence of biofilm, oral pain, and caries severity. The prevalence of cavitated dentin lesions was 43.74% and, both dentin and enamel lesions, 52.87%; for both dentitions. An association between pain and severe nontreated carious lesions was found (p < 0.0001). The family structure was not related to the presence of dental caries, but a significant association was found between low maternal education and severe carious lesions (PR = 1.41; p = 0.0077) and oral pain (PR = 1.47; p = 0. 0335); not owning a residence and frequency of toothbrushing were also associated with the substantial presence of biofilm (PR = 1.13, p = 0.0493 and PR = 1.18, p = 0.0470; respectively). For socially vulnerable children, variables related to the socioeconomic status of the families were more relevant than the family structure in relation to their oral health status.
  • Contribution of public oral pathology services to the diagnosis of oral and oropharyngeal cancer in Brazil Original Research/oral Pathology

    LOUREDO, Brendo Vinicius Rodrigues; CURADO, Maria Paula; PENAFORT, Paulo Victor Mendes; DE ARRUDA, José Alcides Almeida; ABREU, Lucas Guimarães; MESQUITA, Ricardo Alves; PINTO-JÚNIOR, Décio dos Santos; ABRAHÃO, Aline Corrêa; ANDRADE, Bruno Augusto Benevenuto de; AGOSTINI, Michelle; MORAES, Renata Mendonça; ANBINDER, Ana Lia; DOURADO, Pedro Henrique Silva; SANTOS, Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Bartholomeu dos; PIRES, Fábio Ramoa; BORDIGNON, Natalia Cristina Trentin; GONDAK, Rogério Oliveira; DE OLIVEIRA, Marcia Gaiger; CARRARD, Vinicius Coelho; MARTINS, Manoela Domingues; SOUSA-NETO, Sebastião Silvério; ARANTES, Diego Antônio Costa; MENDONÇA, Elismauro Francisco; CIESLAK-SANCHES, Silvia Roberta; ANTUNES, Daniella Moraes; AMARAL-SILVA, Gleyson Kleber do; MANIERI, Patricia Rubia; RAMALHO, Luciana Maria Pedreira; DOS SANTOS, Jean Nunes; LEONEL, Augusto César Leal da Silva; PEREZ, Danyel Elias da Cruz; VERHEUL, Hannah Carmem Carlos Ribeiro Silva; BARROSO, Keila Martha Amorim; RODRIGUES, Flávia Luiza Santos; GONZAGA, Amanda Katarinny Goes; FERNANDES, Romana Renery; DE SOUZA, Lélia Batista; SOUZA, Lucas Lacerda de; PONTES, Flávia Sirotheau Corrêa; PONTES, Hélder Antônio Rebelo; SILVA, Caroline Alfaia; CÂMARA, Jeconias; LIBÓRIO-KIMURA, Tatiana Nayara; SANTOS-SILVA, Alan Roger; LOPES, Márcio Ajudarte; ALMEIDA, Oslei Paes de; ROMAÑACH, Mário José; VARGAS, Pablo Agustin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of oral and maxillofacial pathology laboratories (OMPLs) in Brazilian public universities to the diagnosis of lip, oral cavity, and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A cross-sectional study was performed using biopsy records from a consortium of sixteen public OMPLs from all regions of Brazil (North, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast, and South). Clinical and demographic data of patients diagnosed with lip, oral cavity, and oropharyngeal SCC between 2010 and 2019 were collected from the patients’ histopathological records. Of the 120,010 oral and maxillofacial biopsies (2010-2019), 6.9% (8,321 cases) were diagnosed as lip (0.8%, 951 cases), oral cavity (4.9%, 5,971 cases), and oropharyngeal (1.2%, 1,399 cases) SCCs. Most cases were from Brazil’s Southeast (64.5%), where six of the OMPLs analyzed are located. The predominant profile of patients with lip and oral cavity SCC was Caucasian men, with a mean age over 60 years, low schooling level, and a previous history of heavy tobacco consumption. In the oropharyngeal group, the majority were non-Caucasian men, with a mean age under 60 years, had a low education level, and were former/current tobacco and alcohol users. According to data from the Brazilian National Cancer Institute, approximately 9.9% of the total lip, oral cavity, and oropharyngeal SCCs reported over the last decade in Brazil may have been diagnosed at the OMPLs included in the current study. Therefore, this data confirms the contribution of public OMPLs with respect to the important diagnostic support they provide to the oral healthcare services extended by the Brazilian Public Health System.
  • Clinical outcomes and prognostic factors of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a ten-year follow-up study Original Research/oral Pathology

    DIAS, Kelly Bienk; HILDEBRAND, Laura Campos; CARVALHO, Ana Luísa Homem de; FERRI, Camila Alves; NÖR, Jacques Eduardo; CERSKI, Carlos Thadeu Schmidt; VISIOLI, Fernanda; OLIVEIRA, Márcia Gaiger; RADOS, Pantelis Varvaki

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Traditional guidelines for determining the prognosis of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are used to make therapeutic decisions. However, only 50% of the patients had lived for more than five years. The present study aimed to analyze the correlation of traditional prognostic factors such as tumor size, histological grading, regional metastases, and treatment with the survival of patients with HNSCC. A total of 78 patients diagnosed with HNSCC were followed up for 10 years after diagnosis and treatment. The health status of the patients was tracked at four time points, and according to the evolution of the patients and their final clinical status, we performed a prognostic analysis based on the clinical outcomes observed during the follow-up period. The final study cohort comprised 50 patients. Most patients had tumors < 4 cm in size (64%) and no regional metastases (64%); no patients had distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. Most individuals had tumors with good (48%) and moderate (46%) degrees of malignancy. At the end of the follow-up period, only 14% of the patients were discharged, 42% died of the tumor, and 44% remained under observation owing to the presence of a potentially malignant disorder, relapse, or metastases. This analysis showed that traditional prognostic factors were not accurate in detecting subclinical changes or predicting the clinical evolution of patients.
  • Traumatic dental injuries in children: experience during the Covid-19 pandemic and parents’ knowledge about their management Original Research/pediatric Dentistry

    PAIXÃO, Fernanda Jobim Mattos; NASCIMENTO, Matheus da Silva Netto; LOPES, Nara Muniz; FONTES, Jéssica Lívia Andrade; RIBEIRO, Rosângela Almeida; CAMPOS, Marcio José da Silva; MACHADO, Fernanda Campos; SCALIONI, Flávia Almeida Ribeiro

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The social isolation measures adopted during the critical phase of the COVID-19 pandemic led children to spend most of their time at home. Isolation may alter the pattern of traumatic dental injury occurrences, inasmuch as studies point out that most traumatic accidents occur at home. Considering this scenario and the influence of emergency management on the prognosis of the injury, the aim of this study was to evaluate the experience of traumatic dental injuries in children before and during the pandemic, and the knowledge of this topic by the children’s guardians. This cross-sectional study was conducted with guardians of children aged 0 to 6 years, residing in Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. The guardians answered an online questionnaire addressing personal information, traumatic dental injury experience before and during the pandemic, and knowledge of this topic. Descriptive and statistical analyses were performed using Pearson’s chi-square test at a 5% significance level. The total sample consisted of 343 volunteers. A total of 95 and 92 injuries were reported before and during the pandemic, respectively; the home was the place of greatest occurrence. Most volunteers (88.1%) agreed that traumatic dental injuries are emergency situations, and were aware that the tooth/fragment had to be taken to the dentist after a fracture or avulsion (97.4%). This study revealed that the traumatic dental injury experience was similar before and during the pandemic, and that the volunteers had satisfactory knowledge, especially in recognizing the importance of immediate attention for a more favorable prognosis of these injuries.
  • An exploratory study of children with caries and its relationship to SARS-CoV-2 Original Research/pediatric Dentistry

    BRITO, Débora Heloísa Silva de; SANTOS, Thaysa Gomes Ferreira Tenório dos; LAVÔR, Juliane Rolim de; SILVA, Mabel Cristina Paiva Machado da; SANTOS, Natália Maria Velozo dos; PAULA, Larissa Mayara Costa de; HEIMER, Monica Vilela; CALDAS JÚNIOR, Arnaldo de França; ROSENBLATT, Aronita

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This exploratory study investigated whether children with dental decay were more likely to have COVID-19 than those without caries. The children underwent dental inspection and blood collection for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Fifty-four children aged 6 to 9 years participated in the survey, which was conducted between March and June 2020 in the municipality of Ipojuca, Pernambuco, Brazil. The diagnosis of caries was performed using the dmft and DMFT indices. Parents reported signs and symptoms of sickness in their children during this period. The serology test aimed to verify the immune response of the children to coronavirus by detecting IgM/IgG antibodies. Statistical analyses were performed at P < 0.05. The majority of the children presented caries (68.5%). Of the nine children who tested positive for COVID-19 (16.7%), eight presented IgG antibodies to the virus, and only one had IgG and IgM antibodies to SARS-CoV2. Children who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 had a higher percentage of caries lesions than those who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 (77.8% vs 65.9%), but this difference was not statistically significant.
  • Buffered 2% articaine in buccal infiltration of mandibular molars: a randomized triple-blind clinical trial Original Research/pharmacology

    LOAYZA, Sandro Alexander Lévano; BARBIN, Thomas; SANTOS, Victor Augusto Benedicto dos; GROPPO, Francisco Carlos; AMORIM, Klinger de Souza; PAIVA, Daniel Felipe Fernandes; FIGUEROBA, Sidney Raimundo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This crossover study aimed to compare the anesthetic effects of buffered 2% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine with that of non-buffered 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine. Forty-seven volunteers were administered two doses of anesthesia in the buccal region of the second mandibular molars in two sessions using 1.8 mL of different local anesthetic solutions. The onset time and duration of pulp anesthesia, soft tissue pressure pain threshold, and the score of pain on puncture and burning during injection were evaluated. The operator, volunteers, and statistician were blinded. There were no significant differences in the parameters: onset of soft tissue anesthesia (p = 0.80), duration of soft tissue anesthesia (p = 0.10), onset of pulpal anesthesia in the second (p = 0.28) and first molars (p = 0.45), duration of pulp anesthesia of the second (p = 0.60) and first molars (p = 0.30), pain during puncture (p = 0.82) and injection (p = 0.80). No significant adverse events were observed. Buffered 2% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine did not differ from non-buffered 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine considering anesthetic success, safety, onset, duration of anesthesia, and pain on injection.
  • A scoping review about LGBTQIAP+ people in oral health research Original Research/social/community Dentistry

    SILVA, Eliane Maria Mascarenhas da; FÉLIX, Thallys Rodrigues; BÖNECKER, Marcelo; ZINA, Lívia Guimarães; DRUMMOND, Andreia Maria Araújo; MATTOS, Flávio Freitas

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Oral health personnel must acknowledge the health needs of sexual and gender minorities. They should consult scientific literature to deepen their knowledge about sexuality, gender identity, general and oral health status, and treatment disparities among LGBTQIA+ people. The aim of this scoping review was to portray the development and current stage of internationally indexed literature approaching the oral health of this population. In this study, the search strategy used consisted of combinations of subject descriptors (MeSH terms), in two concept blocks: LGBTQIAP+ people and oral health. Global literature was searched through Medline (PUBMED), Web of Science, Embase, Lilacs, and Scopus electronic databases, with no language or date restrictions. Records were selected and evaluated by two independent reviewers, under the supervision of three senior reviewers and the inclusion criteria resulted in 189 eligible papers. Since the first study was published in 1974, numbers increased over the decades, reaching 67 (35.4%) in 2010-2019. The most frequently studied populations were North American (42.9%) and European (19.0%) and the most frequent language of publication was English (99.0%). There were 38 open access papers (20.1%). Medical (57.7%) and dental journals (20.1%) predominated. Cross-sectional studies were found more frequently (65.1%), followed by the cohort type (11.1%). Oral manifestation of STI (58.7%) was the topic most frequently addressed. The search for literature approaching the oral health of LGBTQIAP+ people showed evidence of the need to encourage research reported in papers made easily available, with more robust scientific evidence, and on a broader scope of topics, including oral health needs and treatment, and planning of oral health services.
  • Caries-related hospital morbidity in the Brazilian Unified Health System from 2008 to 2022 Original Research/social/community Dentistry

    LIMA, Ricardo Barbosa; VILELA, Larissa Dias; NELSON-FILHO, Paulo; SILVA, Léa Assed Bezerra da; SILVA, Raquel Assed Bezerra da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dental caries is an important Public Health issue. However, the treatment of this disease in tertiary dental care requires further investigation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate caries-related hospital morbidity in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) from 2008 to 2022. An ecological study was conducted with secondary data on caries-related Hospital Admission Authorizations (AIH) and in-hospital dental procedures (IDP). Data were collected nationwide and statistical analysis was performed with a significance level (p) of 5%. In the last 15 years, 3,474 caries-related AIH and 63,657 IDP were approved within SUS. There was a significant upward trend in the number of caries-related AIH (p = 0.018) and a stationary trend in the number of caries-related IDP (p = 0.841). Moreover, from 2008 to 2022, R$ 1,160,843.09 was allocated for caries-related AIH. Hospital mortality was 0.29% (10 deaths), and 75.1% were elective inpatient admissions. Among SUS users, adults constituted the majority (49%), with a higher frequency of males (59.8%) and whites (46.2%). The most frequent type of caries-related IDP was restoration of permanent teeth (55.3%). Nonetheless, during the COVID-19 pandemic years, significant reductions in caries-related AIH and IDP within the SUS were observed (all p <0.05). Thus, within the SUS, caries-related tertiary dental care has shown a specific pattern over the last 15 years, including an increase in hospitalizations and a high number of in-hospital dental procedures, especially before the COVID-19 pandemic onset.
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