Abstract in English:Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of a modified gingival graft technique, in which the released flap is positioned and sutured over the graft, with the conventional free gingival graft (FGG) procedure, when both are used for gingival augmentation. A 12-month, multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted. Subjects with buccal RT2 gingival recessions and keratinized tissue width (KTW) < 2 mm in at least one mandibular incisor were randomized to control group (n = 20; conventional FGG) or test group (n = 20; modified FGG; flap sutured over FGG using sling sutures). The primary outcome (KTW) was measured at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months, as was keratinized tissue thickness (KTT). Postoperative pain (POP) and analgesic intake were also recorded. Both techniques promoted a significant increase in KTW and KTT when compared to baseline (p < 0.05) with no significant differences between groups (KTW change of 6.1±1.5 mm and 5.4±1.6 mm, for control and test, respectively; p=0.16). However, test group patients reported less POP after 7 days and used less analgesic medication than control group patients (p < 0.05). We concluded that the modified FGG was comparable to conventional FGG in augmenting keratinized tissue width and thickness at mandibular incisors, but resulted in less patient morbidity.
Abstract in English:Abstract Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is associated with the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases with inflammatory characteristics, including periodontitis. This study aimed to evaluate how the activation of PAR2 can affect the osteogenic activity of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in vitro. PDLSCs collected from three subjects were treated in osteogenic medium for 2, 7, 14, and 21 days with trypsin (0.1 U/mL), PAR2 specific agonist peptide (SLIGRL-NH2) (100 nM), and PAR2 antagonist peptide (FSLLRY-NH2) (100 nM). Gene (RT-qPCR) expression and protein expression (ELISA) of osteogenic factors, bone metabolism, and inflammatory cytokines, cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red S staining, and supernatant concentration were assessed. Statistical analysis of the results with a significance level of 5% was performed. Activation of PAR2 led to decreases in cell proliferation and calcium deposition (p < 0.05), calcium concentration (p < 0.05), and ALP activity (p < 0.05). Additionally, PAR2 activation increased gene and protein expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL) (p < 0.05) and significantly decreased the gene and protein expression of osteoprotegerin (p <0. 05). Considering the findings, the present study demonstrated PAR2 activation was able to decrease cell proliferation, decreased osteogenic activity of PDLSCs, and upregulated conditions for bone resorption. PAR2 may be considered a promising target in periodontal regenerative procedures.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to translate and to perform the cultural adaptation of the instrument Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised for Dental (IPQ-RD) into Brazilian Portuguese. The IPQ-RD consists of 34 items that assess the cognitive and emotional representation/perception of parents/caregivers of children with dental caries, with response options on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from “Strongly agree” (score 1) to “Strongly disagree” (score 5). The higher the score, the lower the perception of the disease. The protocol consists of translation into Brazilian Portuguese, back-translation into English, revision by an Expert Review Committee, and pre-test (application in parents/caregivers of children in dental care). For some questions, the translated versions were identical (T1 = T2); for others, one version was preferred (T1 or T2); for still others, it was decided to modify terms to obtain greater clarity on the item (T3). In the first pre-test, three questions were misunderstood by more than 15% of the sample, after which the items were reviewed by the Expert Review Committee. In the second pre-test, the adapted version was applied to a new sample of parents/caregivers (n = 15) and the questions were understood by more than 85% of the participants. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the IPQ-RD was well understood by the evaluated population.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional investigation was to perform a 3D analysis of craniofacial morphology of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) at two stages of skeletal maturation. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 52 UCLP patients (34 prepubertal; 18 pubertal) were collected from an outpatient referral center for the treatment of craniofacial deformities. In total 15 multiplanar craniofacial landmarks were identified, 3D virtual surface models were created, and 13 variables were measured to assess the 3D Euclidean distances between landmarks and spatial position of the landmarks in the projected X, Y and Z components. Maxillary and mandibular pitch (clockwise, counterclockwise) rotation relative to the cranial base was also evaluated. The significance level was set at 5%. Maxillary retrusion value relative to the cranial base was higher and statistically significant greater (p = 0.028) in pubertal (SNA, 77.4° ± 6.2; N-ANS Y, 3.3 mm ± 3.1) than in prepubertal patients (SNA 81.0° ± 5.2; N-ANS Y, 5.8 mm ± 2.7). The posterior cranial base length (S-Ba Y) was significantly longer (p = 0.013) in pubertal (20.7 mm ± 3.4) than in prepubertal patients (18.4 mm ± 2.7). The upper facial height (N-ANS Z) was significantly greater (p = 0.01) in pubertal (46.9 mm ± 4.5) than in prepubertal patients (43.4 mm ± 3.0). Prepubertal and pubertal UCLP patients presented distinct patterns of craniofacial morphology, mainly in the sagittal component of the maxilla and in the posterior cranial base length. Pubertal patients had greater maxillary retrusion and posterior cranial base length.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pain is common in orthodontic treatment, is subject to individual variation, and is associated with anxiety and stress, which can potentially become catastrophizing. The aim of the present study was to determine the variability of pain response after the insertion of orthodontic separators and to assess the association of pain levels with dental anxiety, catastrophizing, tooth sensitivity, and genetic expression of cytokines. To this end, 70 patients of both genders were divided into two equal groups according to the elastomeric separator used: G1 (Dentaurum) and G2 (Orthometric). Two separators were inserted in the mesial and distal sides of the lower right first molar. Participants were instructed to rate the level of pain at T0 (before insertion), T1 (just after insertion), and T2 (24 hours after insertion) on a visual analog scale. The gingival crevicular fluid was collected at T0 and T2. The levels of anxiety, catastrophizing, tooth sensitivity, and cytokine expression were also assessed. Statistical analysis was performed with the Fisher-Freeman-Halton, chi-squared, Spearman’s correlation, and dependent and independent t tests (α=5%). Pain intensity was higher at T2 than at T1, in both groups (P<.05). An association was established (P<.05) between pain intensity at T1 and catastrophizing, and at T2 with anxiety and catastrophizing. Within-group differences in cytokine expression were found between T0 and T2. There was no correlation between cytokine expression and pain levels, anxiety, catastrophizing, and sensitivity at T2. Tooth separation produced variable pain levels, which were influenced by anxiety and catastrophizing, however, pain level was not correlated with increased cytokine expression.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study investigated the influence of resveratrol on peri-implant repair and its effects on bone-related markers in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats. Animals were divided into: OVX+PLAC (n = 10): ovariectomized animals treated with placebo; OVX+RESV (n = 10): OVX treated with resveratrol; OVX+PLAC+ZOL (n = 10): OVX treated with PLAC and zoledronate; OVX+RESV+ZOL (n = 10): OVX treated with RESV and ZOL; and SHOVX+PLAC (n = 10): sham ovariectomy treated with PLAC. RESV and PLAC were administrated after ovariectomy and ZOL after six weeks after OVX, until the end of experiment. One implant was inserted in each tibiae of animals 18 weeks after ovariectomy. After 4 weeks, one implant was removed for counter-torque, and peri-implant tissue was collected for mRNA quantification of several osteogenic markers by PCR. The other tibia was submitted to micro-computed tomography analysis. Reduced counter-torque values, bone-implant contact (BIC) and bone volume fraction (BV/TV), and higher bone porosity (BP) were detected in OVX+PLAC group when compared to SHOVX+PLAC (p < 0.05). OVX+RESV rats presented lower BIC, BV/TV, and trabecular number (Tb.N), and augmented BP and trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) when compared to SHOVX+PLAC (p < 0.05). Higher Tb.N and connectivity density (Conn.Dn) and reduced Tb.Sp were observed in OVX rats treated with ZOL, independently of RESV, when compared to OVX+PLAC and OVX+RESV groups (p < 0.05), whereas the combination ZOL+RESV promoted lower BP when compared to OVT+PLAC and OVX+RESV (p < 0.05). Gene expression was not influenced by RESV (p > 0.05), whereas ZOL promoted up-regulation of BMP-2 (p<0.05). RESV did not improve peri-implant bone repair in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a condition characterized by painful symptoms of the oral mucosa, despite the absence of any clinical signs. Its etiology is unknown, and there is still no effective treatment to date. Current evidence has shown neuropathic impairment in BMS patients. Neuropathic pain can be related to the dysfunction of voltage-gated sodium channels, considering that these receptors regulate the induction of action potentials in nociceptive neurons. This study evaluated the gene expression of voltage-gated sodium channels Na v 1.7, Na v 1.8 and Na v 1.9 in these patients. The gene expressions of these channels were assessed by real time RT-PCR analysis of fresh-frozen tongue biopsies in a case-control study composed of 12 patients with BMS, and 5 healthy control patients, proportionally matched by sex and age, and analyzed using the 2^(-Delta Delta CT) method. There was no statistically significant difference between the analyzed groups, despite the increase in Na v 1.7 (fold-change = 3.13, p = 0.52) and decrease in Na v 1.9 (fold-change = 0.45, p = 0.36) gene expression in the BMS group. The Na v 1.8 gene was not expressed in any of the samples analyzed. Although the gene expression in the voltage-gated sodium channels in BMS under study seems to be comparable with that of the normal oral mucosa, the functionality of these channels in BMS has not yet been identified, thus suggesting that further research is needed to better understand these voltage-gated sodium channels.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic use of fluoxetine on the amount of orthodontic tooth movement and tissue changes in rats. A total of 192 Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: S, 0.9% saline solution; F, 20 mg/kg of fluoxetine; SM, 0.9% saline solution with orthodontic movement; and FM, 20 mg/kg of fluoxetine with orthodontic movement. After 30 days of daily saline or fluoxetine administration, an orthodontic device (25cN) was used to mesially displace the first molar in animals of the groups SM and FM. The animals were euthanized 2, 7, 14, and 28 days after placement of the orthodontic appliances and animals of groups S and F were euthanized at the same time. The assessment of tooth movement was made in gypsum castings, the collagen neoformation was assessed by polarization microscopy, the number of osteoclasts and root resorption were evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and presence of hyalinized areas was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Fluoxetine did not affect the amount of tooth displacement, percentage of collagen, number of osteoclasts, and presence of hyalinized areas (P>0.05). There was a higher frequency of root resorption areas in the FM group than in the SM group only on the second day (P<0.05). The findings of this study show that chronic use of 20 mg/kg fluoxetine does not affect the amount of tooth movement, collagen neoformation, number of osteoclasts, or hyalinized areas and does not affect root resorption until the last day of orthodontic movement.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study is to report an original case series of synchronous jawbone diseases. Data of patients seen over 13 years were extracted from the files of three Oral Radiology and Pathology diagnostic centers in Brazil. The clinical, radiographic, and laboratory characteristics were tabulated and analyzed by the authors; the patients were described according to lesion type. Seventy-two synchronous jawbone diseases were included in this study. Florid osseous dysplasia, Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, and cherubism were the most frequent disorders reported in this case series. In addition, the posterior mandible area was the main site of manifestation. Florid osseous dysplasia and Gorlin-Goltz syndrome represented two-thirds of our samples. With the utilization of adequate demographic, clinical, and radiologic information, it is possible to diagnose most of the synchronous lesions of jawbones. Sometimes, however, we need complementary exams, such as histopathologic and biochemical analysis or dosing of calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fanconi anemia is a rare autosomal recessive disease. In this disease, cytokine pathways can induce the bone marrow failure that is observed in individuals with Fanconi anemia. Interleukin IL-17 exhibits a protective effect in organisms because it induces neutrophil recruitment and shows a pathological role in several models of autoimmune diseases, periodontal disease, cancer, allograft rejection, and graft versus host disease. Polymorphisms in the IL17A and IL17RA genes were evaluated from DNA in saliva, comparing individuals with or without Fanconi anemia, using models of genotypic transmission (additive, dominant, and recessive). Polymorphisms in the IL17A and IL17RA genes (rs2241044 [C allele], rs879577 [C allele], rs9606615 [T allele], and rs2241043 [C allele]) were risk factors for developing Fanconi anemia. We also performed an analysis of gene markers with clinical variables in the Fanconi group. Polymorphisms in the IL17A gene (rs3819025 [A allele] and rs2275913 [G allele], respectively) were associated with an age of less than 20 years (p = 0.026; RP 0.65) and the female sex (p = 0.043; RP 0.88). The IL17RA gene was also associated with age and the presence of leukoplakia (a potentially malignant oral disorder). An age of less than 20 years was associated with rs917864 (T allele; p = 0.036; RP 0.67). The presence of leukoplakia was associated with rs17606615 (T allele; p = 0.042; RP 0.47). To our knowledge, this is the first study that associates IL17A and IL17RA gene polymorphisms with Fanconi anemia and examines rs2241044 polymorphisms in scientific literature thus far.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess whether mothers’ sense of coherence (SOC) was a predictor of decline in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of preschoolers. A 3-year cohort study was conducted in Diamantina, Brazil. At baseline, 162 preschoolers aged one to three years were randomly selected from among children registered in local Primary Healthcare Units. In the first stage, mothers completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS), and the Brazilian short version of the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13). The total score obtained from the SOC-13 was used to select exposed and unexposed children. Clinical examinations were performed to detect the presence of dental caries, traumatic dental injury, and malocclusion. At follow-up, mothers completed the sociodemographic questionnaire and the B-ECOHIS again. The incidence of severe dental caries and adherence to the proposed treatment at baseline were evaluated. A decline in OHRQoL was considered if there was an increase in the B-ECOHIS score of at least one unit. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were performed. A total of 151 preschoolers participated in the study, among whom 37.7% showed a decline in OHRQoL. Mothers’ SOC was not associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL (RR = 1.24; 95%CI = 0.81–1.88), while the incidence of severe dental caries had a greater impact on the decline in OHRQoL (RR = 2.02; 95%CI = 1.29–3.16). Mothers’ low SOC was not a predictor of decline in the OHRQoL of preschoolers after a 3-year follow-up period.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire that allows a systematic evaluation of the impact of self-perceived oral health on expectations of getting a job on adult population seeking dental care, and to describe its associations with demographic characteristics, job related, and health coverage variables. We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study including men and women aged 18 to 65 years from a population seeking dental services in a walk-in clinic. In a first stage we design and validated an instrument on a sample of 100 subjects. The questionnaire was registered in a Likert scale, with higher scores represented higher impact of the oral status self-perception on employability. We calculated internal consistency, construct validity, and domains validation. The final instrument consisted in an 18-item questionnaire (Cronbach α = 0.814), grouped into two domains based on exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The total variance explained with values >1 was 66 percent, grouping questions into six components. One domain refers to oral health status and importance of dental aesthetics, while the other refers to specific job-seeking elements. In a second stage we applied the questionnaire on 800 participants from the same population of reference. Women, people who intended to change jobs, those younger than 40 years old, having health insurance, and higher educational level showed statistically significant higher scores than their counterparts (p<0.001). We developed a tool that enables evaluating the impact of self-perceived oral health on expectations of getting a job for adults seeking emergency care in a dental clinic.
Abstract in English:Abstract Oral cancer is a public health problem worldwide with approximately 300,000 new cases diagnosed every year and more than 170,000 deaths annually. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for approximately 90% of all oral malignancies and it is frequently preceded by lesions known as oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). Screening programs for early detection of oral lesions have been conducted. Therefore, the objective of this research was to carry out an active search in a screening program in the city of Piracicaba, Brazil. High-risk patients were identified at the city’s health center through their medical records and referred for dental consultation. Other patients who opportunistically sought dental care were also seen and if they did not present risk factors for SCC, they were considered low-risk. A total of 756 patients were examined, and 445 met the criteria for the high-risk group and 311 for the low-risk group. It was possible to diagnose 27 OPMDs and six SCCs – 21 OPMDs and six SCCs occurred in high-risk patients and six OPMDs in low-risk patients. A chi-square test was applied and a statistically significant value (p = 0.006) was obtained for the detection of OPMD and SCC in patients of the high-risk group. Screening of high-risk patients through active search proved to be an effective program for diagnosing OPMD and SCC. Therefore, we encourage its implementation on a large scale to reduce the current scenario of this disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract The genetic basis of oral epithelial (OED) is unknown, and there is no reliable method for evaluating the risk of malignant transformation. Somatic mutations are responsible for the transformation of dysplastic mucosa to invasive cancer. In addition, these genomic variations could represent objective markers of the potential for malignant transformation. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 10 OED samples from Brazilian and Chilean patients. Using public genetic repositories, we identified 41 deleterious variants that could produce high-impact changes in the amino acid structures of 38 genes. In addition, the variants were filtered according to normal skin and Native American genome profiles. Finally, 13 genes harboring 15 variants were found to be exclusively related to OED. High-grade epithelial dysplasia samples showed a tendency to accumulate highly deleterious variants. We observed that 62% of 13 OED genes identified in our study were also found in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Among the shared genes, eight were not identified in oral squamous cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, we have described for the first time 13 genes that are found in OED in a Latin American population, of which five genes have already been observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Through this study, we identified genes that may be related to basal biological functions in OED.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different die materials used in the indirect resin composite restorative technique on the fracture resistance and failure mode of restored molars and compare it with the direct resin composite restorative technique. Two flexible die silicone materials for dental models (Die Silicone – Voco and Scan die – Yller) and a type IV dental stone material (Fujirock EP – GC) were evaluated. Sixty third molars were selected and divided into four groups: indirect resin composite restoration – Die silicone (IRCR-DS); indirect resin composite restoration – Scan die (IRCR-SD); indirect resin composite restoration – Fujirock EP (IRCR-FR), and direct resin composite restoration (DRCR). Class II MOD cavities were prepared with 5 mm of buccolingual width and depth. The specimens were restored and subjected to an axial compression load until fracture, and the data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test (α=.05). The fracture mode was classified into restorable and unrestorable fractures. Fracture resistance values were influenced by the die material used for the IRCR fabrication and by the restorative technique (p<.001). Fracture resistance mean values and standard deviation were: IRCR-DS: 1835.5 ± 324.0 A; IRCR-SD: 1732.5 ± 384.1 AB; IRCR-FR: 1419.3 ± 318.8 BC; and DRCR: 1100.6 ± 224.9 C. Restorable fracture was more prevalent. IRCR with flexible die casts promoted higher fracture resistance and lower prevalence of unrestorable fractures.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated the bioactive potential of a macro-porous chitosan scaffold incorporated with calcium hydroxide (CH-Ca) and functionalized with bioactive doses of simvastatin (SV) for bone tissue regeneration. Initially, the bioactive dose of SV in osteoblastic cells (SAOS-2) was determined. For the direct contact experiment, SAOS-2 cells were plated on scaffolds to assess cell viability and osteogenic differentiation. The second assay was performed at a distance using extracts from scaffolds incubated in culture medium to assess the effect of conditioned medium on viability and osteogenic differentiation. The initial screening showed that 1 μM SV presented the best biostimulating effects, and this dose was selected for incorporation into the CH-Ca and pure chitosan (CH) scaffolds. The cells remained viable throughout the direct contact experiment, with the greatest cell density in the CH-Ca and CH-Ca-SV scaffolds because of their higher porosity. The CH-Ca-SV scaffold showed the most intense bio-stimulating effect in assays in the presence and absence of osteogenic medium, leading to an increased deposition of mineralized matrix. There was an increase in the viability of cells exposed to the extracts for CH-Ca, CH-SV, and CH-Ca-SV during the one-day period. There was an increase in ALP activity in the CH-Ca and CH-Ca-SV; however, the CH-Ca-SV scaffold resulted in an intense increase in the deposition of mineralized nodules, approximately 56.4% at 7 days and 117% at 14 days, compared with CH (control). In conclusion, functionalization of the CH-Ca scaffold with SV promoted an increase in bioactivity, presenting a promising option for bone tissue regeneration.
Abstract in English:Abstract The diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis (IP) depends on clinical data, especially the chief complaint of the patient, visual inspection, response to the application of stimuli, and radiographic examination. The characterization of nerve fibers (NF) in IP may contribute to better interpret painful symptoms, but has been barely explored. This study sought to characterize the density and integrity of NF in 16 samples of IP and in five healthy pulps (HP) using S-100 and PGP 9.5 markers. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the density/mm2 of S-100+ and PGP 9.5+ in NF. The amount of degenerated NF was obtained by subtracting the total NF density from the amount of intact NF. Associations between NF density and integrity and symptomatology were calculated. All samples were positive for S-100 and PGP 9.5. Compared to HP samples (38.20/mm2), IP samples had a lower density of intact NF (6.24/mm2). A significantly higher density of degenerated NF was found in IP samples with spontaneous pain (39.59/mm2) compared to those with provoked pain (23.96/mm2) (p = 0.02). No association was observed between intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate and NF density and integrity (p > 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that pulpitis may involve different stages of degeneration and may be more advanced in cases with spontaneous pain. The symptoms reported by affected individuals do not appear to depend on the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate, but rather on the integrity of NF.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the influence of cleft width on dental arch symmetry of children with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Forty-one children were subjected to impression preoperatively (T1; mean age = 0.31 ± 0.07 years) and postoperatively (T2; mean age = 6 .73 ± 1.02 years). Eighty-two digitized dental casts were analyzed by stereophotogrammetry software. The cleft palate width was measured in the anterior (P-P’), middle (M-M’), and posterior (U-U’) regions. Also, the following measurements were obtained: anterior intersegment (I-C’) and intrasegment (I-C); total intersegment (I-T’) and intrasegment (I-T); cleft-side (C’-T’) and non-cleft-side (C-T) canine tuberosity. Paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient were applied (α = 5%). Cleft width had the following means: 10.16 (± 3.46) mm for P-P’, 12.45 (± 3.00) mm for M-M’, and 12.57 (± 2.71) mm for U-U’. In the longitudinal analysis, I-C’ had a significant reduction, while the other measurements significantly increased (p < 0.001). Asymmetry was verified in the following analyses at T1: I-C’ vs. I-C and I-T’ vs. I-T (p < 0.001); at T2, only in I-C’ vs. I-C (p < 0.001). At T1, P-P’ vs. I-C’ (r = 0.722 and p < 0.001), P-P’ vs. I-T’ (r = 0.593 and p < 0.001), M-M’ vs. I-C’ (r = 0.620 and p < 0.001), and M-M’ vs. I-T’ (r = 0.327 and p < 0.05) showed a positive and significant correlation. At T2, there was a correlation between M-M’ and I-C’ (r = 0.377 and p < 0.05). In conclusion, the anterior and middle cleft widths influenced palatal asymmetry in the first months of life, while middle width influenced residual asymmetry.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated the construct validity of the instrument Oral Health Literacy among diabetics. A probabilistic random sample of 239 diabetics from an infinite population answered the 10 items of the questionnaire. The structural validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis and goodness of fit, chi-square per degrees of freedom ratio (X2/df), comparative fit index (CFI), goodness-of-fit index (GFI), and root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA). Internal consistency was estimated by the average variance extracted (AVE) and composite reliability (CR). The scores were dichotomized with the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval as the cutoff point. The three-dimensional model presented good quality parameters (X2 /df = 2.459; CFI = 0.988; TLI = 0.981) and poor RMSEA (0.078). Internal consistency was adequate; AVE for the Access, Understand/appraise, and Apply subscales were 0.831, 0.981, and 0.954 and the CR for these subscales were 0.893, 0.962, and 0.822, respectively. Inadequate literacy ranged from 41.8 to 48.1%. The three-dimensional model identified (access, understand/appraise, and apply) showed structural validity, good internal consistency, and understandability.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to make a longitudinal analysis of interexaminer calibration reproducibility in diagnosing dental caries in posterior teeth, by examiners without previous experience in epidemiological studies. A group of 11 inexperienced examiners underwent theoretical-practical training and calibration assessments, assisted by a standard examiner. An examiner who did not participate directly in the research selected 5-year-old children with and without caries. The D3 diagnostic threshold was used to evaluate dental caries, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The initial calibration (baseline) was performed after the theoretical-practical training session, and consisted of examining 20 children; the second calibration occurred three months later, and involved evaluating another 18 children. The interexaminer agreement was obtained by kappa statistics, and by overall percentage agreement. The paired t-test was applied to compare the values for kappa means and overall percentage agreement between the time points studied. At baseline, the values for kappa (> 0.81) and overall percentage agreement (> 95.63%) were considered high. At the 3-month calibration assessment, all the examiners showed some decrease in both kappa (p < 0.0001) and overall percentage agreement (p = 0.0102). The calibration process currently proposed by the WHO is effective. However, reproducibility was not maintained over time for inexperienced examiners evaluating the posterior teeth of 5-year-old children, under epidemiological conditions.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated surface roughness, color stability, whitening index, and opacity of different types of modeling liquids for resin composite coating after exposure to staining and toothbrushing. Disc-shaped resin composite (Vittra APS, FGM) specimens were fabricated and divided into four groups (n = 10 each): control group, Composite Wetting resin (Ultradent Products), Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose adhesive (3M ESPE), and Adper Universal adhesive (3M ESPE). Surface roughness (Ra) was measured using a rugosimeter, while color stability (∆E00), whitening index (WI), and opacity (%) were measured using a spectrophotometer. Assessments were made at four time points: after polishing (baseline, T1), after immersion in red wine for 24 h (T2), and after 5,000 (T3) and 10,000 (T4) cycles of toothbrushing. Scanning electron microscopy images were captured to analyze the scratches created. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey’s honestly significant difference tests (α = .05). Modeling with the Wetting resin resulted in higher surface roughness (p < 0.05) and low color stability, which were attributable to porosities. Higher color change values were observed in the control group after staining. Both adhesives showed the lowest mean ΔE00 values (p < 0.005). WI decreased after staining, except with the use of the Universal adhesive (p < 0.005). The lowest opacity values were observed at baseline for all groups (p < 0.005). The Universal and Scotchbond adhesives had lower surface roughness, better color stability, higher WI, and the lowest opacity values after staining with red wine and toothbrushing.
Abstract in English:Abstract The pandemic caused by coronavirus has resonated throughout different levels of health care in Brazil and, in this context, the present research aimed to evaluate this impact on tertiary dental care provided by the Unified Health System (SUS). Therefore, an ecological study was conducted with data obtained from the Hospital Information System processed by the Portal of the Department of Informatics of SUS. The sample consisted of patients of all sexes and age groups, whose Hospital Admission Authorizations (AIHs) were approved for dental tertiary care procedures from January 2015 to December 2020. Descriptive analyses and the ANOVA test with a significance level set at p < 0.05 were used. When the annual mean numbers of AIHs approved were evaluated, findings showed that on an average, the Southeast region authorized a higher number of procedures (p-value < 0.001), however, in the pandemic year (2020), a reduction of approximately 24.5% of these hospitalizations occurred throughout Brazil, with the Midwest being the region most affected (32.12%). A percentage increase occurred in the Surgical Treatment of Oral sinus/Oral nasal Fistula (16.1%), in addition to a significant decrease in performing procedures for Resection of Mouth Lesion (33.4%). In the pandemic year, there was a reduction of 14% in expenditures related to hospital services and 23.26% related to professional services. It was concluded that the data presented demonstrated a significant reduction in AIHs for tertiary dental care in the pandemic year.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in foreign students’ satisfaction with the quality of dental and medical education considering the impact of the war in Ukraine. The present study was organized in the form of a questionnaire-based survey among 300 foreign students of Medical Faculty and Faculty of Dentistry in Ukraine. The questionnaire was ad mistered via Google form in a multiple-choice, closed-ended format. Students’ satisfaction with environment safety and comfort (p < 0.05) and with the collaborative learning offered (p < 0.05) statistically decreased during the war. Sixty percent of the variability in the mean of students’ satisfaction with the quality of education during the war could be explained by the satisfaction rate before the war. The need of migration from Ukraine had a stronger inverse correlation with education quality (r = -0.58) than the fact of the war itself (r = -0.32). The war in Ukraine has had a negative impact on the educational process of foreign medical and dental students, even though the quality of education was considered by students to be as high as before and during the war. The personal effort of professors, the quality of study materials, and adequate technical support could potentially overcome the negative impact of the war on student satisfaction with the quality of medical and dental education by the online mode, if the academic medium could be protected from the direct impact of the war or if the influence of the war within the university community could be minimized.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated dental students’ perceptions and adherence to an interactive web-based response system in the teaching of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Between 2018 and 2019, students from a single Brazilian dental school used the Poll Everywhere® app to answer questions on subjects taught during an Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology course. At the end of the academic semester, the students completed a questionnaire containing 10 questions regarding the app’s use. The study included 123 students. Regarding the devices used to answer the questions on the app, 117 (95.1%) students used a smartphone and 3 (2.4%) used a laptop. Almost all students (121; 98.4%) agreed that this interactive web-based response system provided the teacher with a better overview of students’ understanding and improved their self-assessment of the acquired knowledge of the subjects. Most students (118; 95.9%) preferred classes using this technology and 122 (99.2%) stated that using the app made them feel more engaged in classes. In addition, all students agreed that the app improved student–teacher interactions. Most students (119; 96.7%) considered the digital interactive method more attractive than the conventional teaching approach, and 99 (80.5%) did not have any negative comments regarding the app. In conclusion, the Poll Everywhere® app provides a more dynamic and attractive educational environment for Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology teaching.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hypertrichosis and dental anomalies may occur alone or in combination in the spectrum of many syndromes. To identify genetic entities characterized by hypertrichosis and dental anomalies, a search was performed in the Mendelian Inheritance in Man database with the terms “hypertrichosis” or “hirsutism” and “tooth” or “dental abnormalities.” Nondependent androgen metabolism disturbances were classified as hypertrichosis. Genetic entities with hypertrichosis and dental anomalies were included in the study. Additional searches were performed in the PubMed and Orphanet databases, when necessary, in order to include data from scientific articles. An integrative analysis of the genes associated with the identified syndromes was conducted using STRING to characterize biological processes, pathways, and interactive networks. The p-values were subjected to the false discovery rate for the correction of multiple tests. Thirty-nine syndromes were identified, and dental agenesis was the most frequent dental anomaly present in 41.02% (n = 16) of the syndromes. Causative genes were identified in 33 out of 39 genetic syndromes. Among them, 39 genes were identified, and 38 were analyzed by STRING, which showed 148 biological processes and three pathways that were statistically significant. The most significant biological processes were the disassembly of the nucleosome (GO:0006337, p = 1.09e-06), chromosomal organization (GO:0051276, p = 1.09e-06) and remodeling of the chromatin (GO: 0006338, p = 7.86e-06), and the pathways were hepatocellular carcinoma (hsa05225, p = 5.77e-05), thermogenesis (hsa04714, p = 0.00019), and cell cycle (hsa04110, p = 0.0433). Our results showed that the identification of hypertrichosis and dental anomalies may raise the suspicion of one of the thirty-nine syndromes with both phenotypes.
Abstract in English:Abstract In dentistry, most equipment is designed for right-handed (RH) individuals. Thus, left-handed (LH) individuals are often forced to adapt to demanding RH working conditions, and therefore, experience difficulties in their practice. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of left handedness among dental students at the Dental Clinic of Monastir, Tunisia, and to investigate the difficulties for LH individuals during clinical practice. A cross-sectional study was conducted among dental students during the academic year from September 2019 to March 2020. An adaptation of the Grad-Corllet Diagram and a specific questionnaire on clinical practices were administered to 221 participants. Data were analyzed using SPSS 24.0 statistical software for descriptive statistics and the chi-square test was performed (with a 5% significance level). The study revealed that 18.1% of dental students were LH. Among which, 82.5% of LH students had difficulties using instruments designed for RH dentists, 47.5% of LH students preferred the 3 o’clock working position, and 77.5% of LH students preferred to work in a sitting position. Most LH students (70%) reported that endodontic treatment was the most difficult procedure to perform. All students, whether RH or LH, presented a higher percentage of pain in the lumbar and neck/cervical regions; however, LH students presented higher values (77.5%) with statistically significant differences being reported for lower back pain (p = 0.026) and neck pain (p = 0.012). This study highlights the difficulties that LH dental students face in performing dental work. Dental Schools should provide LH students with appropriate equipment and a proper learning environment.
Abstract in English:Abstract Data on clinical management options for sleep bruxism in the primary dentition are inconclusive. This umbrella review aimed to synthesize the available evidence from systematic reviews (SRs) on the associated factors and treatment approaches for clinical management of sleep bruxism in children. A search was conducted in the MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and OpenGrey databases up to March 2022. SRs published on sleep bruxism in children containing data on associated factors or treatment outcomes were included. The AMSTAR-2 tool was used to assess the methodological quality of SRs. The search identified 444 articles, of which six were included. Sleep conditions, respiratory changes, personality traits, and psychosocial factors were the associated factors commonly identified. Treatments included psychological and pharmacological therapies, occlusal devices, physical therapy, and surgical therapy. All SRs included presented a high risk of bias. Overlapping of the included studies was considered very high. The best evidence available to date for the management of sleep bruxism in children is based on associated factors, with sleep duration and conditions, respiratory changes, as well as personality traits and psychosocial factors being the most important factors commonly reported by studies. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to make recommendations for specific treatment options.
Abstract in English:Abstract Scientific evidence about genetic and molecular changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) among smokers and non-smokers is inconclusive. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of tobacco on the DNA of individuals with OSCC based on protein mutations. Electronic searches were conducted on PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and Scopus to identify observational studies published up to January/2022. The Joanna Briggs Institute tool was used for the critical appraisal of studies. The certainty of the evidence was evaluated. Twenty-three studies assessing 4,060 individuals (2,967 smokers vs. 1,093 non-smokers) were included in this review. Fifteen groups of proteins/genes were investigated. Analysis of the quality of articles revealed low risk of bias in most studies. The certainty of the evidence was very low. The meta-analysis confirmed no significant difference between smokers and non-smokers with respect to damage to GSTM1 (OR: 0.60; 95%CI: 0.30–1.18), GSTT1 (OR: 1.18; 95%CI:0.49–2.83), hydrolase proteins (Ku70 and Ku80) (OR: 0.74; 95%CI: 0.18–3.05), and transferase proteins (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3) (OR: 0.74; 95%CI: 0.47–1.18). Most of the studies included showed that smokers are more likely to exhibit genetic instability. However, the meta-analysis revealed that smokers do not necessarily have more genetic alterations in the DNA than non-smokers.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the methodological quality and the consistency of recommendations of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in Periodontology. An electronic search was conducted in two databases, MEDLINE and EMBASE, eight CPGs databases, and home pages of scientific societies in Periodontology up to April 2022. Three reviewers independently assessed methodological quality using the AGREE II instrument. In addition, we evaluated the consistency of the recommendations. Eleven CPGs were included, and the topics developed focused on prevention, diagnosis, risk factors, surgical and non-surgical periodontal treatment, antimicrobial therapy, root coverage, and maintenance. We found that the AGREE domains 2 (Stakeholder involvement) and 5 (Applicability) obtained the lowest scores. Domains 1 (Scope and purpose), 3 (Rigor of development) and 4 (Clarity of presentation) obtained the highest scores among the evaluated CPGs. The clinical recommendations for treatment of periodontal diseases were mostly consistent. Overall, the quality of CPGs used in periodontics was high. There was consistency of recommendations in specific fields. These findings may help researchers to promote CPGs focused on different fields of periodontics that have not yet been developed. Furthermore, the clinician will be able to make better clinical decisions.
Abstract in English:Abstract This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effects of propolis on the severity of coronavirus disease symptoms by reducing periodontal disease. PubMed, EMBASE, SciELO, Web of Science, and SCOPUS databases were systematically searched. Studies have been conducted analyzing propolis’s effects on COVID-19 and periodontitis. The study was conducted according to the PRISMA statement and registered in PROSPERO. Risk of Bias (RoB) assessment and meta-analysis of clinical studies were performed (Review Manager 5, Cochrane). The certainty of the evidence was assessed using GradePro (GDT). Studies have shown propolis flavonoids inhibit viral replication in several DNA and RNA viruses, including coronaviruses. Propolis components have an aminopeptidase inhibitor activity that can inhibit the main proteases of SARS viruses and seem to inhibit protein spikes, which are sites of most mutations in SARS-CoV strains. The meta-analysis showed favorable results with the use of propolis on probing depth (95%CI: 0.92; p < 0.001), clinical attachment level (95%CI: 1.48; p < 0.001), gingival index (95%CI: 0.14; p = 0.03), plaque index (95%CI: 0.11; p = 0.23), and blending on probing (95%CI: 0.39; p < 0.001). The antibacterial activity of propolis could be mediated through its direct action on microorganisms or the stimulation of the immune system, activating natural defenses. Thus, propolis inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 as well as its bacterial activity. Treatment with propolis improves general health and facilitates the activation of the immune system against coronavirus.