Argentine and Brazilian scientific communities developments are focused comparatively. The author starts by explaining the paradox existent between the conditions (economical, cultural and educational) which should have been positive for the final result of the development of Argentine scientific communities, when compared with the Brazilian conditions throughout this century. Based on this paradox the author does not agree with the external explanation and defends the methodological importance of reflection about the strategies for recognition and legitimization of the scientific role. He distinguishes two types of strategies: the Scientificist or Interventionist and the Academicist or Renouncing. After characterizing each strategy based on the ideal type, the author interpreted, from historical evidence, the development of both countries. In the case of Argentine, the Interventionist strategies were dominating and generated a confrontation between intellectuals and university forces with dominant powers and especially with the State power, as well as between the defenders of each strategy. In Brazil, the Academicist strategy is placed as dominant and has been capable of concilitating the differences and establishing a standard of cooperation with the State. However, the differences between both developments are seen as differences between the confrontation or alliance possibilities of each strategy and in their relations, mainly, with the National States. The author suggests that to understand the specific development of each strategy in a national context, it is necessary to formulate certain hypotheses about the kind of relationships that each strategy has with the political traditions and cultural definition of identity in each country.