Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, Volume: 13, Issue: 5, Published: 2009
• ## Proposta e seleção de uma função polinomial para a avaliação de sistemas de irrigação Engenharia de Irrigação e Drenagem

Silva, Euzebio M. da; Lima, Jorge E. F. W.; Azevedo, Juscelino A. de

Abstract in Portuguese:

Abstract in English:

The use of mathematical models facilitates the calculation of the uniformity and efficiency parameters of irrigation systems and, thus, its utilization should be encouraged. This work had as its objectives the proposal of the use of a polynomial function for evaluating irrigation systems and to develop the mathematical relationships for calculating the main indicators for measuring irrigation performance, utilizing this function. In order to define the model to be proposed and to verify its suitability, comparisons were carried out among polynomial functions of various degrees against the Silva's potential model, utilizing data from 91 cases of irrigation system evaluations. The selection of the most adequate polynomial model was made by comparing adjusted curves to the cumulative frequency distribution of the sum of square errors that were obtained after adjusting the models to each set of measured water application data. The results showed that the fifth degree polynomial function is recommended to describe the applied water distribution from irrigation systems and it can be used to derive mathematical expressions for calculating the corresponding performance measures.
• ## Transpiração em mangueira pelo método Granier Manejo de Solo, Água e Planta

Vellame, Lucas M.; Coelho Filho, Mauricio A.; Paz, Vital P. S.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Objetivou-se, com esse trabalho avaliar o método Granier (sonda de dissipação térmica) para a cultura da manga quanto à viabilidade de uso em condições de campo e ajustar a equação de determinação do fluxo de seiva com base em medidas lisimétricas, iniciando-se com três mudas da variedade Tommy Atkins, plantadas em vasos que, colocados sobre plataforma de pesagem, funcionaram como lisímetros. A área condutora do caule (AS) foi determinada por meio da aplicação de corantes. Medidas de transpiração por lisimetria nas plantas foram realizadas em vaso e estimativas do fluxo de seiva com sonda de dissipação térmica (SDT). Em um ramo de planta adulta foram instaladas uma sonda de dissipação térmica e um sensor de balanço de calor caulinar. Os resultados demonstraram que, usando os coeficientes originais da equação de Granier, o método subestima em 31% o fluxo de seiva (FS) diário em relação à transpiração medida pelos lisímetros; modificando os parâmetros empíricos da equação FS = 0,00017k1,231AS o desvio médio apresentado foi de -1,4%, com boa precisão (R² = 0,89). O método da SDT e balanço de calor caulinar apresentaram boa concordância entre os valores.

Abstract in English:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate Granier's method (heat dissipation probe) for mango crop and to determine the viability of its use under field conditions and to adjust the equation of sap flow (SF) on the basis of lysimeter measurements. The work started with three seedlings of the variety Tommy Atkins cultivated in recipients that were placed on a weighing platforms which functioned as lysimeters. The sapwood area (SA) was determined through pigment application. Transpiration measurement by lysimeter were conducted in recipients and sap flow estimates with heat dissipation probe (HDP). This probe and a stem heat balance sensor were installed in one branch of the adult plant. The results showed that, using original coefficients of Granier's equation, the method underestimated sap flow by 31% daily in relation to the transpiration. Modifying empirical parameters of equation FS = 0,00017k1,231AS, the mean error was of -1.4% with good precision (R² = 0.89). HDP and stem heat balance method showed good agreement.
• ## Água disponível em um Neossolo Quartzarênico após adição de um condicionador mineral do solo Manejo de Solo, Água e Planta

Costa, Cicero S.; Rodrigues, José J. V.; Cavalcanti, Antônio C.; Marinho, Ligia B.; Almeida Neto, Luiz A.; Silva, Tonny J. A.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Abstract in English:

This work aimed at evaluating the addition of the sterile material resulting from gypsite mining as a soil conditioner on the water availability of a Quartzsandy Neosol collected in the municipality of Petrolina, PE. Field capacity (FC) was obtained by the saturation and subsequent drainage of a simulated soil profile in a column made up of PVC cylinders 100 cm high where doses of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g kg-1 of the sterile material were incorporated to the upper 40 cm. The permanent wilting point (PWP) was determined by the physiological method. In addition, the FC and the PWP were determined by the usual methodology using Richard's pressure plate with the pressures of 10 and 1500 kPa, respectively. The incorporation of increasing doses of sterile material increased the available soil water from 4.8 to 8.67%, determined by the traditional method, and from 14.76 to 15.08% in the same doses when available water was defined with the FC and the PWP determined by the column and physiological methods, respectively. By inserting the gravimetric water content of FC obtained by the column method in the soil water release curve, this parameter was best represented by a matric potencial close to -6 kPa.
• ## Crescimento e absorção de nutrientes pelo algodoeiro e pela mamoneira adubados com gliricídia e esterco Manejo de Solo, Água e Planta

Garrido, Marlon da S.; Menezes, Rômulo S. C.; Sampaio, Everardo V. S. B.; Marques, Tereza R. R.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Abstract in English:

The amount of manure available on farms in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil is usually insufficient to fertilize the cultivated areas. Besides this, in most cases the manure available is of low quality and may immobilize soil nitrogen. For these reasons, the use of green manures, such as gliricidia prunings, or the mixture of these with animal manures, may be a good alternative to increase the availability and quality of organic fertilizers. The initial growth and uptake of nutrient by cotton and castor bean fertilized with manure and/or gliricidia were measured in two consecutive growing periods in the greenhouse. The treatments were: incorporation 20 t ha-1 of manure; incorporation of 20 t ha-1 of gliricidia prunings; incorporation of the mixture of 10 t ha-1 of manure and 10 t ha-1 of gliricidia; and a control without fertilization. The treatment with gliricídia incorporation resulted in better development of both crops, greater soil N availability, greater accumulation of nutrients in the dry biomass of the crops, and greater apparent recovery of N, P and K, relative to the other treatments. The manure did not increase soil N availability, but the mixture of manure and gliricidia increased availability of soil N, P and K in relation to the control treatment, proving to be a promising practice capable of improving the quality of animal manure.
• ## Fertilização silicatada na severidade de brusone e na incidência de insetos-praga em arroz irrigado Manejo de Solo, Água e Planta

Santos, Alberto B. dos; Prabhu, Anne S.; Ferreira, Evane; Fageria, Nand K.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Abstract in English:

Rice blast and insect pests have laid a ceiling on the grain yield of irrigated rice in tropical regions. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of calcinated serpentinite and wallastonite on rice blast severity and insect pest incidence as well as grain yield of rice, in the main and ratoon crops. The effect of calcinated serpentinite and wollastonite rates (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 Mg ha-1) on leaf blast severity were assessed on cultivar Metica 1, under greenhouse conditions. Two field experiments were conducted in the municipality of Dueré, and two in Formoso do Araguaia, in the State of Tocantins. The treatments consisted of five doses of calcinated serpentinite (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 Mg ha-1) with and without fungicide application, and two genotypes BRS Formoso CNA 8502, susceptible and resistant to rice blast, respectively. The calcinated serpentinte was as much as, or more efficient than, wollastonite in reducing blast severity. It increased biomass, grain yield and percentage of endosperms without lesions caused by the rice stink bug. The application of Si contributed to sustainable management of blast and insect pest by reducing the number and doses of chemical foliar sprays, besides increasing the rice quality.
• ## Sistema de extração seqüencial da solução na macro e microporosidade do solo Manejo de Solo, Água e Planta

Gloaguen, Thomas V.; Pereira, Francisco A. C.; Gonçalves, Roberta A. B.; Paz, Vital da S.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Existem várias técnicas de extração da solução no solo; entretanto, a proporção entre a água gravitacional e as retidas por forças capilares é geralmente desconhecida. Neste estudo se propôs desenvolver um sistema de extração seqüencial da solução no solo a fim de caracterizar a sua composição química em função da porosidade do solo. Construíram-se colunas com terra fina secada ao ar de um Cambissolo de textura argilo-siltosa. As colunas foram saturadas por 24 h com água destilada, logo após, a solução no solo foi coletada aplicando-se sucessivamente na base das colunas um vácuo de: 0; -13,3; -26,7; -40,0; -53,3; -66,6 kPa. Mediram-se o volume, o pH, a condutividade elétrica e as concentrações de Na+, K+ e NO3-. Houve boa correlação entre o vácuo aplicado e o potencial mátrico do solo medido por tensiometria (não linear, r² = 0,998), validando o método proposto da extração seqüencial de solução. O estudo evidenciou importantes variações da composição química da solução nas diferentes porosidades do solo, com concentração iônica menor na macroporosidade, exceto para K+, demonstrando a necessidade de se uniformizar a metodologia de amostragem da solução do solo para evitar estimação incorreta da concentração de solutos no solo.

Abstract in English:

Various methodologies for soil solution sampling are available, but the proportion between gravitational and capilar water is usually unknown. In this study, a sequential extraction system of soil water for determining its chemical composition as a function of the soil porosity is presented. Soil columns were filled by air-dried clay-loam Ultisol. The columns were saturated with distilled water for 24 h, and then the soil solution was sampled at the base of the column by applying the suction equivalent to 0, 13.3, 26.7, 40.0, 53.3 and 66.6 kPa. Volume, pH, electrical conductivity, Na+, K+ and NO3- were measured in the solution. The high correlation (non linear; r² = 0.998) between applied suction and soil matrix potencial, which was assessed by a tensiometer within the soil column, validated the proposed method for sequential soil solution extraction. Ionic concentrations were highly variable in different soil pore sizes, with low concentrations in the soil macroporosity, except for K+, which demonstrated the necessity of standardizing the sampling methodology to avoid incorrect estimation of concentration of solute in soil.
• ## Crescimento do pinhão-manso irrigado com águas salinas em ambiente protegido Manejo de Solo, Água e Planta

Nery, Aparecida R.; Rodrigues, Luis N.; Silva, Maria B. R.; Fernandes, Pedro D.; Chaves, Lúcia H. G.; Dantas Neto, José; Gheyi, Hans R.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Abstract in English:

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of irrigation water salinity on the growth of Jatropha curcas L. in greenhouse. The research was carried out during April and October of 2007, in a greenhouse of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Natural Resources and Technology Center (CTRN) of Federal University of Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil. The plants were grown in drainage lysimeters (200 L) with 230 kg of non-saline, non-sodic soil adequately fertilized, classified as Gray Argisol eutrophic. The treatments consisted of five levels of electrical conductivity of the irrigation water - CEw (0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4 and 3.0 dS m-1, at 25 ºC). The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 4 replications, each replication represented by the average of 2 plants cultivated in separate lysimeters. Plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and leaf area were evaluated at 37, 58, 79, 100, 121, 142 and 163 days after sowing (DAS). At 163 DAS, Jatropha irrigated with ECw equal to 3.0 dS m-1 had plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and leaf area reduced by 9.07, 17.63, 23.41 and 42.58%, respectively.
• ## Cultivo do pimentão em condições protegidas sob diferentes doses de nitrogênio via fertirrigação Manejo de Solo, Água e Planta

Araújo, Jucilene S.; Andrade, Alberício P. de; Ramalho, Cícera I.; Azevedo, Carlos A. V. de

Abstract in Portuguese:

Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de doses de nitrogênio aplicadas via fertirrigação sobre o rendimento do pimentão cultivado em ambiente protegido, conduziu-se este trabalho no Centro de Ciências Agrárias-UFPB, consistindo de cinco tratamentos (0, 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg ha-1 de N) e 4 repetições. Avaliou-se o rendimento de frutos total, comercial e não-comercial e se determinou a relação entre a área foliar (AF) e o índice de área foliar (IAF) com o rendimento. Todas as doses de nitrogênio influenciaram, linear e positivamente, os rendimentos de frutos total e comercial e, de forma quadrática, o rendimento de frutos não-comercial. A acumulação térmica do pimentão para se atingir a fase de maior rendimento foi de 1,668 ºC e, para que completasse todo o seu ciclo fenológico, foram necessários 2,155 GDA. A área foliar e o índice de área foliar afetaram o rendimento total de frutos do pimentão, de forma linear.

Abstract in English:

Aiming to evaluate the effect of doses of nitrogen applied via fertirrigation on the yield of bell pepper cultivated in greenhouse, this work was conducted at the Center of Agrarian Sciences - UFPB. The experiment consisted of five treatments (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg ha-1 of N) and 4 repetitions. Total, commercial and non-commercial fruit yields were evaluated, and the relationship between the leaf area and the leaf area index with the yields were determined. The doses of nitrogen influenced linearly and positively the total (commercial plus non-commercial fruits) and for the commercial yield of fruits, and for non-commercial fruits of the bell pepper a quadratic function was observed. The thermal accumulation of the bell pepper to reach the phase of larger yield was of 1.668 ºC, and to complete its whole phenologic cycle, 2.155 GDA were necessary. The leaf area and the leaf area index affected the total yield of fruits of bell pepper, in a linear and positive way. The leaf area index showed itself to be satisfactory for the conditions of this experiment, demonstrating that the density of the plants used was adequate.
• ## Potencial pedoclimático do Estado da Bahia para o cultivo da atemóia Meteorologia e Climatologia Agrícola

Silva, Thieres G. F. da; Zolnier, Sérgio; Moura, Magna S. B. de; Sediyama, Gilberto C.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Abstract in English:

Atemoya crop has become an option for commercial purposes in the State of Bahia. However, the expansion of the cultivated area is being conducted without knowledge of the climatic and pedologic crop requirements. The objective of this work was to carry out a pedoclimatic zoning for atemoya cultivation in the State of Bahia based on established criteria of climate and soil according to crop requirements. By crossing the information between climatic and pedologic thematic maps, it was verified that 19.3% of the state territory exhibited appropriate conditions for crop production. Marginal and unsuitable areas were also identified, covering 13.9 and 24.3% respectively of the state area. Restrictions for atemoya cultivation were also observed in the major part of the territory (42.5%), which is caused mainly by climatic limitations. However, areas that present soil water deficiency only should have the cultivation encouraged by the use of irrigation since ideal conditions of the pedologic and the remaining climatic factors may be appropriate for obtaining high income.
• ## Estudo da viabilidade da produção de água a partir do resfriamento do ar Meteorologia e Climatologia Agrícola

Silva, Genival da; Sousa, Francisco de A. S. de

Abstract in Portuguese:

Pesquisas realizadas nos municípios paraibanos de Campina Grande e São João do Cariri comprovam a viabilidade da produção de água potável a partir da formação do orvalho em superfícies refrigeradas por sistemas convencionais de refrigeração ou pelo uso de garrafas PET contendo gelo. Os resultados experimentais aqui apresentados mostram que o resfriamento do ar pode produzir quantidades suficientes de água para minimizar as conseqüências da escassez de água potável na região Semi-árida do Nordeste brasileiro. O experimento, baseado no contato direto do ar com a superfície fria do sistema de refrigeração, produziu orvalho a uma taxa de 1,23 L h-1 m-2. Para produzir um litro de orvalho, este sistema consome, em média, 0,75 kWh de energia elétrica. Os resultados obtidos são satisfatórios considerando-se que o equipamento experimental utilizado é bastante simples.

Abstract in English:

Research carried out in the municipalities of Campina Grande and São João do Cariri prove the viability of the production of drinking water by the formation of the dew on cold surfaces of conventional refrigeration systems or on external surfaces of PET bottles containing ice. The experimental results presented here show that the cooling of air can produce enough quantity of water to minimize the consequences of shortage of drinking water in the semiarid zone of the Brazilian Northeast region. The experiment based on direct contact between the air and the cold surface of the refrigeration system produced dew at a rate of 1.23 L h-1 m-2. To obtain a liter of dew, the system consumes, on average, 0.75 kWh of electrical energy. The obtained results are satisfactory, considering that the experimental equipment used is quite simple.
• ## Modelagem hidrológica na bacia hidrográfica do Rio Aiuruoca, MG Meteorologia e Climatologia Agrícola

Viola, Marcelo R.; Mello, Carlos R. de; Acerbi Jr., Fausto W.; Silva, Antônio M. da

Abstract in Portuguese:

A simulação do comportamento hidrológico de bacias hidrográficas consiste em uma das principais ferramentas na gestão dos recursos hídricos, devido à possibilidade de predição do regime fluvial. A bacia em estudo está localizada na região Alto Rio Grande, Sul de Minas Gerais, com área de drenagem de 2.094 km², constituindo uma das bacias fundamentais de drenagem para o reservatório da Usina Hidrelétrica de Camargos (UHE - Camargos/CEMIG). Neste contexto se objetivou desenvolver e aplicar um modelo hidrológico semi-conceitual, na forma semi-distribuída, para simular o comportamento hidrológico da bacia do Rio Aiuruoca, com apoio dos SIGs e sensoriamento remoto, disponibilizando uma ferramenta útil para o gerenciamento e planejamento dos recursos hídricos na região. Os resultados do coeficiente estatístico de Nash-Sutcliffe (CNS) foram de 0,87 e 0,92 para as etapas de calibração e verificação, respectivamente, o que, de acordo com a classificação proposta para modelos hidrológicos de simulação, permite qualificá-lo para simulação do comportamento hidrológico na bacia hidrográfica do Rio Aiuruoca.

Abstract in English:

The hydrological simulation of watersheds is one of the most important tools for water resources management due to the possibility of flow regime prediction. The Aiuruoca river basin is located in the Alto Rio Grande Basin, southern Minas Gerais State, with 2,094 km² of drainage area, and is very important drainage basin into the Camargos Hydropower Plant Reservoir (UHE - Camargos/CEMIG). In this context, this work had the objective of developing and applying a semi-conceptual hydrologic model, in semi-distributed approach, for hydrologic simulation in the Aiuruoca river basin, based on GIS and Remote Sensing tools, thus creating an important tool for management and planning of water resources in the region. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients (CNS), respectively, for calibration and validation periods, were 0.87 and 0.92, showing that the model is able to simulate the hydrologic impacts on the basin, predicting its condition for feeding of the Camargos Reservoir.
• ## Estimativa da difusividade térmica de grãos de soja pelo método da compactação Armazenamento e Processamento de Produtos Agrícolas

Borges, Pedro A. P.; Fengler, Caroline; Cervi, Angéli

Abstract in Portuguese:

Abstract in English:

The measurement of thermal diffusivity of grains such as wheat, rice and barley becomes impracticable with methods that depend on the introduction of sensors inside the grain. In this study a method was proposed to determine the thermal diffusivity of grain considering the variations of the mass diffusivity of grains submitted to different compacting levels. Temperature was measured in internal points and in the border of cylinders of grain mass, for three compacting levels. The thermal diffusivity of grain mass was estimated solving the inverse problem. The heat transfer problem (direct problem) was solved numerically by the finite differences method. With the values of the thermal diffusivity for the three compacting levels, a function was fitted relating the grain mass diffusivity and density. This function was used to project the value of grain diffusivity as a function of measured grain density. The result obtained for soy bean is compatible with the existing data found in the literature. The precision of the method depends strongly on the experimental data quality and grain position density in the researched data interval of the grain mass density.
• ## Desidratação osmótica de frutos de duas cultivares de abacaxi em xarope de açúcar invertido Armazenamento e Processamento de Produtos Agrícolas

Dionello, Rafael G.; Berbert, Pedro A.; Molina, Marília A. B.; Pereira, Rozimar C.; Viana, Alexandre P.; Carlesso, Vinicius O.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Propôs-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a cinética da desidratação osmótica de fatias de frutos de duas cultivares de abacaxi, Pérola e Smooth Cayenne, em xarope de açúcar líquido invertido sem diluição. Empregaram-se dois níveis de temperatura da solução de desidratação, 40 e 50 ºC, dois níveis de agitação, zero e 60 min-1, tempo de imersão de 2 h e a relação fruta:xarope de 1:10. Verificou-se que a relação fruta:xarope usada, foi suficiente para manter inalterada a concentração da solução osmótica ao longo da desidratação. Houve aumento de cerca de três vezes no teor de sólidos solúveis totais das fatias de abacaxi, não se observando diferenças em função da cultivar e da temperatura de desidratação; observou-se, também, que a redução de massa, a perda de água e o ganho de sólidos, foram maiores para amostras da cultivar Pérola que para aquelas da cultivar Smooth Cayenne.

Abstract in English:

The objective of the present study was to investigate the kinetics of the osmotic dehydration of sliced pineapple of two cultivars, Pérola and Smooth Cayenne, in undiluted inverted sugar syrup. Osmotic dehydration was carried out using a fruit to syrup weight ratio of 1:10, and employing two levels of temperature of the solutions (40 and 50 ºC), two levels of agitation (zero and 60 min-1) for a total immersion time of 2 h. Results showed that the fruit to syrup ratio employed did not alter the total soluble solids content of the osmotic solution at the end of the dehydration process. A threefold increase in the total soluble solids content in pineapple slices was observed after dehydration, irrespective of cultivar and temperature of the solution. Highest values of mass reduction, water loss and solids gain were observed for fruit slices of cultivar Pérola.
• ## Qualidade dos grãos de soja armazenados em diferentes condições Armazenamento e Processamento de Produtos Agrícolas

Alencar, Ernandes R. de; Faroni, Lêda R. D.; Lacerda Filho, Adilio F.; Peternelli, Luiz A.; Costa, André R.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Abstract in English:

This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of soy bean grains stored under different conditions. The grains were harvested with moisture content (m. c.) of about 18.0% w.b. and dried to 11.2, 12.8 and 14.8% w.b. To maintain pre-determined m.c., the grains were stored at the following combinations of temperature and relative humidity: for 11.2%: 20 ºC and 61.7%; 30 ºC and 67.9%; 40 ºC and 69.4%; for 12.8%: 20 ºC and 73.7%; 30 ºC and 76.7%; 40 ºC and 80.8%; and for 14.8%: 20 ºC and 82.7%; 30 ºC and 83.9%; 40 ºC and 85.3%. Grains were sampled every 45 days over 180 days in order to determine m.c., grade classification, apparent specific grain mass, grain color and oil content. In general, the grains deteriorated during the storage period but the quality loss was more accentuated when stored with m.c. of 12.8 and 14.8% at 40 ºC. The grains stored with m.c. of 14.8% at 30 and 40 ºC did not meet commercial standards after 135 and 90 days, respectively. High m.c. and temperature during storage intensify the deteriorative processes of stored soy bean grains.
• ## Evolução da cobertura vegetal e uso agrícola do solo no município de Lagoa Seca, PB Gestão e Controle Ambiental

Barbosa, Íris do S.; Andrade, Leonaldo A. de; Almeida, José A. P. de

Abstract in Portuguese:

O presente estudo consiste no levantamento de informações relacionadas aos aspectos biofísicos, mapeamento e quantificação da vegetação natural e das áreas agricultáveis, mediante interpretação de fotos aéreas de 1984, análise visual de imagem digital do satélite Landsat, canais Tm³, TM4 e TM5, datada de 10 de julho de 1989 e no levantamento de coordenadas através do Sistema de Posicionamento Global (GPS), 2001. Foram elaborados, para a área em estudo, arquivos digitais georreferenciados, referentes aos temas limite municipal, cobertura vegetal natural e uso agrícola do solo, em ambos os períodos, 1984 e 2001, utilizados para a classificação da vegetação secundária dominante, na circunscrição das áreas de uso agrícola, de acordo com a prática agrícola peculiar, na identificação das fisionomias vegetais e avaliação do processo evolutivo das fisionomias no período mencionado.

Abstract in English:

This study comprised of the collection of data on biophysical aspects, the mapping and quantification of natural vegetation and arable areas, through interpretation of aerial pictures taken in 1984, visual analysis of digital images from Landsat satellites, Tm³, TM4 and TM5 channels, carried out on July 10, 1989 and the survey of coordinates through the Global Positioning System (GPS), 2001. Digital geo-referenced files elaborated for the studied area comprising basic data about the municipal limit, natural vegetation covering, land use, in both periods, 1984 and 2001, were used for classification of the dominant secondary vegetation, definition of the agricultural use of soil in agreement with the peculiar agricultural practices, identification of the vegetable physiognomies and evaluation of their evolutionary process in the mentioned period.
• ## Zoneamento agroecológico do município de Lagoa Seca, PB Gestão e Controle Ambiental

Barbosa, Íris do S.; Andrade, Leonaldo A. de; Almeida, José A. P. de

Abstract in Portuguese:

Visa-se, cinzelar, neste estudo um zoneamento em que se considerem os aspectos agrícolas, ecológicos e sociais inerentes ao município de Lagoa Seca, PB, elaborado através da análise dos vários cenários apresentados na área. O uso de um conjunto de recursos, como fotointerpretação, processamento de imagens georreferenciadas, posicionamento por satélites, associados à teoria sistêmica de Bertrand, possibilitou a identificação, delimitação e análise das áreas de uso antrópico, agrícola e das áreas com remanescentes vegetais significativos, que caracterizam o município. Foram elaborados para a área em estudo, arquivos digitais georreferenciados, relativos aos temas: limite municipal, áreas urbanizadas, infra-estrutura viária, rede de drenagem, altimetria, cobertura vegetal natural, uso agrícola do solo e zoneamento. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o município apresenta quatro regiões com aspectos distintos, as quais foram identificadas como regiões agroecológicas, de acordo com o fator que mais se destacou em cada área.

Abstract in English:

This work sought to perfect zoning which concerns the agricultural, ecological and social aspects in the municipality of Lagoa Seca in the State of Paraíba through the study of several scenarios in that area. It consisted of a set of approaches such as photo interpretation, geo-referenced image processing, and satellite positioning associated with Bertrand's Systemic Theory that allowed the identification, delimitation and analysis of areas of anthropic and agricultural usage as well as of those with remaining significant vegetation, which characterize the municipality. Digital geo-referenced files were elaborated for the studied area comprising basic data about the municipal limit, urbanized areas, road systems, drainage system, altimetry, cover of natural vegetation, soil farming usage and zoning of agroecological regions. The study showed that the municipality of Lagoa Seca has four regions with distinct aspects, as agroecological regions which were identified according to the factors prevailing in each area.
• ## Método "fingerprinting" para identificação de fontes de sedimentos em bacia hidrográfica rural Gestão e Controle Ambiental

Minella, Jean P. G.; Merten, Gustavo H.; Clarke, Robin T.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Abstract in English:

In this study, the fingerprinting method was used to identify sediment sources in a small rural watershed located in a mountainous region in southern Brazil. This watershed represents a typical agricultural ecosystem, in which smallhold farmers cultivate tobacco in marginal areas, with severe consequences to the natural resources. The identification of sediment sources, based on analysis of sediments transported in suspension, enables an evaluation of which areas are truly contributing to sediment production and, therefore, to make inferences about the polluting potential of these sediments. The study considered the main limitations of this method, as well as its potential in the identification of sediment sources. Through classification, it was possible to identify the relative contribution of these different sources, with fields and roads being predominant. Results showed that the contribution from these two sources varied over time and that the relative proportion of the contribution from each source varied according to management and soil cover in the fields and maintenance work performed in the roads. The average contribution from fields and roads was 64 and 36%, respectively.
• ## Propriedades de fluxo de produtos pulverulentos alimentícios Construções Rurais e Ambiência

Lopes Neto, José P.; Silva, Valneide R. da; Nascimento, José W. B. do

Abstract in Portuguese:

Visando fornecer maiores informações sobre o fluxo de produtos sólidos industriais, a presente pesquisa determinou as propriedades de fluxo de quatro produtos pulverulentos fabricados por indústrias de alimentos e analisou os seus níveis de escoabilidade, em função do tempo de consolidação. Na obtenção dos dados se utilizou o aparelho de cisalhamento direto de translação, com base na célula de cisalhamento de Jenike e bancada de consolidação. Para determinação do índice de fluxo (ffc) e, do diâmetro mínimo do orifício de descarga (D), adotou-se a metodologia de Jenike enquanto para o ângulo mínimo de inclinação da tremonha cônica lançou-se mão da metodologia de Enstad. Conclui-se que os tempos de consolidação estudados não afetaram as propriedades de fluxo dos produtos pulverulentos e que a inclinação mínima da tremonha para permitir o fluxo seja de 60º. Quanto ao orifício de descarga, seu valor pôde ser determinado pela metodologia de Jenike apenas para a farinha de trigo com valor mínimo de 1,1 m para o período de 24 h de consolidação.

Abstract in English:

Trying to provide more information about the flow of industrial solid materials, this research determined the flow properties of four powdered products manufactured by food industries and examined their levels of flowability, depending on the time of consolidation. The tests were conducted in the Jenike shear cell machine and consolidation bench. For determination of the flow index (FFC) and minimum diameter of the discharge orifice (D) Jenike's methodology was used and for minimum angle of the hopper, the Enstad's method was adopted. It may be concluded that the consolidation time studied did not affect the flow properties of powdered materials and the minimum inclination of hopper angle was 60º. It was possible to determine the discharge orifice by Jenike's method only in case of wheat flour with a minimum value of 1.1 m for 24-hour period of consolidation.
• ## Metodologia para avaliação do desgaste em ferramentas simétricas de mobilização do solo Máquinas Agrícolas

Machado, Antônio L. T.; Espírito Santo, Amauri C.; Batista, Vilson J.; Reis, Ângelo V. dos; Ferreira, Otoniel G. L.; Oldoni, André

Abstract in Portuguese:

Abstract in English:

The correct evaluation and prediction of the durability of soil-engaging mechanisms are important factors in the analysis of the agricultural equipments. The wear of these tools (planters furrow openers, chisel and subsoiler rippers) is dependent on various factors, among them the soil conditions and the geometric and constructive characteristics of the tool. The wear rate of the soil-engaging tools is usually determined through loss of mass. The analysis of the variation of the geometric configuration of the tool was assessed through digital photography, afterwards a software was used to design them. The objective of the study was to use a differentiated, agile methodology of easy execution, for evaluation of the wear of soil-engaging tools. In this study furrow openers of a direct drill planter was employed as the soil-engaging tool. The results show that the wear is best determined by the digital photography than the traditional method (loss of mass). The advantage of the proposed method consists basically in its agility and precision.
• ## Dosador mecânico de precisão para sementes miúdas: Testes funcionais Máquinas Agrícolas

Reis, Ângelo V. dos; Forcellini, Fernando A.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Com a tecnologia atual, há uma limitação na quantidade mínima de sementes miúdas (trigo, arroz, aveia, colza) que pode ser distribuída em uma área, e com isto, um obstáculo à redução dos custos de produção; assim, o desenvolvimento de mecanismos dosadores de precisão para culturas de sementes miúdas já se iniciou. O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de apresentar os resultados obtidos durante os testes de um protótipo de dosador mecânico tipo cilindro vertical de dupla face, no que se refere ao seu desempenho funcional na dosagem e deposição de sementes de arroz. Foram avaliadas, em laboratório, a porcentagem de enchimentos de células, a regularidade de distribuição longitudinal de sementes e a danificação mecânica de sementes. Conclui-se que a porcentagem de enchimento de células variou de 103,5 a 113,3% nas melhores condições de operação; que a acurácia de dosagem alcançada na saída do tubo condutor, expressa através dos tempos aceitáveis, foi de 34,5%; que tanto o nível de sementes no reservatório quanto a inclinação lateral do dosador não afetaram, de forma significativa, a acurácia e enfim, que o protótipo causou danificação mecânica às sementes de arroz, da ordem de 3,5%.

Abstract in English:

With current technology there is a limit to the minimum amount of small seeds (wheat, rice, oats, rape seed) that can be distributed in an area which is an obstacle in reducing production costs. Therefore, the development of precision seed meters for small grain crops has already begun. This paper presents the results obtained during the tests of the prototype of a seed meter consisting of a vertical double-face mechanical cylinder, concerning its functional performance in metering and placing rice seeds. Laboratory tests were made to access the percentage of cell fill, the regularity of longitudinal distribution of seeds and the mechanical injury to the seeds. The conclusions were: the percentage of cell fill ranged from 103.5 to 113.3% in the best operational conditions; the seed metering accuracy reached at outlet of the seed tube, expressed as acceptable time, was 34.5%; both the level of seeds in the hopper and the lateral inclination of the seed meter did not statistically affect the accuracy and, finally, the prototype caused mechanical injuries to of the seeds of the order of 3.5%.
• ## Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energia na Agricultura

Gonçalves, José E.; Sartori, Maria M. P.; Leão, Alcides L.

Abstract in Portuguese: