Abstract in Portuguese:Objetivou-se avaliar a levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae como pronutriente em dietas para matrizes e alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo. O experimento foi realizado em duas etapas na UNESP. Dois grupos de fêmeas reprodutoras de tilápia (734,47 ± 202,08 g), variedade GIFT, foram arraçoados por 100 dias com rações isoproteicas (34% PD) e isoenergéticas (3.400 kcal ED/kg), uma contendo 2% de levedura íntegra e outra sem levedura. As fêmeas foram fecundadas naturalmente e as larvas, ao final da absorção do saco vitelino, foram alocadas em aquários de 3,5 L e alimentadas por 30 dias com três rações isoproteicas (35% PD) e isoenergéticas (3.280 kcal ED/kg): sem levedura; contendo 1% de levedura íntegra; ou contendo 1% de levedura autolisada. Após o abate, foram calculadas as seguintes variáveis de desempenho produtivo: biomassa final; ganho de peso; consumo de ração; conversão alimentar aparente; peso final; comprimento total; fator de condição corporal; altura média; e sobrevivência. Foram analisados ainda os teores de matéria seca, matéria mineral, proteína bruta e extrato etéreo da carcaça dos animais. Verificou-se interação significativa dos fatores analisados para todas as variáveis de desempenho produtivo, exceto para o consumo de ração. O fornecimento de levedura íntegra (2,0%) em dietas para matrizes ou alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (1,0%) aumenta a taxa de sobrevivência dos alevinos.
Abstract in English:This trial was conducted to evaluate dietary yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as pro-nutrient for diets for Nile tilapia broodstock females and fingerlings. The trial was conducted in two phases at UNESP. Two groups of tilapia broodstock females (734.47 ± 202.08 g), GIFT genealogy, were fed with isoprotein (34% DP) and isoenergy (3400 kcal DE/kg) diets for 100 days, one with 2% autolized yeast and the other with no yeast. Broodstock females were naturally fecundated, and larvae, at the end of yolk sac absorption, were stocked into 3.5-L aquarium and fed 30 days with three isoprotein (35% DP) and isoenergy (3280 kcal DE/kg) diets: without yeast, containing 1% whole yeast or 1% autolized yeast. After, fingerlings were killed and final biomass; weight gain; ration consumption; apparent feed conversion; final weight; total length; corporal condition factor; mean height and survival were determined. Dry matter, ash, crude protein and ether extract from fish body were also determined. There was interaction of the data analyzed for all growth performance variables, except for feed intake. Supplying whole yeast (2.0%) in Nile tilapia broodstock female diets or in fingerling diets (1.0%) improves fingerling survival.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of light intensity on the feed training of juvenile giant trahiras (Hoplias lacerdae). A completely randomized design with four light treatments and three replicates was used, and the following light intensities were tested: 204.9; 177.58; 54.64 and 0.00 lux. Juvenile giant trahiras (length = 3.0 ± 0.4 cm and weight = 0.5 ± 0.05 g) were stocked at 6 fish L-1 in 12 rectangular tanks (24 × 20 × 14 cm) containing six liters of water, and subjected to feed training to accept dry diets. At the end of the experiment (21 days), weight gain, length gain, survival, cannibalism, and mortality rates were evaluated. Data were subjected to regression analysis at 5% probability. Different light intensities did not affect growth, survival, mortality, or cannibalism rates in juvenile giant trahiras during the feed training. Therefore, this species can be trained to accept dry diets in the presence or absence of light.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu canopy structure maintained at different grazing heights under a continuous stocking rate and with a dietary supplementation strategy for the animals during the rainy season. This study also intended to observe the relationships of these variables with the grazing behaviors of the heifers. The effects of three canopy heights (15, 25 and 35 cm) were evaluated in association with three types of supplements: one mineral and two protein/energy supplements, the first with a high rumen degradable protein and energy and the others with a low ratio. Both the protein/energy supplements were provided at 0.3% of body weight/day. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications and repeated measures, and took place during the period from January to April 2008. The supplementation strategies did not affect any variable related to the canopy structure. Total and green herbage masses and the ratio of green/dead material increased with canopy height. The leaf/stem ratio was higher in the lowest canopy height: 15 cm. Changes in the canopy structure caused variations in the grazing behavior of the animals. Animals maintained in the 15-cm-tall pasture grazed for a longer time, increasing the time for each meal, but the number of meals was lower than that of the animals grazing within the 35-cm-tall pasture. The grazing time of animals receiving the energy/protein supplement was lower only in the period of the day during which it was supplied. Canopy structure is affected by sward height, and changes animal behavior. Supplementation does not affect the canopy structure of the pastures with similar heights.
Abstract in English:In this study, the phenotypic diversity of five accessions of giant missionary grass (Axonopus jesuiticus × A. scoparius) was evaluated by using morphophysiological traits. Accessions V 14337, V 14403, V 14404, V 14405 and V 14406 are hybrids derived from spontaneous crossing that occurred in Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plants were cultivated in greenhouse and evaluated at 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days of growth. Variation was observed for dry matter production, phenology and morphological traits, showing the possibility of selection. Flowering started at 210 days of growth and only in accessions V 14337 and V 14404. The Mahalanobis distance among accessions ranged from 35.64 (V 14403 and V 14405) to 183.38 (V 14337 and V 14405), and three groups were formed, based on 17 vegetative morphophysiological traits evaluated in plants with 180 days of growth: G1 (V 14403, V 14405), G2 (V 14406) and G3 (V 14337, V 14404). Group I presented the greatest dry matter production of stolon and aboveground, which were the traits with the largest relative contribution to genetic divergence, 38.67% and 38.31%, respectively. Accessions V 14403 and V 14405 are the most promising for agronomic evaluations that address their records as forage cultivars.
Abstract in Portuguese:O experimento foi conduzido com os objetivos de avaliar a altura do dossel com 95% de interceptação luminosa e quantificar a influência da adubação nitrogenada e da densidade de plantas nas características morfogênicas e estruturais de capim-tanzânia. Quatro doses de nitrogênio, N (0, 80, 160 e 320 kg.ha-1), foram combinadas com três densidades de plantas (9, 25 e 49 plantas.m-2), em um arranjo fatorial 4 × 3, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições, para avaliação da produção de biomassa, e duas repetições, para avaliação das características morfogênicas e estruturais. O acúmulo de MS total durante o período experimental foi influenciado pela adubação nitrogenada e pela densidade de plantas. No período das águas, as maiores doses de nitrogênio diminuíram o intervalo de colheitas e, consequentemente, aumentaram o número de colheitas. A altura do dossel de capim-tanzânia com 95% de IL foi positivamente influenciada pela densidade de plantas nos períodos das águas e de transição água-seca e seca. A altura do capim-tanzânia com 95% de IL apresentou variações ao longo das avaliações, de modo que os valores foram maiores (próximos a 70 cm) no período das águas, seguido pelos períodos de transição água-seca e seca.
Abstract in English:This experiment was carried out to evaluate canopy height of guinea grass with 95% of photosynthetic active radiation interception and quantify the nitrogen fertilization influence and plants' density on the morphogenesis and structural characteristics of Tanzania grass. Four doses of N (0, 80, 160 e 320 kg.ha-1), were arranged with three plant densities (9, 25 and 49 plants.m-2), according to 4 × 3 completely randomized design, with three repetitions. Total dry matter (DM) accumulation throughout the experimental period was influenced by nitrogen fertilization and plants' density. In the rainy period, the higher nitrogen fertilization decreased the harvesting intervals, and consequently, increased the number of harvests. The rate of leaf appearance and the phyllochron were influenced only under nitrogen fertilization in the transition period of rainy and dry weather. Tanzania grass canopy height under 95% of light interception was positively influenced because of the plant densities in rainy period and transition period between rainy/drought and drought. Tanzania grass height under 95% of light interception presented variations along the evaluations and the values were higher (near 70 cm) in the rainy period, followed by transition period rain/drought and drought.
Abstract in English:The objective of this trial was to evaluate chemical additives and a bacterial inoculant on the inhibition of alcoholic fermentation and reduction of losses in sugarcane silages. Treatments were (doses on a fresh forage basis): without additive (control); urea (10 g/kg); urea (5 g/kg) + sodium benzoate (0.5 g/kg); sodium benzoate (1 g/kg); urea + ammonium sulfate in a 9:1 relation (10 g/kg); Lactobacillus buchneri (5 × 10(4) cfu/g). Silages were produced in 10.16- × 30-cm PVC tubes, provided with tight lids adapted with Bunsen valves for gas losses quantification. Minisilos were opened 139 days after ensiling. Ethanol content (227 g/kg dry matter - DM) and total DM loss (30%) were high in the control silage. All additives, except benzoate, decreased ethanol concentration in silages. Inoculation with L. buchneri increased acetic acid content in the silage, resulting in a 41% reduction in ethanol content and the lowest gas loss among treatments (15.2%). There was synergistic effect between additives for the combined use of urea and benzoate. Silage treated with urea + ammonium sulfate has higher content of total digestible nutrients than the silage treated with urea exclusively.
Abstract in Portuguese:Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar estratégias eficazes de manejo do pastejo de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, sob lotação contínua, com base em avaliações das suas características morfogênicas e estruturais. Duas estratégias de manejo do pastejo foram estudadas: em uma, o pasto foi mantido com 25 cm de altura média durante todo o período experimental e, na outra, foi mantido em 15 cm de altura média durante o inverno, com aumento para 25 cm a partir do início da primavera. Adotou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. Consideraram-se, como fator primário, as estratégias de manejo do pastejo, caracterizadas pelas alturas médias dos pastos durante as estações do ano (inverno, primavera e verão), e, como fator secundário, as estações. O rebaixamento do pasto para 15 cm no inverno resultou em maior taxa de aparecimento foliar (0,02 folha/perfilho.dia) e maior número de folhas vivas (4,5 folhas por perfilho) no inverno, mas provocou redução, no inverno, da duração de vida da folha (66 dias), da taxa de senescência foliar (0,22 cm/perfilho.dia) e dos comprimentos da lâmina foliar (11 cm) e pseudocolmo (15,2 cm) em relação ao pasto com 25 cm. Nesta estação, foram menores os valores observados para as taxas de aparecimento foliar (0,06 folha/perfilho.dia), alongamento foliar (0,110 cm/perfilho.dia) e alongamento de pseudocolmo (0,008 cm/perfilho.dia), número de folha viva (2,9 folhas por perfilho) e comprimentos da lâmina foliar (8,6 cm) e do pseudocolmo (13,5 cm). Por outro lado, a duração de vida da folha (139 dias) e o número de folhas mortas (2,0 folhas por perfilho) foram maiores. O maior valor de taxa de senescência foliar ocorreu na primavera (0,40 cm/perfilho.dia). O pasto de B. decumbens cv. Basilisk sob lotação contínua pode ser manejado de forma sazonal, com rebaixamento para 15 cm no início do inverno e posterior aumento para 25 cm no início da primavera.
Abstract in English:This study was conducted to identify effective strategies for grazing managing of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, under continuous stocking, based on assessments of their morphogenetic and structural characteristics. Two strategies of grazing management were studied: in one, the grass was maintained with 25-cm mean height throughout the experimental period, and in the other, it was 15 cm during the winter, rising to 25 cm from the beginning of spring. The split-plot in randomized block design with four replications was adopted. The strategies of grazing management responded to primary factor, characterized by average heights of pastures during the seasons (winter, spring and summer). The seasons corresponded to secondary factor and consisted of measures over the experimental period. Pasture's lowering to 15 cm in the winter resulted in higher leaf appearance rate (0.02 leaves/tiller.day) and higher number of live leaves (4.5 leaves/tiller) in the winter. However, this management strategy lowered leaf lifespan (66 days), leaf senescence rate (0.22 cm/tiller.day), and length of leaf lamina (11 cm) and stem (15.2 cm) in winter months, in relation to pasture with 25 cm. During this season, rates of leaf appearance (0.06 leaves/tiller.day), leaf elongation (0.110 cm/tiller.day) stem elongation (0.008 cm/tiller.day), live leaves (2.9 leaves/tiller), length of leaf lamina (8.6 cm) and stem (13.5 cm) lowered. On the other hand, leaf lifespan (139 days) and number of dead leaves (2.0 leaves/tiller) were higher. The highest leaf senescence rate occurred in the spring (0.40 cm/tiller.day). The B. decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture under continuous stocking can be managed on a seasonal basis, with decrease to 15 cm in early winter, and further increase to 25 cm in early spring.
Abstract in Portuguese:Objetivou-se estabelecer estratégias de manejo do pastejo, sob lotação contínua, que otimizem o padrão natural de perfilhamento da Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Duas estratégias de manejo do pastejo foram estudadas: em uma, o pasto foi mantido com 25 cm de altura média durante todo o período experimental; e na outra foi mantido em 15 cm de altura média durante o inverno, com aumento para 25 cm a partir do início da primavera. Adotou-se o esquema de parcelas subdivididas em delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Consideraram-se como fator primário as estratégias de manejo do pastejo, caracterizadas pelas alturas médias em que os pastos foram mantidos durante as estações do ano (inverno, primavera e verão) e, como fator secundário, as medidas ao longo do período experimental. A taxa de aparecimento de perfilho (4,7%), a taxa de mortalidade (4,7%) e o índice de estabilidade (0,998) foram menores no inverno. Nesta estação, contudo, a taxa de sobrevivência de perfilho foi maior (95,3%). Em comparação aos pastos mantidos com 25 cm, aqueles manejados com 15 cm de altura média no inverno apresentaram maiores taxas de aparecimento de perfilho (34,2%) e índice de estabilidade (1,065). O florescimento do capim-braquiária ocorreu apenas no verão e com pouca intensidade (0,5%). A otimização da renovação de perfilhos no pasto de B. decumbens cv. Basilisk sob lotação contínua ocorre com seu rebaixamento para 15 cm no início do inverno e seu posterior aumento para 25 cm no início da primavera.
Abstract in English:The experiment was conducted to establish management strategies of grazing under continuous stocking that optimize the natural pattern of tillering of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Two strategies of grazing management were studied: in one, the grass was maintained with 25-cm mean height throughout the experimental period, and in the other, 15-cm mean height during the winter, rising to 25 cm from beginning of spring. The split-plot in randomized block design with four replications was adopted. The strategies of grazing management corresponded to primary factor, characterized by average heights of pastures during the seasons of the year (winter, spring and summer). The seasons corresponded to secondary factor and consisted of measures over experimental period. The rates of tillers appearance (4.7%), death (4.7%) and stability index (0.998) were lower in winter. During this season, however, the tiller survival rate was higher (95.3%). Compared with pastures maintained at 25 cm, those managed with 15 cm in winter had higher tiller appearance rate (34.2%) and stability index (1.065). The signalgrass flowering occurred only in the summer and with low intensity (0.5%). Optimization for renewal of tillers in B. decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture under continuous stocking occurs with its decrease to 15 cm at the beginning of winter and subsequent increase to 25 cm in early spring.
Abstract in Portuguese:Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica da associação capim-de-raiz (Chloris orthonoton Doell) e capim-milhã [Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) Hitchc] quanto à persistência e produção. Em pasto nativo diferido, foram realizadas a coleta do material botânico, avaliação da composição botânica e massa de forragem. Para estimativa da massa de forragem, utilizou-se delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos; 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias de diferimento; e cinco repetições. Na composição botânica, expressa em percentual do total, foram identificadas 10 famílias, 15 gêneros e 18 espécies. No período de maio a agosto de 2007, o capim-milhã foi o componente principal dos 60 aos 90 dias, correspondendo a 46,75 e 52,09%, respectivamente, da composição botânica total. Em agosto de 2007, outras espécies participaram com 57,75% da composição botânica. No ano de 2008, ao final do período de diferimento, outras espécies ocuparam 100% da composição botânica do pasto. As maiores massas de forragem (kg de MS/ha) para o capim-milhã (2.736) foram aos 90 dias, para outras espécies (3.141) e capim-de-raiz (2.701) aos 120 dias. O aproveitamento da forragem acumulada deve ocorrer preferencialmente dos 60 aos 90 dias. Após um ano sem interferência, o capim-de-raiz e o capim-milhã diminuem a participação na composição botânica do pasto.
Abstract in English:This study aimed to evaluate the dynamics of the association of 'capim-de-raiz' (Chloris orthonoton Doell) and alexandergrass [Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) Hitchc], as for persistence and production. Gathering of botanical material, evaluation of botanical composition and forage mass were realized in deferred native pastures. To estimate forage mass, a randomized block design with four treatments was used, consisting of 60, 90, 120 and 150 days of deferring and five replications. The botanical composition was expressed as a percentage of the total. Ten families, 15 genera, and 18 species were identified. In the botanical composition from May to August 2007, alexandergrass was the main component from 60 to 90 days, corresponding to 46.75 and 52.09%, respectively. In August 2007, other species participated with 57.75% of the botanical composition. In the assessment of the year 2008, at the end of the deferring period, other species occupied 100% of the botanical composition of pasture. The highest forage mass (kg DM/ha) for alexandergrass (2,736) occurred at 90 days; for other species (3,141) and 'capim-de-raiz' (2,701), it was at 120 days. The use of stockpiled forage should preferably take place after 60 to 90 days of deferring. After a year without interference, 'capim-de-raiz' and alexandergrass decrease participation in the botanical composition of pasture.
Abstract in Portuguese:Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de óxido de cálcio (CaO) e/ou L. buchneri (LB) sobre as perdas e alterações químicas de silagens de cana-de-açúcar in natura ou queimada. Foram avaliadas silagens de cana-de-açúcar in natura ou queimada produzidas sem aditivo; com Lactobacillus buchneri; com óxido de cálcio equivalente 1% da matéria natural; ou com a associação do L. buchneri e do óxido de cálcio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial (2 × 4), considerando fatores a queima (presença ou ausência) e o uso de aditivos (L. buchneri, óxido de cálcio e sua associação), cada um avaliado com três repetições. O óxido de cálcio foi mais eficiente em reduzir a variação no teor de matéria seca tanto nas silagens de cana-de-açúcar in natura quanto na queimada. Nas silagens de cana-de-açúcar sem aditivos, maiores recuperações de matéria seca foram observadas quando a ensilagem foi feita com cana in natura (63,5%) em comparação à cana queimada (46,8%). Todavia, quando utilizados aditivos, não houve diferenças entre as silagens de cana-de-açúcar in natura e queimada. A presença de óxido de cálcio foi o fator que promoveu maior diferença entre as silagens. O óxido de cálcio é eficiente em reduzir as perdas e as alterações químicas na ensilagem de cana-de-açúcar, tanto in natura quanto queimada. O L. buchneri atua eficientemente em silagens de cana-de-açúcar queimada. Silagens de cana-de-açúcar queimada são mais propensas às perdas que as de cana-de-açúcar in natura.
Abstract in English:The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of calcium oxide (CaO) and/or L. buchneri (LB) on the losses and chemical composition changes of in natura and burned sugar cane silages. Silage treatments were: in natura sugar cane without additive (IS), with Lactobacillus buchneri (ISLB), with calcium oxide (ISCaO) equivalent to 1% of natural matter, and the combination of LB and CaO (ISLBCaO). Experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (2 × 4) considering status (burned or not) and additives (LB, CaO and LB+CaO) with three replications per treatment. Dry matter variation was lower for in natura and burned silages treated with CaO; regardless of the LB presence, the mean difference was 5.85 percentage units. In sugar cane silages without additives, higher dry matter recoveries were observed when the plant was ensiled with in natura silage (63.5%) compared with burned silage (46.8%). However, when additives (CaO and LB) were used, no significant differences occurred between the in natura and burned silage treatments. The presence of calcium oxide was the factor that provided the greatest discrimination among the data. Calcium oxide is effective in reducing losses and chemical changes on the in natura and burned silages. The L. buchneri acts effectively on burned sugar cane silages, and the latter are more susceptible to losses than those of in natura sugar cane.
Abstract in English:The ingestive behavior and performance of female lambs grazing on Marandu pasture submitted to different stocking rates during the rainy and transition season were evaluated. The experimental area with 4,500 m² was divided into 45 paddocks of 100 m². Twenty-seven Santa Ines female lambs (purebred) with 4 months age and 22 kg of initial body weight were distributed in a completely randomized design, with nine replicates. Lambs were divided into 9 groups with the same initial weight and submitted to three stocking rates: 2, 3 and 4 lambs/paddock, which corresponded to 40, 60 and 80 lambs/ha, respectively. Each group of animals had a module of five paddocks, managed on intermittent grazing system, with 7 days of occupation and 28 d of rest. Increase on time grazing and reduction on time ruminating and resting were observed as stocking rates increased. There was 14% raise in time grazing and 41% decline on time resting by lambs subjected to the highest stocking rate compared with those in the lower stocking rate. The number of animals/ha promoted linear effect on average daily gain, which was higher for animals in the lowest stocking rate of 90 g/d. For gain per area, the best result was obtained with 60 animals/ha featuring an average value of 426 kg/ha.
Abstract in Portuguese:Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar as características estruturais e o acúmulo de forragem do capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia) sob pastejo rotativo e submetido às combinações de duas frequências de pastejo (tempo para o dossel atingir 90 ou 95% de interceptação da luz - IL) e duas alturas pós-pastejo (30 ou 50 cm). Adotou-se um arranjo fatorial 2 × 2 em delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. As alturas pré-pastejo foram estáveis durante o período experimental (7/11/2005 a 12/10/2006) e corresponderam a 65 e 75 cm para metas de 90 e 95% de IL, respectivamente. Os pastos manejados com altura pós-pastejo de 50 cm e com 90% de IL apresentaram maior número de ciclos de pastejo em comparação àqueles submetidos à altura pós-pastejo de 30 cm e com 95% de IL. Padrão de resposta contrário ocorreu para o intervalo de pastejo. O acúmulo de lâmina foliar (LF) foi maior no verão, intermediário no final da primavera e menor no outono e no inverno e início da primavera. O acúmulo de FT e de LF foi maior nos pastos manejados com 30 cm de altura pós-pastejo em comparação àqueles com 50 cm. Por outro lado, os efeitos da condição pré-pastejo no acúmulo de FT dependeu do resíduo usado. Os níveis de IL (90 ou 95%) não influenciaram o acúmulo de lâminas foliares. As combinações de intensidades e frequências de pastejo resultaram em pouca variação na composição morfológica da forragem, exceto no outono, quando se observou maior percentual de material morto em pastos manejados com 50 cm de altura pós-pastejo em comparação àqueles sob 30 cm de resíduo. O pastejo rotativo do capim-tanzânia deve ser iniciado com 95% de IL pelo dossel e encerrado com 30 cm de altura pós-pastejo. Quando necessário, e para gerar flexibilidade no manejo do pastejo, o capim-tanzânia pode ser pastejado com 90% de IL pelo dossel.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural characteristics and herbage accumulation of tanzania guineagrass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania) under rotational grazing and subjected to combinations of two grazing frequencies (time for the canopy to intercept 90 or 95% of the incident light) and two post-grazing heights (30 or 50 cm). Treatments were assigned to experimental units according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design, with three replications. Sward heights at pre-grazing were consistent during the experimental period and were of around 65 and 75 cm, for 90% and 95% of light interception (LI), respectively. Pastures managed with post-grazing height of 50 cm and 90% of LI had higher number of grazing cycles when compared with those submitted to post-grazing height of 30 cm and 95% of LI. Herbage mass production was higher in summer, intermediate in late spring and lowest in fall and winter and early spring. Herbage mass and lamina leaves production were higher in pastures managed with post-grazing height of 30 cm when compared with post-grazing height of 50 cm. Nevertheless, the effects of frequency on herbage mass production were associated with the post-grazing height used. The LI levels (90 or 95%) did not affect leaf lamina production. The combinations of frequency and severity of grazing resulted in little variation in the morphological composition of forage, except in the autumn, when there was a higher percentage of dead material in pastures managed with post-grazing height of 50 cm when compared with those with post-grazing height of 30 cm. The rotational grazing of tanzania guineagrass should be initiated when canopy intercepts 95% of incident light until a post-grazing height of 30 cm. When necessary and in order to generate flexibility in grazing management, the tanzania guineagrass can be grazed with 90% of light interception.
Abstract in Portuguese:Objetivou-se obter os índices de diversidade genética para o SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) do íntron 4 do gene da osteopontina (OPN) para 434 animais (87 touros e 347 vacas) participantes do Teste de Progênie da raça girolando no Brasil. Para a amplificação, foram utilizados primers descritos para a raça holandesa, e a diferenciação dos alelos C/T desse SNP foi obtida por meio da técnica de PCR-RFLP. As frequências genotípicas TT (52,53%), CT (38,71%) e CC (8,76%) e as frequências alélicas de T (71,9%) e C (28,1%) indicam que a população encontra-se em Equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg (EHW). Apesar de o loco do gene OPN estar em EHW, a frequência superior do alelo T do SNP nesses animais pode sugerir uma tendência de fixação do alelo T na raça. Não foi observada diferenciação entre o grupo de touros e vacas (F ST = -0,018), corroborando a estimativa de equilíbrio da população. Considerando os valores estimados pelo F IS (0,043), é possível que ocorram altos números de indivíduos homozigotos para o alelo T observados na população, em virtude da provável herança desse alelo vindo da raça zebuína, e não a endogamia. Assim, para melhor caracterização do polimorfismo do gene OPN, devem ser realizadas avaliações em maior número de animais, uma vez que só foram avaliados animais participantes do teste de progênie.
Abstract in English:The objective was to obtain the indices of genetic diversity for the SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) of the 4 intron osteopontin gene (OPN) for 434 animals (87 bulls and 347 cows) participants in the Teste de Progênie da raça girolando (Girolando Progeny Test) in Brazil. For amplification, primers used were described for the Holstein breed, and differentiation of alleles C/T SNP that was obtained by PCR-RFLP. Genotype frequencies of TT (52.53%), CT (38.71%) and CC (8.76%) and allele frequencies of T (71.9%) and C (28.1%) indicate that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg principle (HWP). Although the OPN gene locus is in HWP, the higher frequency of allele T of SNP in these animals may suggest a setting-trend of allele T in the race. No difference was observed between the group of bulls and cows (F ST = -0.018), supporting the estimate of population balance. Considering the values estimated by the F IS (0.043), it is likely that high numbers of individuals homozygous for the T allele observed in the population occur because of possible inheritance of this allele coming from the zebu breed, rather than inbreeding. Thus, to better characterize the OPN gene polymorphism, assessments in a larger number of animals must be performed, since only animals that participated in the Progeny Test were assessed.
Abstract in Portuguese:Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar alternativas para modelagem de efeitos genéticos e ambientais que influenciam o peso à desmama de bezerros mestiços Charolês-Zebu. Foram utilizados os dados de peso à desmama de 56.965 bezerros, com percentuais de alelos de origem da raça Charolesa variando entre 23% e 66%. Os modelos considerados diferiram quanto à inclusão de efeitos genéticos aditivos e não-aditivos médios, individuais e maternos, bem como quanto à maneira de modelar estes efeitos (regressão múltipla ou variável classificatória). Também foi avaliada a inclusão da interação entre o grupo genético do bezerro e seu grupo de contemporâneos, como um efeito aleatório não correlacionado. De acordo com os critérios de ajuste utilizados, a interação entre o grupo genético e o grupo de contemporâneos representa parte significativa da variação observada para o peso à desmama de bezerros Charolês-Zebu e os efeitos dos percentuais de alelos de origem da raça Charolesa e de heterozigoses, individuais e maternos, podem ser modelados por meio da utilização de regressão múltipla.
Abstract in English:This study was carried out to evaluate some alternatives for modeling of genetic and environmental effects influencing the weaning weight of Charolais-Zebu crossbred calves. The weaning weight data of 56,965 calves with alleles' percentage from the Charolais breed varying from 23% to 66% were used. The models under comparison differed for the inclusion of the individual and maternal additive and non-additive genetic effects, as well as the way to model those effects (multiple regression or discrete variable). The inclusion of the interaction between the calf genetic group and its contemporary group was also evaluated as a random uncorrelated effect. The adjustment criteria pointed out the interaction between the calf genetic group and its contemporary group to represent a significant part of the variation observed for the weaning weight of the Charolais-Zebu crossbred calves, and the effects of alleles' percentage from the Charolais breed and the heterozygosity, individual and maternal, can be modeled by using the multiple regression.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary digestible tryptophan levels on performance and carcass traits of growing pigs. Fifty crossbred castrated male pigs, with average initial and final body weight of 29.0 ± 1.20 kg and 60.4 ± 1.95 kg were allotted in a completely randomized block design, with five treatments (0.125, 0.133, 0.141, 0.149, and 0.157% of digestible tryptophan, corresponding to digestible tryptophan:lysine relations of 15.0, 16.0, 17.0, 18.0, and 19.0%, respectively) and five replicates, with two pigs per experimental unit, which was represented by the pen. Experimental diets and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period. Averages of minimum and maximum temperatures inside the facility were of 24.3 ± 0.87 ºC and 28.0 ± 1.82 ºC, respectively. Feed intake and body weight gain increased linearly with increasing dietary tryptophan levels. However, there was no effect of digestible tryptophan on feed conversion or protein deposition of pigs. The highest tryptophan level evaluated (0,157%), corresponding to a digestible tryptophan:lysine relation of 19.0%, provided the greatest weight gain of 30 to 60 kg castrated male pigs.
Abstract in Portuguese:Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de quatro níveis de cloro sobre o desempenho e a qualidade de ovos de codornas japonesas na fase de produção, 288 codornas com 17 semanas de idade foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos, oito repetições e seis aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de cloro avaliados foram 0,07; 0,12; 0,17; 0,22; 0,27 e 0,32% e os parâmetros de desempenho e qualidade dos ovos foram: consumos de ração e água, porcentagem de postura, peso e massa de ovos, conversão alimentar, umidade das excretas, coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (CDMS), nitrogênio (CDN) e energia bruta (CDEB), energia metabolizável aparente (EMA) e aparente corrigida (EMAn), unidade Haugh, porcentagens de albúmen, gema e casca. Os níveis de cloro não influenciaram significativamente nenhuma dessas variáveis, entretanto, a gravidade específica aumentou linearmente com o acréscimo de cloro na ração. Pode-se recomendar que rações para codornas japonesas na fase de produção sejam formuladas com níveis de cloro de até 0,32%.
Abstract in English:In order to evaluate the effects of chlorine levels on performance and egg quality of Japanese quails during the production phase, 288 quails with seventeen weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments, eight replicates and six birds experimental unit. Chlorine levels were: 0.07, 0.12, 0.17, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.32%. Performance and egg quality parameters evaluated were: feed intake (g/bird/day), water consumption (mL/bird/day), production (%), egg weight (g), egg mass (g/bird/day), feed conversion (g/g), moisture of excreta, digestibility of dry matter, coefficient of nitrogen, coefficient of gross energy, apparent metabolizable energy, corrected apparent metabolizable energy, Haugh unit, percentages of albumen, yolk and shell. Chlorine levels did not significantly influence any of those variables; however, the specific gravity increased linearly with the addition of chlorine in the feed. It is recommended that diets for Japanese quails during the production phase be formulated with clorine levels of up to 0.32%.
Abstract in English:This experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of broilers fed ration formulated based on digestible amino acids obtained with cecectomized roosters and broilers at different ages. A total of 300 Ag Ross 508 broiler chicks aging one to 21 days was distributed into 30 experimental units of ten broilers each (five birds of each sex) in six batteries of galvanized steel. All diets were based on corn, soybean meal and full-fat corn germ meal, considering the values of diges tible amino acids obtained from 45-week-old roosters and broilers of 21 and 42 days of age. Two rearing phases were adopted, a pre-starter phase (one to seven days) and a starter phase (eight to 21 days). The following performance variables were evaluated: average weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain relation and mortality. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized design with three forms of determination of digestible amino acids content and ten repetitions of ten birds. The use of digestible amino acids based diets determined for broiler chicks at 21 days of age resulted in better performance of bro ilers in starter phase. The digestible amino acid values of each ingredient can vary according to the age of the birds during the determination procedure.
Abstract in Portuguese:Em experimentos de desempenho e metabolismo, avaliaram-se os efeitos do fornecimento de rações com níveis reduzidos de proteína bruta, cálcio e fósforo disponível sobre o desempenho, as características de carcaça, o conteúdo de cinzas na tíbia, o balanço e a retenção de nitrogênio e fósforo de frangos de corte nos períodos de 8 a 21 e 8 a 35 dias de idade. Em cada uma destas fases no ensaio de desempenho, foram utilizadas 30 e 25 aves por unidade experimental e, no ensaio de metabolismo, cinco e três aves, respectivamente, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de rações com 21% proteína bruta sem fitase (controle), formuladas com níveis nutricionais recomendados nas tabelas brasileiras, e rações com 21, 20, 19 e 18% de proteína bruta com fitase (8 a 21 dias) e, no período de 8 a 35 dias, ração com 20% proteína bruta sem fitase (controle), e rações com 20, 19, 18 e 17% de proteína bruta, com fitase. Nas rações com fitase (80 g de fitase - Ronozyme NP(M) por tonelada de ração), o nível de fósforo disponível reduziu em 0,15 e o de cálcio em 0,30 ponto percentual em relação ao da ração controle. Não houve efeito da redução da composição em nutrientes das rações sobre o consumo, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar em ambas as fases nem diferença nas características de carcaça aos 35 dias. Todavia, verificou-se maior teor de gordura abdominal quando as aves consumiram ração com o menor nível proteico. A excreção de nitrogênio e fósforo foi menor quando as aves receberam ração com níveis reduzidos desses nutrientes. A porcentagem de cinzas na tíbia, nas fases avaliadas, não diferiu entre os tratamentos. É possível reduzir em até três pontos percentuais o nível proteico das rações, em 0,15 o de fósforo disponível e em 0,30 ponto percentual o de cálcio quando as rações são suplementadas com fitase e aminoácidos.
Abstract in English:In performance and metabolism trials, diets with reduced levels of crude protein, calcium and available phosphorus on the performance, carcass characteristics, tibia ashes, balance and retention of nitrogen and phosphorus of broiler chickens in phase from 8 to 21 and 8 to 35 days were evaluated. In each phase, 30 and 25 birds per experimental unit were used in the performance assay and five and three in the metabolism assay, respectively, in a completely randomized experimental design, with six replications. Treatments consisted of diet with 21% crude protein without phytase (control), formulated with nutritional levels recommended on the Brazilian tables, and diets with 21, 20, 19 and 18% crude protein with phytase (8 to 21 days) and from 8 to 35 days, the control diet had 20% crude protein without phytase (control), and others diets with 20, 19, 18, 17% crude protein, with phytase. In the diets with phytase (80 g of Ronozyme NP(M) phytase per ton of diet), the level of available phosphorus was reduced in 0.15 and the calcium in 0.30 percentage points in relation to the control diet. No effect was observed with the reduction of nutrients on feed intake, weight gain, or feed conversion in either phase or for the study of carcass characteristics to the 35 days. However, higher abdominal fat percentage was observed when the broilers were fed diet with lower protein level. The excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus decreased when birds received diets with reduced levels of these nutrients. Ash percentage in the tibia was not influenced by treatments. It is possible to reduce protein level, available phosphorus, and calcium of the diets in up to 3, 0.15 and 0.30 percentage points when the diets are supplemented with phytase and amino acids, respectively.
Abstract in English:This study aimed to estimate the energy requirements for maintenance and gain of Japanese and European quails under growth housed in two rearing systems: floor pens and cages. To determine maintenance requirements, two experiments were conducted with birds housed in cages in environmental chambers (experiment 1) and in floor pens at room temperature conditions (experiment 2). The experimental design was completely randomized with four levels of feed supply (100, 75, 50 and 25%) and four repetitions. Energy requirements for maintenance were estimated by the comparative slaughter method through a feeding trial. In experiment 1, 64 Japanese and European quails per treatment were housed in cages of climatic chambers at 18, 24, and 28 °C, while in experiment 2, 352 quails per treatment were housed in floor pens at room temperature (26 °C). To estimate gain requirements, five slaughters were performed with quails receiving feed ad libitum and housed under controlled temperature of 18 °C (experiment 3). Prediction equations were obtained to estimate requirements for maintenance and gain of energy for the two genotypes of quails. The room temperature and breeding system affected the estimates of energy requirements for maintenance. The genotypes presented different estimates for maintenance and gain. Prediction models should be developed considering the room temperature and quails' genotypes.
Abstract in English:The study was conducted to estimate requirements of energy and crude protein for maintenance, weight gain and egg production of Japanese quails in the period of 67 to 107 days of age. Two experiments were performed: one, to determine the requirements for maintenance of protein, and the other, for energy. Experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with four dietary levels of offer and four replicates of six birds. The diets offered were: ad libitum (100%), 75%, 50%, and 25% consumption ad libitum (below maintenance). The methodology used to estimate the demand for maintenance was the comparative slaughter. For estimation of the requirement for weight gain, eight groups of 15 quails were reared separately, fed ad libitum and housed under 22 ºC controlled temperature. From these poultry, three groups were slaughtered at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 days of the trial. The requirement for egg production was obtained by taking the ratio of energy content, egg protein, efficiency of energy use and protein for egg production. Prediction equations that estimate maintenance requirement, weight gain and egg production in energy and crude protein of Japanese quail include: metabolizable energy (kcal/bird/day) = 92.34*body weight0.75 + 6.23*weight gain + 4.19*egg mass; crude protein (g/bird/day) = 6.71*body weight0.75 + 0.615*weight gain + 0.258*egg mass.
Abstract in Portuguese:Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a estabilidade oxidativa do farelo de coco (FC) tratado ou não com butil-hidroxitolueno (BHT) e armazenado por 35 dias e estudar o efeito de rações contendo esse ingrediente sobre o desempenho e a qualidade do ovo de poedeiras. Um lote de 200 kg de farelo de coco foi dividido em cinco partes: uma foi armazenada sem a adição de antioxidante e as demais tratadas com 500 ppm de BHT nos dias 0, 7, 14 e 21. A estabilidade oxidativa do farelo de coco foi acompanhada por meio dos índices de acidez e de peróxidos, determinados semanalmente. Após 35 dias de armazenamento, 10% de farelo de coco tratado e não tratado com BHT nos diferentes tempos de armazenamento foi usado na formulação de rações isonutrientes para poedeiras comerciais. Foram utilizadas 180 poedeiras da linhagem Hisex White, distribuídas ao acaso em 5 tratamentos e 6 repetições de 6 aves cada. Os índices de acidez e de peróxidos do farelo de coco armazenado com ou sem BHT aumentaram com o tempo de armazenamento. Contudo, os tratamentos não afetaram o desempenho nem a qualidade dos ovos das aves. O farelo de coco armazenado por 35 dias sem antioxidante, embora sofra oxidação, pode ser usado em níveis de até 10% na ração para poedeiras comerciais.
Abstract in English:This experiment was conducted to evaluate the oxidative stability of coconut meal treated with or without butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at different storage times and the effect of diets containing this ingredient on laying hens' performance and egg quality. A 200-kg batch of freshly produced coconut meal was divided into five equal portions. One portion was stored without BHT and the others were treated with BHT at zero, 7, 14 and 21 days. The oxidative stability of coconut meal was measured by the acidity index and peroxide index determined weekly. At the end of the 35-day storage time, this ingredient was used in the formulation of diets for laying hen. One hundred and eighty Hisex White laying hens were randomly distributed among five treatments with six repetitions of six birds each. The acidity index and peroxide index of coconut meal treated with or without BHT at different periods of time increased with storage time. Nevertheless, treatments did not affect laying hens' performance or egg quality. Coconut meal stored for 35 days, although showing lipid peroxidation, can be included at 10% level in the diet for commercial poultry.
Abstract in English:This experiment aimed to determine the metabolizable energy and the digestibility of detoxified castor meal and castor cake nutrients for broilers. A total of 180 Cobb-500TM broilers from 21 to 32 days of age was randomly distributed in three treatments with six replicates of 10 broilers - 5 males and 5 females. The experimental treatments were a reference-diet and two test-diets composed of 80% of reference-diet and 20% of detoxified castor cake or castor meal. The adaptation period ranged from 21 to 27 days of age and the total excreta collection period ranged from 28 to 32 days of age. The detoxified castor meal presented apparent metabolizable energy of 2,032 kcal/kg of natural matter, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance of 1,829 kcal/kg of natural matter and the digestibility coefficients of 57.8% dry matter, 68.4% crude protein, 10.5% crude fiber, 35.9% nitrogen free extract, 80.0% ether extract and 26.6% ash. In the detoxified castor cake, the apparent metabolizable energy content was 2,550 kcal/kg of natural matter, the nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable energy balance was of 2,320 kcal/kg of natural matter and the digestibility coefficients of 60.6% for dry matter, 77.2% for crude protein, 14.0% for crude fiber, 45.7% for nitrogen free extract, 85.4% for ether extract and 28.2% for ash. The metabolizable energy and digestibility of nutrients in detoxified castor cake are higher than in the detoxified castor meal.
Abstract in Portuguese:Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar os efeitos do uso de pigmentantes naturais e extratos de marigold e páprica em rações à base de sorgo para codornas japonesas. Foram utilizadas 180 codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica), com 98 dias de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, composto por cinco tratamentos e seis repetições com seis aves cada. O experimento foi dividido em seis períodos de quatro dias, totalizando 24 dias. Foram analisados o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade dos ovos das codornas. A cor da gema foi avaliada a cada quatro dias durante 24 dias pelo método do escore colorimétrico DSM. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos das codornas, à exceção da cor da gema. O extrato de marigold proporcionou escore colorimétrico da gema equivalente ao das aves alimentadas com milho. A suplementação associada dos extratos de marigold e páprica proporcionou maior escore colorimétrico e em menor tempo. A utilização de pigmentantes naturais deve ser analisada considerando o escore colorimétrico que se deseja obter e o custo da suplementação de cada fonte comercial.
Abstract in English:The objective was to evaluate the effects of natural pigments from marigold extract and paprika to Japanese quails fed sorghum-based diets. One hundred and eight Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica), with 98 days of age were distributed in a complete randomized design in a split plot arrangement, with five treatments and six replicates of six birds each. The experiment was divided into six periods of four days each, totaling 24 days. Parameters productive performance and quail egg quality were evaluated. Yolk color was evaluated every 4 days for 24 days by the DSM colorimetric score method. There was no effect of experimental diets on performance or quality of quail egg, except for egg yolk color. The extract of marigold promoted yolk color scores equivalent to those obtained with corn. Supplementation of marigold extract with paprika provided higher color scores in less time. The use of natural pigments should be analyzed as for the color scores one wishes to obtain and cost of each commercial source supplementation.
Abstract in Portuguese:Um experimento foi realizado para avaliar a influência da forma física da ração sobre o desempenho e as características da carcaça de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 240 pintos de corte machos, distribuídos e alojados em baterias metálicas de três andares em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com 4 formas físicas de ração e 6 repetições com 10 aves por unidade experimental, considerando cada andar um bloco. Os tratamentos consistiram em rações farelada, peletizada, expandida e expandida peletizada. Os índices de desempenho foram analisados no período de 1 a 22 e 1 a 39 dias de idade das aves. Duas aves com peso médio do grupo foram retiradas de cada repetição e abatidas aos 40 dias de idade para avaliação da carcaça. A forma física da ração afetou o desempenho e as características da carcaça dos frangos. Nos períodos de 1 a 22 dias e de 1 a 39 dias, os frangos que consumiram o alimento farelado apresentaram menor consumo de ração, peso médio e ganho de peso, enquanto aqueles que receberam ração peletizada não apresentaram diferença no peso médio, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar em relação àqueles que receberam ração expandida peletizada. Os maiores resultados para essas variáveis foram observados para aves alimentadas com ração peletizada ou expandida peletizada. As aves que receberam ração expandida peletizada apresentaram melhores resultados de peso de carcaça e dos cortes em relação àquelas que receberam a ração farelada e este melhor resultado não diferiu do encontrado para as aves alimentadas com ração peletizada. Recomenda-se o uso de rações na forma física peletizada ou expandida peletizada, pois promoveram os melhores índices zootécnicos.
Abstract in English:An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of the physical form of feed on performance and carcass characteristics of broilers. A total of 240 male broiler chicks were assigned and housed in metal cage of three floors in a randomized block design with 4 physical forms of feed and 6 repetitions with 10 birds per experimental unit, where each floor represented a block. Treatments consisted of: mash, pelleted, expanded and expanded pelleted diets. Performance indexes were analyzed in the period from 1 to 22 and 1 to 39 days of birds' life. Two birds with an average weight of the group were taken from each repetition and slaughtered at 40 days of age for carcass evaluation. The physical form of ration affected the performance and carcass characteristics of broilers. For the period from 1 to 22 days and from 1 to 39 days, chickens that consumed the mashed food had lower feed intake, weight and weight gain, whereas birds fed pelleted diets showed no difference in weight, weight gain or feed conversion from those fed expanded pelleted diets. The major results for these variables were observed for birds fed pelleted or expanded pelleted diets. Birds fed expanded pelleted diets showed the best results for carcass and cut weight compared with those fed with mesh diet, and this better outcome did not differ from that found for birds fed pelleted diet. The use of rations in pelleted or expanded pelleted physical forms is recommended, for they promote the best animal performance parameters.
Abstract in English:A total of 70 five-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits were assigned in a completely randomized design, over three reproductive cycles, with two treatments: a reference diet and a half-simplified diet containing 79.83% cassava byproduct. The study evaluated body weight and feed intake of does, feed cost, number and total body weight of kits at kindling and weaning per female during three cycles, number and percentage of mortality/female/cycle, and weight gain of kits from birth to weaning. No interaction was observed between the diets and among the reproductive cycles for any evaluated characteristics. The body weight of does at the moment of weaning was similar in both groups for all three reproductive cycles. However, does fed the half-simplified diet had lower feed intake during the three reproductive cycles and, consequently, more reproductive flaws. The number of kits at weaning, body weight of kits at kindling and weaning, weight gain of kits from birth to weaning, and total body weight of kits at weaning were lower for the group of does fed the half-simplified diet and, consequently, there was a higher number and percentage of dead kits in this group. The total numbers of kits at kindling and weaning and total body weight of kits at birth during all three reproductive cycles were similar between the groups; however, total body weight of weaning rabbits was higher for the animals receiving the reference diet. It is possible to conclude that although the use of the half-simplified diet decreases the reproductive performance of does, it reduces feed cost per kg of body weight by 23.63% compared with the reference diet, proving to be a viable nutritional option for rabbit production.
Abstract in English:Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and verify piglets' performance in the nursery phase fed with diets containing common corn (CC), extruded common corn (ECC), high-lysine corn (HLC), extruded high-lysine corn (EHLC), high-oil corn (HOC) and extruded high-oil corn (EHOC). In the total digestibility trial 14 barrows averaging 6.49 ± 0.16 kg initial body weight were allotted in metabolism cages, distributed in a randomized design with seven diets, six replicates, and one piglet per experimental unit. The values of digestible energy (DE), as well as metabolizable energy (ME) as-fed basis for CC, ECC, HLC, EHLC, HOC and EHOC were: 3,428 and 3,327 kcal/kg; 3,439 and 3,355 kcal/kg; 3,533 and 3,414 kcal/kg; 3,515 and 3,427 kcal/kg; 3,483 and 3,377 kcal/kg; 3,585 and 3,482 kcal/kg, respectively. In the performance experiment, 84 piglets, weaned at 21 days old, initial live weight of 6.06 ± 0.54 kg were used. Animals were allotted in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, using three types of corn (CC, HLC and HOC), two forms of processing (processed or not by extrusion), seven replicates and two piglets per experimental unit. Six diets containing CC, ECC, HLC, EHLC, HOC and EHOC were studied. There were no advantages in the digestibility and performance by extruding the types of corn with different nutritional profiles, for their use in commercial diets for piglets. The results of the two experiments emphasize the importance of segregating the types of corn, extruded or not, in their real chemical and energetic composition as well as the values of true digestible amino acids for the formulation of piglet diets in the nursery phase.
Abstract in English:The effect of the additives Yucca schidigera (YSC) and zeolite (clinoptilolite) on digestibility, fecal texture and odor, blood parameters and urine pH of domesticated felines was evaluated. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with twenty-one cats, in two periods, distributed in seven treatments: moist commercial feed (control); control + 125, 250 and 375 ppm YSC; and control + 0.5; 0.75 and 1.0 % zeolite. No differences were observed between the diets regarding apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrient, energy, urine pH or blood parameters. However, levels of 0.5 and 0.75% zeolite were effective both in reducing odor (R² = 96.39) and for fecal texture (R² = 99.63), showing a quadratic pattern for these variables. Levels of 125 and 375 ppm YSC were also efficient in reducing fecal odor; however they did not adjust to regression. Levels of 0.5% and 0.75% zeolite significantly reduce odor of feces and increase fecal texture when added to commercial feed for cats.
Abstract in Portuguese:Dois experimentos independentes, um na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias) e outro na fase inicial (8 a 21 dias de idade), foram realizados com frangos de corte para avaliar níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp) em rações suplementadas com 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração. Cada experimento constou de um ensaio de desempenho e outro de metabolismo e foi conduzido em esquema fatorial (3 × 4) + 1, sendo três níveis de Pdisp (0,42; 0,37; 0,32% na fase pré-inicial e 0,39; 0,34; 0,29% na fase inicial), quatro níveis de cálcio (0,94; 0,84; 0,74; 0,64% na fase pré-inicial e 0,88; 0,78; 0,68; 0,58% na fase inicial) mais uma ração controle. O controle correspondeu à única ração sem fitase e continha 0,47% de Pdisp e 0,94% de cálcio (fase pré-inicial) ou 0,44% de Pdisp e 0,88% de cálcio (fase inicial). Nos ensaios de desempenho, aos 7 e aos 21 dias de idade, foram avaliados o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o teor de cinzas na tíbia. Nos ensaios de metabolismo, determinaram-se a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn) das rações e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (CMMS). Na fase pré-inicial, os níveis de cálcio influenciaram o consumo de ração, a EMAn e o CMMS e, na fase inicial, afetaram o conteúdo de cinzas ósseas, a EMAn e o CMMS. Os níveis de Pdisp influenciaram o teor de cinzas na tíbia, a EMAn e o CMMS na fase pré-inicial e as cinzas ósseas e o CMMS na fase inicial. Adicionando 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração, é possível reduzir, respectivamente, os níveis de cálcio e Pdisp para 0,64% e 0,37% na fase pré-inicial e 0,58% e 0,29% na fase inicial, pois essa redução não tem efeito negativo sobre o desempenho e a mineralização óssea dos frangos de corte nessas fases.
Abstract in English:Two independent experiments, one in pre-starter phase (1 to 7 days) and the other in the starter phase (8 to 21 days of age), were carried out with broilers to evaluate levels of calcium and available phosphorus (aP) in diets supplemented with 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet. Each experiment consisted of a performance and a metabolic assay, and was conducted in a factorial schedule (3 × 4) + 1, with three aP levels (0.42, 0.37, 0.32% in the pre-starter phase and 0.39, 0.34, 0.29% in the starter phase), four calcium levels (0.94, 0.84, 0.74, 0.64% in the pre-starter phase and 0.88; 0.78, 0.68, 0.58% in the starter phase) plus a control diet. The control corresponded to the only diet without phytase and contained 0.47% of aP and 0.94% of calcium (pre-starter phase) or 0.44% of aP and 0.88% of calcium (starter phase). In the performance assays, at 7 and 21 days of age the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) of the feed, and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC) were determined. Calcium levels influenced the feed intake, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and in the starter phase they influenced bone ash, AMEn and DMDC. The aP levels influenced the content of tibia ash, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and bone ash and DMDC in the starter phase. By adding 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet, it is possible to reduce, respectively, the calcium and aP levels to 0.64% and 0.37% in the pre-starter phase, and to 0.58% and 0.29% in the starter phase, since this reduction does not cause a negative effect on performance or bone mineralization of broilers in the evaluated periods.
Abstract in Portuguese:Avaliaram-se os níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp) em rações com fitase para frangos de corte da linhagem Cobb nas fases de crescimento (22 a 35 dias) e final (36 a 42 dias). Utilizou-se um esquema fatorial 3 × 4 + 1, composto de três níveis de Pdisp (0,36; 0,31; 0,26% na fase de crescimento e 0,33; 0,28; 0,23% na final), quatro níveis de cálcio (0,82; 0,72; 0,62; 0,52% para a fase de crescimento e 0,76; 0,66; 0,56; 0,46% para a final) e um nível de suplementação da fitase (500 ftu/kg). As rações controle não foram suplementadas com fitase e continham, respectivamente, os seguintes níveis de Pdisp e cálcio: 0,41 e 0,82% (fase de crescimento) e 0,38 e 0,76% (final). Nos ensaios de desempenho, aos 35 e 42 dias de idade, avaliaram-se o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o teor de cinzas na tíbia. Nos ensaios de metabolismo, foram determinados os valores energéticos das rações (EMAn) e os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade da matéria seca (CMMS). Na fase de crescimento, a redução do cálcio e Pdisp para 0,52 e 0,26%, respectivamente, não comprometeu o desempenho, a mineralização óssea, a EMAn e o CMMS. Na fase final, a redução do cálcio e fósforo disponível para 0,56 e 0,28%, respectivamente, não comprometeu o desempenho, a EMAn e o CMMS e melhorou a mineralização óssea. Os níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações para frangos de corte podem ser reduzidos para 0,52 e 0,26% na fase de crescimento e 0,56 e 0,28% na fase final desde que essa redução seja combinada com a suplementação de fitase no nível de 500 ftu/kg de ração.
Abstract in English:Calcium and available phosphorus (aP) levels in diets with phytase for Cobb broilers in the growing (22 to 35 days) and finishing phases (36 to 42 days of age) were evaluated. A 3 × 4 + 1 factorial scheme, with three aP levels (0.36, 0.31, 0.26% in the growing phase and 0.33, 0.28, 0.23% in the finishing phase), four calcium levels (0.82, 0.72, 0.62, 0.52% in the growing phase and 0.76, 0.66, 0.56, 0.46% in the finishing phase), and one level of supplementation of phytase (500 ftu/kg) was used. Control diets were not supplemented with phytase and they contained, respectively, the following levels of aP and calcium: 0.41 and 0.82% (growing phase) and 0.38 and 0.76 (finishing phase). In the performance assays, at 35 and 42 days of age, feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays, the energy values of diets (AMEn) and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC) were determined. In the growing phase, the reduction of the calcium and aP to 0.52 and 0.26%, respectively, did not compromise performance, bone ash, AMEn or MCDM. In the finishing phase, the reduction of the calcium and aP to 0.56 and 0.28%, respectively, did not compromise performance, AMEn or MCDM; in addition to improving bone ash. The levels of calcium and aP of diet can be reduced to 0.52 and 0.26% in the growing phase, and to 0.56 and 0.28% in the finishing phase, provided that this reduction is combined with supplementation of fitase at 500 ftu/kg of the diet.
Abstract in Portuguese:Este experimento foi realizado para estimar a exigência de energia metabolizável (EM) para codornas de corte de 1 a 14 dias de idade. Foram utilizadas 1.140 aves com 1 dia de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (2.750; 2.850; 2.950; 3.050 e 3.150 kcal de EM/kg de ração), seis repetições e 38 aves por unidade experimental. Observou-se redução linear dos níveis de energia no peso corporal, consumo de ração e ganho de peso das aves. A conversão alimentar foi influenciada de forma quadrática, com melhor estimativa obtida com 2.997 kcal de EM/kg de ração. Enquanto o teor de proteína bruta não sofreu diferença, o teor de água diminuiu e o de extrato etéreo aumentou de forma linear com os níveis crescentes de EM. Os níveis de EM tiveram efeito quadrático sobre a taxa de deposição de proteína e eficiência de deposição de proteína nos cortes. A exigência de EM de codornas de corte na fase inicial de crescimento é de 2.997 kcal de EM/kg, que corresponde à relação energia metabolizável:proteína bruta de 108,9.
Abstract in English:This experiment was carried out to estimate the metabolizable energy (ME) requirements for meat quails from 1 to 14 days of age. A total of 1,140 1-day old meat quails were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (2,750; 2,850; 2,950; 3,050 and 3,150 kcal of ME/kg), six replications and 38 quails per experimental unit. There was linear reduction of energy levels in body weight, feed intake and weight gain of birds. The feed conversion ratio showed a quadratic effect, with the best estimate obtained with 2,997 kcal of ME/kg. Whereas crude protein content did not differ, water content decreased and ether extract increased linearly with the increasing levels of ME. The ME levels showed a quadratic effect on daily protein accretion rate and daily protein accretion efficiency. The ME requirements for meat quail in the initial growing stage is 2,997 kcal/kg, corresponding to a metabolizable energy/crude protein relation of 108.9.
Abstract in English:The effect of different intervals between observations on the estimation of the eating behavior of dairy heifers and lactating cows was evaluated. Twenty Holstein-zebu crossbred dairy heifers were distributed in a completely randomized design, with four levels and five repetitions, fed isonitrogenous diets containing 71% sugar cane and 29% concentrate. Also, 16 dairy crossbred cows were distributed in a completely randomized design, with four levels and four repetitions. They received isonitrogenous diets, containing 85% sugar cane and 1% concentrate. For both heifers and lactating cows, the sugar cane used was treated with doses of 0, 0.75, 1.5 and 2.25% CaO, and corrected with 1% of urea and ammonium sulfate mixture (9:1), at the moment of offering the diets. The experimental period was 21 days long, with observations done on the 19th and 20th days, during 24 hours, at intervals of 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. For both heifers and cows, lower values were verified for number of periods (nº/day) and higher values were obtained for average time spent per period of eating, rumination and idle activities, for 10-, 15- and 20-minute intervals. The mean dry matter and neutral detergent fiber with corrections for ash and protein intake per period of eating was also lower for 10-, 15- and 20-minute intervals. The intervals between observations of 10, 15 and 20 minutes lead to underestimation of the number of periods (nº/day) and to overestimation of the average time spent per period of eating, rumination and idle (min) on dairy heifers and cows, resulting in fallacy estimations. The use of 5-minute intervals for studying cattle eating behavior is recommended.
Abstract in English:The present study aimed to assess the effect of supplementation on the performance of F1 (Boer × females of no defined breed) goats finished in native pasture. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos Campus, Paraíba, Brazil, with twenty-four 120-day-old non-castrated F1 (Boer × NDB) male goats, with a 15.52 kg live weight (LW). Animals were distributed in four levels of supplementation (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5% of body) and six replicates. In order to perform the evaluation of dry matter availability, the herbaceous vegetation was divided into grass and herbaceous dicotyledon and evaluated at the beginning (5/28/2007), in the middle (7/9/2007) and at the end (8/6/2007) of the experiment. In the beginning of the experiment, the availability of grass dry matter was 1,102.89 kg/ha, and at the end of the experiment, the availability of the referred matter was greater (1,494.81); on the other hand, the opposite occurred for the dicotyledons, with a dry matter content of 1,759.46 kg/ha in the beginning of the experiment, and only 236.76 kg/ha at the end of the experiment. Supplementation made it possible to estimate the increase in dry matter intake of 257.15 g/day and of 20.79 g/kg0.75/day, as well as the daily weight gain of 103 g for each percentage point increase that resulted from supplementation. The availability and nutritional quality of forage had a strong influence on the effect of supplementation on dry matter intake, with a negative response for supplementation levels of up to 0.74% of the live weight Consequently, the finishing of F1 crossbred goats in a grazing area in the Caatinga can be improved with the supplementation of concentrate at levels 1.0 to 1.5% of the live weight.
Abstract in English:This study evaluated intake and apparent digestibility of the nutrients in the diet of Morada Nova sheep that received diets containing increasing levels of juazeiro hay in substitution of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay (0, 33, 67 and 100%). Sixteen non castrated male sheep, weighing an average of 26.75 kg, were used, placed in individual metabolic cages and distributed in a completely randomized block design with four treatments and four replications. Intakes of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrates, fibrous carbohydrates and non-fibrous carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients were not influenced by the addition of juazeiro hay to the diets, with mean values of 1,042.78 and 595.59 g/day of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber intake, respectively. Linear reduction was observed for digestibility of the dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber and fibrous carbohydrates. Quadratic reduction was observed for the acid detergent fiber digestibility coefficient. The digestibility coefficients of the crude protein, ether extract, total carbohydrates and fibrous carbohydrates were not significant. The nitrogen balance was not influenced and was positive for all the treatments. The inclusion of juazeiro hay did not influence nutrient intake or nitrogen balance, but reduced the digestibility coefficient of some diet components.
Abstract in English:The objective was to evaluate the effect of four levels of ground corn supply on nutritional parameters, microbial synthesis efficiency and growing performance of beef heifers, at the rainy season. For such, 28 crossbred yearling heifers, with initial age of 16-17 months and initial weight of 255 ± 31.0 kg were distributed into five paddoks of B. decumbens, of 2.0 ha each, with average potentially digestible DM availability of 2,377.0 kg/ha. For each one of the lots, one of the following supplements was daily supplied: mineral mix exclusively or with ground corn at levels 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 kg/day. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with five treatments (supplements), five repetitions for the groups receiving exclusive mineral mix or mineral mix plus corn on the level of 0.50 kg/day and six repetitions for those receiving the other supplements. There was a response of 0.092 kg of weight gain for every 1 kg of ground corn supplied to the animals, and no substitution effect was verified on the dry matter intake of pasture. The increase in ground corn levels increased metabolizable energy intake, which is explained by the crescent linear effect on digestible dry matter intake, on apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter as well as on the levels of total digestible nutrients of the diet consistent with the increase in intake of the most digestible ingredient, ground corn. In the same way, there was a positive linear effect for apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. The supplementation provided linear positive effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen compounds (MICN) for the small intestine, and did not affect the microbial synthesis efficiency. The supply of energetic supplement for beef heifers, at pasture, during the rainy season increases the use of the forage and consequently, weight gain.
Abstract in Portuguese:O objetivo neste ensaio foi avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade e o desempenho de bovinos recebendo dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar in natura ou hidrolisada com duas concentrações de hidróxido de cálcio (cal microprocessado). Foram utilizados 18 novilhos Nelore com aproximadamente 390 kg de peso vivo, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados segundo o peso corporal. Os animais receberam dietas completas compostas de 70% de volumoso (cana-de-açúcar in natura, cana-de-açúcar tratada com hidróxido de cálcio 0,5% ou 0,9%) e 30% de concentrado. As dietas foram formuladas para atender às exigências de mantença e promover ganhos de 750 g/animal/dia. O desempenho dos animais foi avaliado com base no ganho de peso, que foi maior nos animais alimentados com cana in natura (1,32 kg/dia) ou tratada com 0,5% de hidróxido de cálcio (1,23 kg/dia) em comparação àqueles alimentados com a cana tratada com 0,9% de hidróxido de cálcio (1,08 kg/dia). A cana-de-açúcar in natura apresentou melhor digestibilidade da matéria seca (69,1% vs. 62% para a cana tratada). Embora a adição de 0,5% de hidróxido de cálcio tenha proporcionado menor digestibilidade, este tratamento não prejudicou o desempenho dos animais, que apresentaram ganho de peso semelhante ao obtido com a cana in natura.
Abstract in English:The objective of the present research was to evaluate performance, digestibility and consumption of cattle receiving diets based on in natura or hydrolyzed sugar cane, with two concentrations of calcium hydroxide. Eighteen Nelore steers with approximately 390 kg of body weight were distributed in a randomized block design, based on live weight. Animals received complete diets containing 70% roughage (sugar cane in natura, and hydrolyzed treated with calcium hydroxide at 0.5% or 0.9%), and 30% concentrate. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements of maintenance and weight gain of 750 g/animal/day. The performance of the animals was evaluated on the basis of weight gain, which was higher for the treatments with sugar cane in natura (1.32 kg/day) or with 0.5% of calcium hydroxide (1.23 kg/day), compared with the 0.9% treatment (1.08 kg/day), respectively. Sugar cane in natura had better dry matter digestibility (69.1% vs. 62% for the treated sugar cane). Although the addition of 0.5% of calcium hydroxide led to lower digestibility, this treatment did not affect the performance of the animals, which presented daily gain similar to the treatment with in natura sugar cane.
Abstract in English:A mathematical model based on Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) was developed and adapted in order to evaluate beef cattle rations at tropical climate conditions. The presented system differs from CNCPS in the modeling of insoluble particles' digestion and passage kinetics, which enabled the estimation of fiber mass in rumen and its effects on animal performance. The equations used to estimate metabolizable protein and net energy requirements for gain, net energy requirement for maintenance and total efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization were obtained from scientific articles published in Brazil. The parameters of the regression equations in these papers were estimated using data from Bos indicus purebred and crossbred animals reared under tropical conditions. The model was evaluated by using a 368-piece of information database originally published on 11 Doctoral theses, 14 Master's dissertations and four scientific articles. Outputs of the model can be considered adequate.
Abstract in Portuguese:Avaliaram-se o desempenho produtivo e as características nutricionais em tourinhos Nelore em fase de recria, não-castrados, recebendo diferentes ofertas de suplementos em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens, de julho a setembro de 2006. A área foi dividida em cinco piquetes de 2,0 ha, com disponibilidade média de matéria seca (MS) e matéria seca potencialmente digestível (MSpd) de 3,88 e 2,22 t/ha, respectivamente. Foram utilizados 30 bezerros com peso e idade iniciais médios de 230,0 ± 6,14 kg e 8,5 ± 0,18 meses, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado contendo cinco tratamentos: quatro ofertas de suplementos em comparação a mistura mineral (MM). Foram avaliados a MM (60 g/animal) e suplementos múltiplos, fornecidos diariamente nas quantidades de 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0 kg/animal para suprir 300 g/dia de PB. Os animais responderam ao uso de suplementos múltiplos, ganhando mais peso (88,72%) e apresentaram maiores níveis séricos de N-ureia (19,95 vs. 9,66) em comparação àqueles que receberam mistura mineral. Os animais sob suplementação apresentaram maiores consumos de MS, MO, EE, FDN, CNF e NDT e esses consumos aumentaram com os níveis de oferta de suplemento. A suplementação aumentou o coeficiente de digestão da maioria das variáveis avaliadas, independentemente do nível de suplemento fornecido. Os níveis mais moderados (0,5 kg) de suplementos múltiplos podem ser fornecidos aos tourinhos em fase de recria durante o período da seca para estimular o consumo de pasto, porém a máxima produção microbiana é obtida com oferta de 1,34 kg de suplemento. As melhores respostas de desempenho e características nutricionais podem ser obtidas com o fornecimento diário de suplemento em níveis de 0,5 a 1,34 kg/animal.
Abstract in English:Productive performance and nutritional characteristics of crossbreds Nellore young bulls, in the growing stage, receiving different supplement offers, from July to September 2006, grazing on Brachiaria decumbens pasture were evaluated. The area was divided in five paddocks of 2.0 ha, with availability of dry matter and potentially digestible dry matter of 3.88 and 2.22 t/ha, respectively. Thirty animals of 230.0 ± 6.14 kg initial weight and 8.5 ± 0.18 months of age were assigned in a completely randomized experimental design with five treatments, and four supplementation levels. Mineral mix (60 g/day) and multiple supplements, formulated to supply different supplementation levels in the amounts of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg/animal to supply 300 g/day of crude protein were evaluated. Animals responded to the use of multiples supplements, gaining more weight (88.72%), in addition to showing higher seric N-urea levels (19.95 vs. 9.66), when compared with animals fed diets supplied with mineral mix. Animals under supplementation showed higher intake of DM, OM, EE, NDF, NFC and TDN in relation to animals without supplementation, and this intake increased with the levels of supplement offer. Supplementation increased the coefficient of digestion of the majority of variables, regardless of the supplementation level. More moderate levels (0.5 kg) of multiple supplement may be provided to young bulls in the growing stage, during the dry season, to stimulate intake of pasture; however the maximum microbial yield is achieved with 1.34 kg of supplement. The best responses of performance and nutritional characteristics can be obtained with dairy supply of supplement in levels of 0.5 to 1.34 kg/animal.
Abstract in English:This study was carried out to estimate efficiencies of the utilization of metabolizable energy for maintenance (k m) and weight gain (k g) and to evaluate the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS) model in predicting dry matter intake and average daily gain of growing Santa Ines sheep. Twenty-four non-castrated Santa Ines sheep, at 50 days of age and with average body weight of 13.00 ± 0.56 kg, respectively, were used. After a 10-day adaptation period, four animals were slaughtered to be used as reference for estimating initial empty body weight and body composition of the other animals. The remaining animals were distributed in a random block design, with the treatments consisting of diets containing different levels of metabolizable energy (2.08, 2.28, 2.47 and 2.69 Mcal/kg of DM), with five replicates. The metabolizable energy use efficiencies for maintenance and for weight gain were calculated from the relationship between the dietary net energy for maintenance and gain and ME concentration in the diets. Evaluation of the SRNS model was performed by adjustment of simple linear regression model between the predicted (independent variable) and observed (dependent variable) values. The estimated energy use efficiency for maintenance (k m) was 0.70; and for gain weight (kg) it showed to be inversely proportional to the increase of metabolizable energy concentration in the diet. The dry matter intake predicted by the SRNS model did not statistically differ from that observed, but the model overestimated the average daily gain by 5.18%. Those results can contribute to the construction of a database, which could be condensed into several others in a predictive model of performance and feed planning for sheep reared in Brazil.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the in situ degradation profiles of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of different forages using nylon (50 µm), F57 (Ankom®) and non-woven textile (NWT - 100 g/m²) bags. Eight forage samples were used: sugarcane, corn silage, elephant grass cut at 50 and 250 days of regrowth, corn straw, signal grass hay, coast cross hay, and fresh alfalfa. Samples were incubated for 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, and 312 hours. Two bags of each textile were used at each incubation time, totaling 768 bags, using two crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers fitted with ruminal canullae. There was difference in the common rate of lag and degradation (λ) of DM for all forages, except for sugarcane. In general, higher λ estimates were obtained using nylon, followed by NWT and F57. Concerning NDF degradation profiles, differences in λ were observed for all forages. Greater estimates were obtained using nylon. Degradation profiles of DM and NDF must not be evaluated using F57 and NWT. These textiles underestimate the degradation rate due to constraints regarding exchange between bags' content and rumen environment.
Abstract in English:This study aimed to investigate the influence of calf genetic group on the performance of Nellore lactating cows. The variables studied included milk ingestion, pasture intake, calf weight gain and cow body weight. A total of 13 Nellore calves and 8 crossbred Simental × Nellore calves were used, all born from Nellore mothers. During the experimental period of 210 days, calves were weighted at birth and at 30-day intervals, whereas cows were weighed every 14 days. Milk intake was estimated using the weigh-suckle-weigh method. Pasture intake was determined 6, 12, and 24 weeks after birth by using chromic oxide as an external marker and indigestible acid detergent fiber as an internal marker. Average weight of crossbred calves was 10.1 kg and their milk intake was 0.42 kg higher than in purebred calves. There was no difference, however, in pasture intake between genetic groups. In Nellore cows, body weight and pasture consumption (9.2 kg of DM/cow/day) were not influenced by calf heterosis.
Abstract in English:In order to evaluate the effect of the different percentages of zebu blood in the genotype of crossbred steers on carcass traits, a meta-analysis was carried out, using 30 studies conducted in Brazil that have been published since the year 2000. The parameters evaluated were hot carcass weight (221 estimates), cold carcass weight (232), hot carcass (236) and cold carcass yield (223), subcutaneous fat thickness (238) and the percentages of saw cut (233), forequarter (234) and sidecut (246 estimates). Initially, exploratory analysis was performed for each of the variables for detection of publication vices through the dispersion of observations by pointing out the outliers eliminated. Normality tests were normal and the data were subjected to analysis of variance for the regression study, which were assessed to the third degree. Weights of hot carcass and cold carcass, hot and cold carcass yield and the percentage of saw cut had a quadratic effect on animals with the presence of zebu blood, indicating superiority of crossbred animals. The regression equation showed that 66; 50; 72; 81 and 59% of zebu in crossbred animals showed higher hot and cold carcass weight, hot and cold carcass percentage and saw cut, respectively. Fat thickness was not influenced by the degree of zebu in the genotype. The percentage of forequarter has a positive response by increasing the degree of zebu in the genotype, while the sidecut has a negative answer. The crossbreeding between zebu and European breeds provides carcasses with better quality than purebred animals.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to develop calibrations to determine the concentration of some milk adulterants by using the automated methodology of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). For construction of calibrations, samples were collected from 100 farms in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Samples were tainted with three different adulterants commonly used in the adulteration of raw milk: sodium bicarbonate (SB), sodium citrate (SC) and cheese whey (W). Each adulterant was used at three different concentrations (SB: 0.05, 0.10 and 0.25%; SC: 0.025, 0.050 and 0.075% and W: 5, 10 and 20%). For validation, 60 samples were collected in other farms, which were not considered at the development stage of calibration. Adulterants were added at the following concentrations: 0.03, 0.06, 0.10 and 0.12% for SB; 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08% for SC and 5, 10 and 20% for W. Performance of each calibration was evaluated in terms of accuracy (Se), detection limit (DL) and determination coefficient (R²). All calibrations presented R² higher than 0.91 with DL of 0.015%; 0.017% and 3.9% for SB, SC and W, respectively. Accuracy was 0.005%, 0.009% and 2.26% for SB, SC and W, respectively. Results show that the FTIR methodology can be used for determining the concentration of sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and whey in raw milk. Associated with automated equipment, it is a viable option for monitoring these adulterants, having low operational costs and high analytical performance as additional features.
Abstract in English:The objective of the experiment was to study the carcass physical composition and meat qualitative characteristics of different categories of Charolais cattle, feedlot finished. Nine steers (ST), ten heifers (HE), with average age of 20 months, and ten cull cows (CO) with average age of 87 months, taken from the same herd, were used. Diet contained 13% of crude protein for ST and HE and 10% for CO, with roughage:concentrate relation of 50:50, on a dry matter basis. The animals of the three categories were slaughtered with similar degree of finishing, with average subcutaneous fat thickness of 3.8 mm. HE showed carcasses with greater pistolcut percentage (52.8%) than ST (51.0%) and CO (51.4%). The carcass physical composition was similar among the categories evaluated, with 66.5; 67.0 and 67.3% of muscle, 19.1; 18.5 and 18.7% of fat, and 14.9; 15.0; and 14.6% of bone, respectively, for ST, HE and CO. The marbling score was lower for HE (4.6 points) than ST (7.1 points) and CO (6.5 points). However, when this characteristic was adjusted for 100 kg of cold carcass, the means were similar among the categories. CO showed higher cooking losses (27.8%) than ST (21.4%) and HE (23.5%). Meat color, texture, tenderness, shear force, palatability and juiciness were similar among the categories. Charolais cows have the potential for the production of carcass and meat with quality similar to steers and heifers.
Abstract in Portuguese:Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo de 52 vacas de corte mestiças Charolês × Nelore em pastagem natural. O experimento foi iniciado em 4/8/2003, quando as vacas em gestação foram distribuídas uniformemente por peso e condição corporal em duas cargas animais (280 e 360 kg PV/ha). O desmame precoce foi realizado em 26 vacas quando os bezerros(as) atingiram em média 100 dias de idade e o desmame convencional, em 26 vacas quando os bezerros(as) atingiram em média 180 dias de idade. As vacas submetidas ao desmame precoce tiveram maior ganho médio diário em comparação àquelas submetidas ao desmame convencional (0,471 vs. 0,255 kg/dia, respectivamente). Houve interação significativa entre as idades de desmame e os períodos para a condição corporal das vacas. As vacas submetidas ao desmame precoce apresentaram melhor condição corporal na época do desmame convencional (3,5 vs. 2,8) e ao final do acasalamento (3,0 vs. 2,8). A carga animal não afetou significativamente o ganho médio diário nem a condição corporal das vacas. A taxa de prenhez das vacas do desmame precoce (60,0%) foi significativamente superior à do desmame convencional (12,0%), no entanto, as cargas animais não diferiram entre si (7,7% vs. 15,4%, respectivamente). Nos bezerros submetidos ao desmame precoce, o ganho médio diário e o peso vivo aos 180 dias foram significativamente inferiores aos observados nos bezerros do desmame convencional. O manejo da pastagem com as duas cargas animais no pós-parto das vacas e as duas idades de desmame dos bezerros não influenciam o peso médio e o ganho médio diário dos bezerros até os 14 meses de idade.
Abstract in English:The study was conducted to evaluate productive and reproductive performance of 52 crossbred Charolais × Nellore beef cows on natural pasture. The experiment started on August 04, 2003, when pregnant cows were uniformly distributed by weight and body condition at two stocking rates (CA280 = 280 kg LW/ha and CA360 = 360 kg LW/ha). Early weaning was imposed to 26 cows when calves reached average of 100 days of age and conventional weaning, when calves were approximately 180 days old. Cows submitted to early weaning had average daily gain higher than cows submitted to conventional weaning (0.539 vs. 0.257 kg/day, respectively). There was significant interaction between weaning ages and periods for body condition of cows. Cows submitted to early weaning presented higher body condition at conventional weaning (3.5 vs. 2.8) and at the end of mating period (3.0 vs. 2.8) than the conventional weaning. The stocking rate did not significantly affect the average daily gain and body condition of cows (CA280 = 0.101 kg/day, 2.7 and CA360 = 0.214 kg/day, 2.7, respectively). The pregnancy rate of cows under early weaning (60.0%) was significantly better than for those under conventional weaning (12.0%); however, the stocking rates did not differ (CA280 = 7.7% vs. CA360 = 15.4%). In calves submitted to early weaning, average daily gain and live weight at 180 days were significantly lower than those of calves at conventional weaning. The post-partum management of cows and two ages of weaning calves evaluated did not affect the development of calves until 14 months of age.
Abstract in English:The aim of this research was to study the effects of three different management systems on growth and carcass quality of 61 Murciano-Granadina breed kids and their interaction with sex. In the extensive system, 21 kids were allocated to suckle from their dams on free-range pasture with no additional feedstuff. In the semi-intensive system, 20 kids were suckled from their dams and had access to alfalfa hay and cereal straw (no free-range pasture). In the intensive system, 20 kids were separated from the dams at birth and then fed with milk replacer and alfalfa hay. Animals were slaughtered at 7.00 ± 1.00 kg of average BW. The semi-intensive system and extensive system kids grew faster than intensive system animals (127, 113 and 96 g/d, respectively). Differences in energy intake may explain these differences. Intensive system kids displayed the lowest real dressing percentages, calculated as 100 × (hot carcass weight/empty body weight), due to high development of empty gastrointestinal tract. The long leg and carcass were larger in extensive system kids than in kids from other management systems, presumably due to high physical activity on the free-range pastures. The carcasses and cuts from semi-intensive system and extensive system kids displayed more fat than those of intensive system kids. Males grew faster than females (122 and 103 g/d, respectively). Carcasses in male kids showed a higher content of bones but a lower content of fat than carcasses in female kids. The extensive system is feasible for producing kid meat from a dairy breed.