• Prof. Renato Piza de Souza Carvalho (1922 — 1986)

    Lacaz, Carlos da Silva
  • Interaccion de promastigotes de Leishmania donovani con celulas de exudado peritonial de ratones mediante la influencia de la quimotripsina

    Arcay, Lucila; Bruzual, Elizabeth

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Se hace un estudio de la interacción de promastigotes de Leishmania donovani con células de exudado peritoneal de ratón (c e p) mediante la influencia de la quimotripsina. La adhesión de los promastigotes a las c e p fue terminal y marginal, y en observaciones hechas a partir de los 10 minutos de enfrentamiento, esta adhesión fue nula hasta los 30 minutos en el grupo tratado, y sólo a las das horas hubo un pequeño incremento (2.4%) con respecto al control. Se observa marcada disminución en todos los parámetro medidos, tales como enlace, penetración, multiplicación intracelular, división de formas flageladas, en el grupo tratado. La quimotripsina favorece la formación de formas intermedias flageladas, heciendose el parásito piriforme y esférico, apareciendo una forma aberrante de extremo anterior cilindrico que semeja a una forma coanoflagelada. Se sospecha que la enzima reduce efectivamente fragmentos proteicos o péptidos, los cuales pueden haber sido tan pequeños como para esconder a otros ligandos relacionados con la adhesión macrófago-parásito.

    Abstract in English:

    The interaction of promastigotes of Leishmania donovani with mouse peritoneal exudate cells (cep) under the influence of Chymotripsine was studied. The promastigote adhered to the cep terminally and marginally. At 10-30 minutes postchallange, adhesion was absent in the treated group, and only after two hours was there any adhesión (24% in comparison with the controls). The experimental group was markedly deficient in all the parameters of activity measured: attachment, penetration, intracellular multiplication and division of flagellates forms in comparison to controls. The Chymotripsine favored the development of intermediate flagellates forms, these being spheroid or pyriform, with example of an aberrant form having the anterior end cylindrical similar to a choanoflagellate. It is suspected that the Chymotripsine effectively reduces protein or peptide fragments; these may have been so small as to conceal other ligands associated with macrophage-parasite adhesion.
  • La enfermedad del adyuvante en ratas infectadas experimentalmente con Trypanosoma cruzi

    Revelli, Silvia; Bottasso, Oscar; Moreno, Hilda; Valenti, José; Nocito, Anália; Amerio, Nelly; Morini, Julio

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Se estudió la evolución de la artritis por adyuvante en ratas que habían sido infectadas previamente con Trypanosoma cruzi, con el objeto de evaluar su competencia inmunológica a través de la respuesta artrítica. La artritis por adyuvante se indujo en ratas adultas, endocriadas de ambos sexos, con 0.1 mi de adyuvante completo de Freund en la almohadilla plantar, en 2 lotes: a) inyectadas 90 días antes con 1 x 10(6) T. cruzi y b) testigos normales simultáneos. Se midieron, la lesión artrítica macroscópicamente con una escala semicuantitativa, y con microscopía óptica la histopatología de la lesión local y la del corazón, a los 180 días post-infecoión. La magnitud de las lesiones artríticas en las ratas con T. cruzi fue significativamente menor (p < 0.001) que la de los testigos, en todo el período. El infiltrado inflamatorio local, formado por linfocitos, plasmocitos y macrófagos fue significativamente menor (p < 0.001) en las ratas chagásicas, con respecto al de los testigos. Se postula que en las ratas que recibieron T. cruzi la respuesta artrítica menor podría deberse a una competición antigénica con los determinantes del parásito o a mecanismos inmunosupresores que interfieren en la producción de la entidad experimental.

    Abstract in English:

    The experimental arthritis produced in rats which had been infected at weaning with Trypanosoma cruzi was studied 90 days after inoculation. Focal arthritis was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of Freund complete adjuvant in one hind foot-pac of inbred previously treated animals and controls. To measure different degrees of foot-pad inflammation and swelling a semi quantitative scale was used. Furthermore, a histopathological study of heart and joints was performed 180 days after T. cruzi inoculation. The joint injury in the T. cruzi group was significantly smaller than in the controls, during the acute period (p < 0.001). Histopathologic observations showed local tissue inflammatory infiltration with lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. These pathological changes observed in treated animals were also smaller than in the controls, (p < 0.001). It is postulated that in chagasic rats the less severe arthritis could be due to an antigenic competition or immunosuppressive mechanisms present in infected animals.
  • Experimental infection with Schistosoma mansoni of Biomphalaria straminea from different parts of the Northeast of Brazil Original Articles

    Malek, E. A.; Rouquayrol, M. Z.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Na região oeste do Estado da Bahia habitam caramujos das espécies Biomphalaria glabrata e B. straminea os quais, em geral, não coexistem no mesmo habitat. No Estado do Ceará os únicos Hospedeiros intermediários de Schistosoma mansoni são da espécie B. straminea. Neste levantamento não foram detectados B. siraminea naturalmente infectados, nem no Ceará e Bahia. Espécimes de B. straminea, tendo B. glabrata como controle, foram utilizados experimentalmente a fim de se determinar sua suscetibilidade frente a amostras portorriquenhas de S. mansoni. Os referidos B. straminea mostraram baixa suscetibilidade apresentando as seguintes taxas de infecção: 1,1% dentre os caramujos de Redenção-Ceará; 2,3% naqueles provenientes de Pentecoste-Ceará e 2,9% dentre os espécimes colectados em S. Desidério na Bahia. O lote controle, B. glabrata amostra NIH, apresentou elevadas taxas de infecção frente àquela amostra de S. mansoni. Além desta cepa portorriquenha utilizou-se também uma cepa bahiana de S. mansoni cujo teste experimental com B. straminea de São Desidério também demonstrou baixas taxas de infecção, numa média de 3,6%. Aparentemente, a baixa suscetibilidade de B. straminea ao S. mansoni, a despeito da elevada densidade destes caramujos, está em correlação com a prevalência de esquistosomose nas muito elevada no Ceará como mostram os resultados de levantamentos coproscópicos realizados pela SUCAM.

    Abstract in English:

    In the western part of the State of Bahia Biomphalaria straminea and B. glabrata both occur, but in the majority of cases they do not share the same habitat. In the State of Ceará, however, B. straminea is the sole snail host of Schistosoma mansoni. In this survey, no naturally infected B. straminea was found among snails collected from Bahia and Ceará, evidently because of the very low infection rates. The susceptibility of laboratory-reared specimens to infection with a Puerto Rican strain of S. mansoni was then tested experimentally. In general, the snails showed very low susceptibility. The infection rates were 1.1% among snails from Redenção (Ceará); 2.3% in those from Pentecoste (Ceará); 2.9% in snails from São Desidério (Bahia), while they were very high among an albino strain (NIH) of B. glabrata used as control. Another group of B. straminea from São Desidério was exposed to a Bahian strain of S. mansoni and the infection rate was still very low (3.6%) Apparently, the very low susceptibility of B. straminea, despite high snail density, is correlated with moderate infection rates with S. mansoni among humans, as shown by the results of stool examinations conducted by SUCAM in the municipalities of Redenção and Pentecoste, in Ceará.
  • Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) rangeli Tejera, 1920: intracellular amastigote stages of reproduction in white mice Original Articles

    Urdaneta-Morales, Servio; Tejero, Felix

    Abstract in Spanish:

    El método, sitio y estadio de multiplicación de Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) rangeli Tejera, 1920 no había sido determinado hasta ahora. Nosotros hemos observado numerosos nidos o pseudoquistes intracelulares que contienen amastigotes y tripomastigotes de este parásito en el corazón, hígado y bazo de ratones albinos machos de 5,0 g de peso (cepa NMRI) inoculados por vía i.p. con 9,0 x 10(4) metatripomastigotes/g de repique de 12 días en medio LIT, cepa "Perro-82". En el pico de la parasitemia (1,9 x 10(6) tripomastigotes/ml de sangre, 3 días post-inoculación) fueron retirados varios órganos para seccionar y teñir con hematoxilina-eosina. El corazón fue el órgano mas intensamente parasitado. Los amastigotes son redondeados y ovalados, con núcleo redondeado y kinetoplasto en forma de barra recta o curva; el promedio del diámetro máximo de 50 amastigotes medidos fue de 4,2 m. Fue observada fisión binaria en el núcleo y kinetoplasto de algunos amastigotes; no fue vista división en los tripomastigotes sanguícolas. Las características anteriores, así como también la localización de los pseudoquistes en los tejidos, son similares a T. cruzi. La comparación de estos resultados con los reportados para otros Herpetosoma sugiere el estudio de la posición taxonómica de T. rangeli.

    Abstract in English:

    The method, site, and stage of multiplication of Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) rangeli Tejera, 1920 has not hitherto been known. "We have now observed many intracellular nests or pseudocysts, containing amastigotes and trypomastigotes of this parasite in the heart, liver, and spleen of suckling (5.0 g) male white mice (NMRI strain) inoculated i.p. with 9 x 10(4) metatrypomastigotes/g body weight from a 12-day-old culture of the "Dog-82" strain of T. rangeli. At the peak of parasitemia (1.9 x 10(6) trypomastigotes/ml blood, 3 days post-inoculation) various tissues were taken for sectioning and staining. The heart was most intensely parasitized. The amastigotes were rounded or ellipsoidal, with a rounded nucleus and the kinetoplast in the form of a straight or curved bar; the average maximum diameter of 50 measured amastigotes was 4.2 p. Binary fission was seen in the nucleus and kinetoplast of some amastigotes; no blood trypomastigotes were seen in division. The above characteristics, as well as the location of the pseudocysts in the tissues, are similar to T. cruzi. Comparison of these results with those reported for other Herpetosoma suggest study of the taxonomic position of T. rangeli.
  • An immunohistochemic assay to localize leptospires in tissue specimens Original Articles

    Alves, Venâncio A. F.; Yasuda, Paulo H.; Yamashiro, Edite H.; Santos, Raimunda Telma M.; Yamamoto, Luzia Umeda; Brito, Thales de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Os autores apresentam uma técnica de imunoperoxidase para a identificação de leptospiras em cortes de rim fixados em formol e emblocados em parafina. A variante metodológica inclui a utilização do complexo peroxidase-antiperoxidase, conferindo alta sensibilidade à reação. São, ainda, discutidas algumas possíveis aplicações do método ao estudo do acometimento renal na leptospirose.

    Abstract in English:

    An Immunoperoxidase technique for identification of leptospires in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded kidney sections is presented, using peroxidase-antiperoxidase complex. The anti-leptospiral antibody was raised in rabbit. Possible applications of this technique are discussed.
  • Treatment of patients with Schistosomiasis mansoni: a double blind clinical trial comparing praziquantel with oxamniquine Therapeutic Assays

    Silva, Luiz Caetano da; Zeitune, José Murilo R.; Rosa-Eid, Lucia Maria F.; Lima, Dirce Mary C.; Antonelli, Rita H.; Christo, Carlos H.; Saez-Alquezar, Amadeo; Carboni, Adriany de Castro

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Com objetivo de se compararem a tolerabilidade e eficácia do praziquantel e oxamniquine, procedeu-se a um estudo prospectivo duplo-cego envolvendo 120 pacientes com esquistossomose intestinal ou hepatintestinal. Os pacientes foram randomizados em dois grupos. Um foi tratado com praziquantel, na dose de 55 mg/kg de peso, o outro com oxamniquine, 15 mg/kg de peso, sempre administrados em dose única por via oral. O diagnóstico e seguimento parasitológicos basearam-se ho exame de fazes peio método de Kate Katz. Em 73 de 77 casos negativos após tratamento, executaram-se biópsias retais. Efeitos colaterais, principalmente tontura, sonolência, dores abdominais, cefaléia, náuseas e diarréia foram observados em 87% dos casos. Sua incidência, intensidade e duração foram semelhantes em ambos os grupos, mas a dor abdominal foi significativamente mais freqüente após praziquantel, havendo maior tendência para tontura intensa após oxamniquine. Observou-se aumento significante de alamina-aminotransferase e gama-glutamiltransferase após oxamniquine e de bilirrubina total após praziquantel. Um total de 48 pacientes tratados com praziquantel e 46 com oxamniquine completaram os exames de controle até o sexto mês. As percentages de cura foram de 79,2% e de 84,8% respectivamente, diferença não significativa. Os pacientes não curados mostraram redução média do número de ovos de 93,5% e de 84,1%, diferença não significativa. Cinco pacientes retratados com praziquantel curaram-se, mas somente um de três retratados com oxamniquine. Estes resultados mostram, que ambas as drogas-apesar de diferentes propriedades farmacológicas — provocam reações colaterais semelhantes e apresentam eficácia terapêutica comparável.

    Abstract in English:

    A double-blind clinical trial involving 120 patients with chronic schistosomiasis was carried out to compare the tolerability and efficacy of praziquantel and oxamniquine. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups. One was treated with praziquantel, 55 mg/kg of body weight CBWT), and the other one with oxamniquine, 15mg/kg bwt, administered in a single oral dose. The diagnosis and the parasitological follow-up was based on stool examinations by quantitative Kato-Katz method and on rectal biopsies. Side-effects — mainly dizziness, sleepness, abdominal distress, headache, nausea and diarrhea — were observed in 87% of the cases. Their incidence, intensity and duration were similar for both drugs but abdominal pain was significantly more frequent after praziquantel intake and severe dizziness was more commonly reported after oxamniquine. A significant increase of alanine-aminotransferase and y-glutamyltransferase was found with the latter drug and of total bilirubin with the former one. A total of 48 patients treated with praziquantel and 46 with oxamniquine completed with negative findings the required three post-treatment parasitological controls — three slides of each stool sample on the first, third and sixth month. The achieved cure rates were 79.2% and 84.8%, respectively, a difference without statistical significance. The non-cured cases showed a mean reduction in the number of eggs per gram of feces of 93.5% after praziquantel and of 84.1% after oxamniquine. This diference also was not significant. Five patients retreated with praziquantel were cured but only one out of three treated a second time with oxamniquine. These findings show that both drugs — despite their different chemical structures, pharmacological properties and mechanisms-of-action — induce similar side-effects as well as a comparable therapeutical efficacy, in agreement with the results reported from analogous investigations.
  • Avaliação da atividade terapêutica do albendazol em ratos experimentalmente infectados com Strongyloides venezuelensis Ensaios Terapêuticos

    Amato Neto, Vicente; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Moreira, Antonio Augusto Baillot; Campos, Rubens; Sant'ana, Eunice José de; Levai, Eduardo Virgilio; Padilha, Liliana Aparecida Araújo; Takiguti, Clóvis Kiomitsu

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Com a finalidade de demarcar mais precisamente o espectro de ação do albendazol, foi estudada a atividade terapêutica desse anti-helmíntico em ratos experimentalmente infectados com Strongyloides venezuelensis, tendo sido usada, como termo de comparação, a ação do cambendazol e do mebendazol, dois outros benzimidazólicos. Os três compostos mostraram-se eficientes quando utilizadas doses únicas de 6,75, 12,5, 25 e 50 mg/kg, pois motivaram desaparecimento total das formas adultas no intestino. Com a posologia de 5 mg/kg sucederam porcentagens médias de reduções dos números de vermes de 87%, 98% e 80%, respectivamente, como decorrência do emprego do albendazol, do cambendazol e do mebendazol, traduzindo superioridade da segunda droga citada.

    Abstract in English:

    In order to settle the precise spectrum of activity of albendazole, its efficacy was tested in the treatment of Strongyloides venezuelensis in experimentally-infected rats. The results were compared to those obtained with two other benzimidaloze derivatives, cambendazole and mebendazole. The three compounds were shown to be effective in eradicating intestinal adult worms completely, when single doses of 625, 12.5, 25 of 50 mg/kg were used. However when smaller doses were employed (5 mg/kg) worm burdens were reduced in 87%, 98% and 80% by albendazole, cambendazole and mebendazole respectively.
  • Paracoccidioidomicose pulmonar agressiva, endotraqueíte estenosante e cor-pulmonale subagudo: descrição de um caso Registro de Casos

    Campos, E. P.; Torchio, L. N.; Cataneo, A. J. M.; Perotti, L. A.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    A paracoccidioidomicose (Pbmicose) atinge os pulmões pela via inalatória, onde se estabelece o complexo primário semelhante ao da tuberculose. A traquéia comprometida pela via tubohemolinfática desenvolveria reação inflamatória em processo granulomatoso levando à obstrução estenosante com asíixia. Acompanhou-se um doente, masculino, 32 anos, branco, natural de Sarutaiá (SP), lavrador, que há 8 meses desenvolveu tosse expectorativa branco-amarelada, diária, sem fatores de melhora ou piora e dispnéia inicial discreta. Há 4 meses, anorexia, fraqueza e astenia. Há 1 mês a dispneia se agravou. Perdeu 15 kg. Tabagista e etilista há 16 anos. Exame físico revelou: PA — 10/7 mmHg, FR = 28 bpm, peso 31 kg, hipocratismo digital e hipotrofia muscular Tórax enfisematoso e síndrome obstrutivo aos testes de função pulmonar. Coração: P2 desdobrada e hiperfonética. Hepatesplenomegalia. Desenvolveu cor-pulmonale e insuficiência adrenal à internação, evoluindo após 45 dias para óbito em insuficiência respiratória aguda asfixiante, apesar da terapia antifúngica ter sido completa. A literatura médica revista não mostrou registro de caso semelhante de cor-pulmonale e insuficiência adrenal de evolução subaguda.

    Abstract in English:

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (Pbmycosis) reaches the lungs through the respiratory tract where it initiates the primary infection. Although the disease produces a variety of extrapulmonary manifestations, the lungs are involved in a large number of cases. The trachea is affected by Pbmycosis lymphohematogenic dissemination causing a granulomatous process leading to airway obstruction and secondary asphyxia. A 32 years old male, farm worker coming from Sarutaia (SP.) was studied in our hospital. The patient has developed, since 8 months ago a white productive daily cough and a mild dyspnea. Four months later, the mentioned symptoms worsened and anorexia and asthenia appeared. One month previously to hospital admission the dyspnea increased and a weight loss of 15 kg was observed. He has been a heavy smoker and a heavy drinker during the last 16 years. On physical examination it was observed: blood pressure = 100/70 mm/Hg, respiratory rate = 28 pm, body weight = 31 Kg. Pulmonary emphysema, clubbing, loud an splitting S2, right ventricular hypertrophy on E.K.G., hepatosplenomegaly and signs of obstructive pulmonary disease allowed the diagnosis of a "Cor pulmonale" — like syndrome, Amphotericin B was administred at the dose of 1 mg/Kg body weight. A relative adrenal insufficiency was observed early during the treatment. 45 days after hospitalization the patient developed an acute respiratory insufficiency caused by tracheal obstruction and aggravated Cor pulmonale. In spite of intensive care he died. The tracheal stenosis and sub acute Cor pulmonale reported in this patient is a rare manifestation of human pulmonary pbmycosis.
  • Paracoccidioidomicose ocular: relato de um caso com coriorretinite posterior Registro de Casos

    Arruda, Walter Oleschko; Canto, Marco Antonio Santini; Loddo, Giovanni; Rebuffi, Vanda Fátima; Cardoso, Moema de Araújo

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    É descrito um caso de paracoccidioidomicose com envolvimento ocular. Pela primeira vez descreve-se a presença do fungo em lesão granulomatosa de coróide. Os Autores revêm os casos de paracoccidioidomicose com acometimento do trato uveal já descritos na literatura e analisam os achados clínicos e anátomo-patológicos destes e do presente relato.

    Abstract in English:

    A case of paracoccidioidomycosis with ocular involvement is described. For the first time the finding of the fungii in the chroidal granulomatous lesion is reported. The Authors review the cases of ocular paracoccidioidomycosis with uveal involvement already described in the available literature and analyse their clinical and pathogical characteristics, including this present one.
  • Reinfecções por rotavírus em crianças de Belém, Pará, Brasil Epidemiologia

    Linhares, Alexandre C.; Freitas, Ronaldo B.; Gabbay, Yvone B.; Pereira, Joana D'arc M.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Reinfecções por rotavírus foram detectadas em 7 (9,2%) de 76 crianças habitantes da periferia de Belém, Pará, Brasil, no decurso de seus primeiros 20 meses de vida. A presença de rotavírus classificados no subgrupo II ("long pattern") foi assinalada, tanta na primeira como segunda infecções, em cinco desses indivíduos. Em duas situações, a primeira infecção foi causada por rotavírus subgrupo II e, a reinfecção, por rotavírus de subgrupo não claramente caracterizado. Seis diferentes padrões foram observados, não ocorrendo casos em que, numa única criança, se tenham assinalado perfis homólogos. O maior intervalo de tempo registrado entre duas infecções no mesmo indivíduo foi de 19 meses, enquanto que o menor, de 6. Formas sintomáticas em ambos os processos infecciosos se apresentaram em cinco crianças; em duas, os primeiros episódios revelaram-se assintomáticos, sucedendo-se quadros diarréicos. Em seis dos sete indivíduos, observaram-se soroconversões para rotavírus durante a segunda infecção; durante a primeira, entretanto, a elevação significativa nos níveis de anticorpos grupo-específicos se registrou em apenas um caso (Paciente F).

    Abstract in English:

    Reinfections caused by rotavirus were detected in 7(9.2%) out of 76 children from Belém, Pará, Brazil, followed up since birth to twenty months of age. Rotavirus subgrupo II ("long pattern") in both infections was noted in five children. In two, the first infection was associated with subgroup II and the second ones with a strain whose electropherotype was not determined. Six different electropherotypes were observed in these cases and no homologous profiles were associated with reinfections in the same child. The lenght of time between the two infections ranged from six to 19 months. Diarrhoea in both infections was. observed in five children; in two of them, however, first episodes were asymptomatic. Seroconversions to rotavirus were noted in six of the seven children, during reinfection. In the first infections, however, seroconversion was observed in only one case (Paciente F).
  • Formas clínicas da Paracoccidioidomicose Cartas ao Editor

    Montenegro, Mario Rubens G.
Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 470, 05403-000 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil, Tel. +55 11 3061-7005 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revimtsp@usp.br