• Isolation of human fungi from soil and identification of two endemic areas of Cryptococcus neoformans and Coccidioides immitis Original Articles

    Rubinstein, Héctor; Marticorena, Blanca; Masih, Diana; Borletto, Noemi; Vega, Raul; Varengo, Haydee; Negroni, Ricardo

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Se presenta un estúdio de endemia de micosis causadas por hongos patogenos primários en dos zonas de la Provincia de Cordoba, Argentina, donde previamente se diagnostico un caso clinico de criptococosis pulmonar en una de las areas (Alta Gracia) y se encontraron altos indices de infección para C. immitis y C. neoformans en la población de la segunda zona (Villa Dolores). En ambas regiones se encontraron hongos patogenos en suelos; en Villa Dolores se pudo aislar C. immitis en 2/40 muestras de tierra y en 1/40 muestras C. neoformans. Mientras que en la Cuidad de Alta Gracia se pudo aislar C. neoformans en 2/25 muestras de tierra. El indice de infección de la población con coccidioidina, en Villa Dolores, fue de 33.8% y con criptococcina de 31.9%. También se determino el indice de infección de la población con criptococcina en Alta Gracia, el cual fue del 5.3%.

    Abstract in English:

    The present study was carried out in two different areas of Province of Cordoba, Argentina, where there was a suspicious of endemic mycosis. The previous data were the presence of a clinical case of pulmonary cryptococcosis in one area (Alta Gracia) and the previous findings of a high incidence of coccidioidin and cryptococcin reactors in the population of the second one (Villa Dolores). In both areas soil samples for fungi were studied and Cryptococcus neoformans was found in 2/25 samples from Alta Gracia. In Villa Dolores Coccidioides immitis was isolated in 2/40 samples, and C. neoformans in 1/40 samples. Delayed hypersensitivity test with cryptococcin was determined in the population from Alta Gracia and it was found to be 5.3%. Positive cutaneous tests with coccidioidin (33.8%) and cryptococcin (31.9%) in Villa Dolores were obtained. With these findings two endemic areas of systemic mycoses in Cordoba, Argentina were delimited.
  • Effect of scorpion toxin on the enterochromaffin-like cells in normal and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats: a morphological study Original Articles

    Toppa, N. H.; Leite, V. H. R.; Barbosa, A. J. A.; Chiari, E.; Gonzaga, H. M. S.; Freire-Maia, L.; Cunha-Melo, J. R.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    A injeção intravenosa de toxina escorpiônica (Tityus serrulatus) em ratos normais e infectados pelo Trypanosoma cruzi não causou alterações morfológicas ultra-estruturáis das células enterocromaflns-like (ECL) do estómago, embora tenha induzido a aumento significativo da secreção do suco gástrico. Nossos resultados parecem indicar que a estrutura das células ECL do estómago de ratos não é afetada pela estimulação com a toxina escorpiônica ou pela infecção aguda pelo T. cruzi.

    Abstract in English:

    Intravenous injection of scorpion toxin (Tityus serrulatus) in normal and Trypanosoma cruzi infected rats did not cause ultrastructural morphologic changes on enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells of the stomach, although it induced a significant increase of the gastric secretion. Our data seem to indicate that gastric ECL cells structure is not affected by stimulation with scorpion toxin or by acute infection with T. cruzi in the rat.
  • : acquired resistance in mice by implantation of young irradiated worms into the portal system Original Articles

    Coelho, Paulo Marcos Z.; Mello, Rómulo Teixeira de; Tavares, Carlos Alberto P.

    Abstract in English:

    In two distinct experiments, immature S. mansoni worms (LE strain, Belo Horizonte, Brazil), aged 20 days, obtained from the portal system of white outbred mice, were irradiated with 14 and 4 Krad, respectively. Afterwards, the worms were directly inoculated into the portal vein of normal mice. Inoculation was performed with 20 irradiated worms per animal. Fifty days after inoculation, the mice that received 4 and 14 Krad-irradiated worms and their respective controls were infected with S. mansoni cercariae (LE strain), by transcutaneous route. Twenty days after this challenge infection, the animals were sacrificed and perfused for mature irradiated (90-day-old) and immature (20-day-old) worm counts. Analysis of the results showed that statistically significant protection against cercariae occurred in both groups with irradiated worms.
  • Inapparent lung involvement in patients with the subacute juvenile type of paracoccidioidomycosis Original Articles

    Restrepo, A.; Trujillo, M.; Gomez, I.

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Se presentan las historias de 3 pacientes con el diagnóstico de paracoccidioidomicosis juvenil, en Jos cuales no se demonstraron signos ni sintomas de compromiso pulmonar al momento del diagnóstico. Tal diagnóstico fué inicialmente comprobado por la observación del P. brasiliensis en biopsias obtenidas de lesiones ganglionares clinicamente aparentes. Aunque las radiografias de torax no revelaron câmbios patológicos en ningún caso, fué posible observar y aislar el hongo de muestras de esputos obtenidas de los tres pacientes. Este hallazgo refuerza la hipótesis de la genesis pulmonar de la paracoccidioidomicosis y comprueba la existencia de una infección primária pulmonar aún en aquellos pacientes que presentan Ias manifestaciones de la forma juvenil y en quienes el componente pulmonar está disimulado por el gran compromiso de ganglios y órganos linfáticos.

    Abstract in English:

    Three patients with the diagnosis of subacute juvenile paracoccidioidomycosis who, at the time of their first visit, had no signs or symptoms of lung involvement, were studied. Initially the diagnosis was confirmed by the observation of P. brasiliensis in biopsy material obtained from clinically involved lymphadenopathies. The lung X-rays done in all patients, did not reveal pathologic changes, although it was possible to observe and isolate the fungus from sputum samples obtained from the three patients. This fact reinforces the pulmonary genesis of the mycosis and proofs the existence of a pulmonary primary infection, even in patients with the juvenile manifestations, in whom the lung component is obscured by the predominant lymph node involvement.
  • Reduced schedule of human anti rabies immunization with Fuenzalida & Palacios vaccine Original Articles

    Zanetti, Carlos Roberto; Favoretto, Silvana Regina; Tino, Milene Silva; Albas, Avelino; Valentini, Elizabeth Juliana G.; Pereira, Octávio Augusto de C.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar um novo esquema de vacinação anti-rábica humana, com um menor número de doses, administradas em dias não consecutivos (5 doses nos dias 0, 4, 7, 20 e 35). A avaliação da resposta imune humoral foi feita pela prova de soroneutralização e pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta, enquanto que a resposta imune celular foi avaliada pela transformação linfoblástica em cultura de sangue total e pelo teste cutâneo de leitura tardia. Foram estudados um total de 35 voluntários, submetidos ao esquema reduzido de vacinação, e os resultados encontrados permitem afirmar que, embora o número de casos seja relativamente pequeno, este novo esquema de vacinação mostrou-se capaz de induzir a produção de imunoglobulinas anti-rábicas, bem como de eli-citar a resposta imune celular ao antígeno rábico.

    Abstract in English:

    The present study evaluates the humoral and cellular immune responses in 35 volunteers submited to short antirabies vaccination schedules with the Fuenzalida & Palacios vaccine based on the administration of doses on non consecutive days. The volunteers were divided into two groups. The first group received a total number of five doses given on days 0, 4, 7, 20 and 35. The other group received four doses, the first one being a double dose given on day 0 and than three other single doses on days 7, 20 and 35. The evaluation of humoral immune response was carried out by serum neutralization (SN) and indirect immunofluorescense (IIF) tests, while the cellular immune response was evaluated by lymphoblastic transformation assay (LTA) and skin test (ST). According to our results these reduced schedules elicited early and effective humoral and cellulafimmune responses to rabies antigen suggesting that new reduced schedules should be extensively studied in order to give the proper bases to the proposition of changes in the current long-term schedule.
  • Recent occurence of human infection by Rocio arbovirus in Ribeira Valley, Brazil Epidemiology

    Iversson, Lygia Busch; Rosa, Amélia P. A. Travassos da; Rosa, Maria Dulce Bianchi

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Descreve-se o achado sorológico de anticorpos IgM para vírus Rocio em duas crianças da área rural do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo. O vírus Rocio foi responsável por extensa epidemia de encefalite na região em 1975-1977. Desde 1980 não têm sido diagnosticados casos de doença. Impõe-se a ativação de medidas dirigidas à vigilância epidemiológica desta arbovirose.

    Abstract in English:

    The presence of IgM antibodies to Rocio in sera of two children from rural area of Ribeira Valley, Brazil, was detected by MAC-ELISA. This new arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family was responsible for an extensive encephalitis epidemic that occurred in the region in 1975-1977. Since 1980 no human disease caused by this virus has been diagnosed. An improvement on surveillance of Rocio infections and on the researches for virus identification in suspected vectors and reservoirs is necessary.
  • Ecological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis: 6. Man-biting sandfly fauna of a patch of residual forest in the middle and north-eastern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil Epidemiology

    Gomes, Almério de Castro; Barata, José Maria Soares; Silva, Eduardo Olavo Rocha e; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Este relato focaliza aspectos do papel vetorial flebotomíneo em área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar, correspondente a região centro-nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. A análise das informações envolve a fauna antropófila de quatro distintas matas residuais. Assim sendo, com o emprego de isca humana e armadilha de Shannon, durante um ano de observações, foram coletados 16.869 exemplares de flebotomíneos, sendo nítida a predominância de Lutzomyia intermedia (85,6%). Além disso, discute-se a reduzida densidade de Lutzomyia whitmani e L. pessoai e suas implicações epidemiológicas atuais e passadas. Informações sobre a atividade diária de algumas espécies são apresentadas aqui, ressaltando-se o caráter inédito da atividade diurna de Lutzomyia firmatoi neste Estado.

    Abstract in English:

    This report shows the phlebotomine vectorial role in the endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis situated in the middle and north-eastern region of the São Paulo, Brazil. Analysis of information encloses a sandfly man-biting fauna of four different patches of residual forest. So, using the human-bait and Shannon trap for a period of one year we have caught 16,869 sandflies. The predominance of Lutzomyia intermedia (85,6%) was clear. Moreover, the low density of Lutzomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia pessoai and their epidemiological implications at present and in the past are discussed. Information about the daily activity of some species is given and we emphasize for the first time, the diurnal activity of Lutzomyia firmatoi in the São Paulo State.
  • Microimmunodiffusion test for the serodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis Serology

    Silva, Maria Isabel Correa da; Chamma, Luiz Gastão; Franco, Marcello

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Utilizou-se técnica de microimunodifusão dupla em gel de ágar para a medida quali e quantitativa de anticorpos circulantes anti - P. brasiliensis, comparando-se os resultados com o macrométodo. Todos os 103 soros de pacientes portadores de paracoccidioidomicose foram positivos no micrométodo contra 87% de positividade no macrométodo. Os 83 soros de pacientes sem paracoccidioidomicose foram negativos em ambas as reações. Os títulos dos soros positivos tenderam a ser mais elevados no micrométodo, que forneceu bandas de precipitação mais nítidas e fáceis de serem lidas. O micrométodo é de realização simples, utiliza pequena quantidade de material e possibilita o teste simultâneo de 102 soros. Acreditamos que ele poderá substituir o macrométodo, especialmente em laboratórios de grande rotina sorológica.

    Abstract in English:

    We used the micro- and macroimmunodiffusion test for the qualitative and quantitative measurement of anti - P. brasiliensis antibodies in serum of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. All 103 paracoccidioidomycosis sera (100%) were positive in the micro test versus 87% positivity index in the macrotest. All 83 control sera from patients with other diseases were negative in both tests. Titers of the positive sera tended to be higher in the microtest, which revealed sharper and easier to read precipiting bands. Microimmunodiffusion is simple to be performed, requires a minimum amount of reagents and allows the simultaneous testing of 102 sera. It may replace the macrotest specially in laboratories dealing with great serologic routine.
  • Elution of proteins from polyacrylamide eels: a simple and economic procedure Technical Trials

    Bongertz, Vera

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Descreve-se uma metodologia simplificada para a eletroeluição quantitativa de proteínas de gel de poliacrilamida. Após coloração do gel pelo Coomassie Brilliant Blue R 250, os componentes identificados são recortados e as proteínas eluidas do gel por um procedimento desenvolvido para uso em aparelho de eletroforese vertical em tubos.

    Abstract in English:

    A simplified methodology for the quantitative electroelution of proteins from polyacrylamide gels is described. After staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R 250, the identified bands are excised from the gel and the proteins eluted using a procedure developed for use in conventional tube gel electrophoresis equipment.
  • Therapy of the experimental infection by Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats with injectable ivermectin or levamizole Therapeutic Assays

    Campos, Rubens; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Amato Neto, Vicente; Matsubara, Luís; Miyamoto, Akimi; Carvalho, Silvino Alves de; Takiguti, Clóvis Kiomitsu; Moreira, Antonio Augusto Baillot

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Para tratamento da estrongiloidíase humana disseminada são desejáveis medicamentos eficientes em debelar o parasitismo por larvas e vermes adultos e, aplicáveis também pela via parenteral, para contornar dificuldades motivadas pelo estado de determinados pacientes. Por isso, foi realizado estudo baseado na infecção experimental de ratos pelo Strongyloides venezuelensis e administração de ivermectina ou de levamisol injetáveis. Os dois fármacos mostraram-se ativos quando usados em doses únicas, de 0,2 a 0,5 mg/kg e 26 mg/kg, respectivamente, de ivermectina e levamisol, sendo que o primeiro revelou discreta superioridade para a fase larvária enquanto o segundo, para os helmintos adultos. Assim, ficaram delineadas promissoras perspectivas para aprimoramento da terapêutica capaz de beneficiar pacientes com infecção generalizada, comumente grave, devida ao Strongyloides stercoralis.

    Abstract in English:

    For the therapy of human strongyloidiasis, are necessary effective drugs to eliminate both larvae and adult worm parasitism, which may also be used by parenteral route, to obviate the particular conditions presented by many patients. A study based on the experimental infection by Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats was done, administering injectable ivermectin or levamizole. Both drugs were shown to be active, when used in single doses of 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg of ivermectin, or 26 mg/kg for levamizole. Ivermectin was slightly more effective as far as larval stage of the infection is concerned, and the same happened for levamisole for the adult worm stage. Promising perspectives are visualized to improve the therapy of patients with serious disseminated infection by Strongyloides stercoralis.
  • Evaluation of treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis with cotrimazine (combination of sulfadiazine and trimetoprim): preliminary report Preliminary Report

    Barraviera, Benedito; Mendes, Rinaldo Poncio; Machado, Jussara Marcondes; Pereira, Paulo Camara Marques; Souza, Maria Julia de; Meira, Domingos Alves
  • Treatment of Cutaneous Larva Migrans with albendazole: preliminary report Preliminary Report

    Torres R., Jaime R.; Orihuela, Angel R.; Garcia, David; Abdul-Hadi, Salha

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Veintitrés pacientes con el sindrome de Larva Cutanea Migratoria, fueron tratados prospectivamente con 400 mg/dia VO de albendazol por tres dias consecutivos. La respuesta clínica, aceptación y tolerancia del tratamiento fué excelente. Todos los pacientes se volvieron asintomáticos durante las primeras 72 horas de tratamiento y no se observaron recurrencias de lesiones. Los resultados preliminares obtenidos entres pacientes adicionales, sugieren que la dosis única de 400 mg puede ser igualmente efectiva.

    Abstract in English:

    Twenty three patients with Cutaneous Larva Migrans syndrome were prospectively treated with 400 mg/day of Albendazole for 3 consecutive days. Clinical response, compliance and tolerance was excellent. Patients were asymptomatic within the first 72 hours of treatment and recurrences did not occurred. Preliminary results with three additional patients suggest that a single oral 400 mg dose may be effective as well.
  • The prevalence of HIV-antibody in a gold mining camp in the Amazon Region as a guide to the date of entry of AIDS into Brazil: the future importance of such communities as "distribution centres" Letter to the Editor

    Linhares, A. C.; Mello, Wyller A.
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