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História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos, Volume: 28, Issue: 4, Published: 2021
  • The importance of food for historians Editor’s Note

    Cueto, Marcos
  • Medical training and careers in Portugal at the time of José Pinto de Azeredo (1764-1810) Analysis

    Abreu, Laurinda

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo O artigo contribui para o conhecimento do universo das formações e carreiras médicas num tempo de mudança, impulsionado pelas ideias iluministas, mas também de conflito entre estruturas centenárias e novos enquadramentos jurídicos. Analisando um percurso individual, visto em interação com outros indivíduos e instituições, desvendam-se as contradições da conjuntura histórica que condicionaram a vida de José Pinto de Azeredo. Trata-se da análise das circunstâncias que enquadraram sua atividade profissional, uma vertente do percurso desse médico que ainda não tinha sido estudada. Formulam-se algumas hipóteses que poderão explicar as razões pelas quais não terá alcançado os objetivos a que se propôs.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This article contributes to knowledge on medical training and careers at a time of change driven by Enlightenment ideas, but also a time of conflict between age-old structures and new legal frameworks. By analyzing an individual trajectory in interaction with other individuals and institutions, the contradictions of the historical context that constrained the life of José Pinto de Azeredo are brought to light. The circumstances surrounding his professional activity are analyzed – an aspect of this physician’s trajectory that was until now unstudied. Some hypotheses are formulated to explain why he did not reach the objectives he set for himself.
  • Livestock and veterinary health in southern Mozambique in the beginning of the twentieth century: the case of the fight against East Coast fever Analysis

    Direito, Bárbara

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo O artigo propõe um contributo para a historiografia sobre as dimensões sociais da saúde veterinária em contexto colonial e seus efeitos na pecuária a partir do caso do sul de Moçambique, região onde o gado bovino ocupou historicamente um papel importante. Mais especificamente, analisa-se a forma como a East Coast fever, uma protozoonose dos bovinos, foi combatida nesta região nas primeiras décadas do século XX. Enquadrando esse caso na historiografia do sudeste africano, destaca-se o caráter repressivo das medidas de polícia sanitária preconizadas pelas autoridades portuguesas, a forma como foram contestadas por diferentes agentes e o modo como permitiram a introdução de novas formas de controlo populacional e espacial.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Drawing on the example of southern Mozambique, this article proposes a contribution to the historiography of the social dimensions of veterinary health in colonial contexts and their effects on livestock. More specifically, it analyses the way East Coast fever, a protozoonosis of cattle, was fought in this region in the first decades of the twentieth century by highlighting the repressive nature of the sanitary police measures put in place by Portuguese authorities, how they were contested by different agents and how they opened the way for the introduction of new modes of population and spatial control.
  • The adaptation of evolutionary thinking in its public circulation: the case of “Evolution: a Journal of Nature,” 1927-1938 Analysis

    Caldeira, Henrique Rodrigues; Gomes, Ana Carolina Vimieiro

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo O ensino de evolução foi objeto de intensa controvérsia nos EUA nas primeiras décadas do século XX. Em disputa, estava não apenas a validade da teoria, mas também a consideração de suas implicações éticas, políticas e religiosas. Este artigo analisa uma revista de popularização científica inserida nesse contexto, a Evolution: a Journal of Nature (1927-1938). O objetivo é demonstrar que a dinâmica de circulação pública do conhecimento representada pela revista não se resumiu a um processo de simplificação, eliminando detalhes e ressalvas pouco úteis ao público não especializado, mas antes consistiu em uma completa adaptação, confrontando criativamente o conhecimento científico com questões de grande importância na arena pública.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The teaching of evolution was the subject of intense controversy in the United States in the first decades of the twentieth century. Both the validity of the theory and its ethical, political and religious implications were in dispute. This article analyzes a magazine intended to popularize science in this context, Evolution: a Journal of Nature (1927-1938). The objective is to demonstrate that the dynamics of the public circulation of knowledge represented by the magazine cannot be reduced to a process of simplification, eliminating details and exceptions of little use to the general public, but rather consisted of a complete adaptation, creatively connecting scientific knowledge to questions of great importance in the public arena.
  • Superhero adventures and the representation of science: a historical look at film adaptations of The Incredible Hulk during the 1970s and 2000s Analysis

    Silva Filho, Fernando Alves da; Massarani, Luisa; Stengler, Erik

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo As produções cinematográficas apresentam diferentes representações da ciência e dos cientistas. O presente estudo, teve por objetivo compreender como a ciência e os cientistas são representados em narrativas de superaventuras, em particular nos filmes sobre O Incrível Hulk. Analisamos quatro produções cinematográficas do super-herói: duas da década de 1970, quando foram lançados os primeiros filmes do personagem, e duas do início do século XXI, durante o crescimento do universo cinematográfico Marvel, em que filmes de super-heróis se tornaram frequentes entre as maiores bilheterias no mundo. Em particular, buscamos analisar como as representações de ciência e de cientistas mudaram historicamente nos filmes do Hulk.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Film productions offer different representations of science and scientists. This study investigates how science and scientists are represented in superhero adventure narratives, particularly in The Incredible Hulk films. Four films were analyzed: two from the 1970s, when the first movies portraying this superhero were released, and two from the early twenty-first century as the Marvel Cinematic Universe expanded and superhero movies were frequent blockbusters. The specific goal was to examine how representations of science and scientists in the Hulk films have changed over time.
  • Sanitary statistics and social interdependence during the First Republic Análise

    Camargo, Alexandre de Paiva Rio

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo O artigo analisa o lugar das tecnologias de quantificação na rede formada em torno do combate às doenças, da revolução pastoriana até o movimento sanitarista dos anos 1920. Investiga o papel da demografia sanitária na imposição do modelo pastoriano entre os médicos, seguido da monumentalização estatística das reformas junto a diferentes atores sociais. A teoria do ator-rede de Bruno Latour e os trabalhos de Michel Foucault sobre a governamentalidade são usados para problematizar o conjunto documental formado pelo censo de 1906, artigos e boletins demográficos publicados na imprensa médica, anuários estatísticos e relatórios ministeriais.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This article analyzes the place of quantification technologies in the network formed to fight diseases, from the Pasteurian revolution to the sanitation movement of the 1920s. It investigates the role of sanitary demography in the imposition of the Pasteurian model among physicians, followed by the statistical monumentalization of the reforms for different social actors. Bruno Latour’s actor-network theory and Michel Foucault’s works on governmentality are used to problematize a set of documents consisting of the 1906 census, demographic articles and bulletins published in the medical press, statistical yearbooks and ministerial reports.
  • Urban space, war and social diseases: the case of infantile trachoma in Valencia,1936-1937 Análise

    Ferrandis, Xavier García

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen Desde finales de 1937 tuvo lugar en España un repunte de enfermedades endémicas, como el tracoma. Esta enfermedad había sido controlada desde comienzos del siglo XX, especialmente durante la Segunda República (1931-1936); sin embargo, la degradación de las condiciones de vida y los movimientos de población durante la Guerra Civil española (1936-1939) facilitaron la recrudescencia de la endemia tracomatosa. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar las consecuencias que tuvo la Guerra Civil en la organización de la lucha contra el tracoma infantil en Valencia, una ciudad en la retaguardia republicana donde pronto apareció la miseria y el hacinamiento, escenario ideal para la irrupción del tracoma.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract From late 1937 on, there was a resurgence in Spain of endemic diseases such as trachoma. This disease had been controlled since the beginning of the twentieth century, especially during the Second Republic (1931-1936); however, the decline in living conditions and the population displacements during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) facilitated the resurgence of endemic trachoma. This article seeks to analyze the consequences of the Civil War on the struggle against infantile trachoma in Valencia, a city in the rearguard of the Republican zone in which poverty and overcrowding appeared suddenly, an ideal scenario for an outbreak of trachoma.
  • Health centers in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: from implementation to consolidation, 1929-1943 Analysis

    Korndörfer, Ana Paula; Brum, Cristiano Enrique de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo O artigo analisa a introdução e a consolidação, no Rio Grande do Sul, do modelo de saúde pública conhecido como centro de saúde. O modelo norte-americano de centros de saúde foi introduzido no estado no final da década de 1920 e consolidado nos anos 1930. Nesse sentido, são discutidas a gênese dos centros de saúde nos EUA e duas reformas sanitárias, ocorridas em 1929 e 1938, propostas por Fernando de Freitas e Castro e José Bonifácio Paranhos da Costa, respectivamente. Para o desenvolvimento da investigação foram utilizadas, além da bibliografia pertinente, fontes diversas como legislação, relatórios estaduais de saúde e documentação produzida pela Fundação Rockefeller.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The article analyzes the introduction, in the late 1920s, and consolidation, in the 1930s, of a public health model in Rio Grande do Sul state based on the health center model conceived in the United States. The genesis of health centers in the United States is discussed, as are two health reforms in Brazil, in 1929 and 1938, proposed by Fernando de Freitas e Castro and José Bonifácio Paranhos da Costa. The investigation draws not only on the literature in the area, but also on primary sources such as legislation, state health reports, and documents produced by the Rockefeller Foundation.
  • International circulation of Brazilian researchers: the case of History Análise

    Salomon, Marlon; Magalhães, Marcelo de Souza

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo O artigo reúne e apresenta um amplo conjunto de dados sobre a circulação internacional de estudantes de doutorado e pesquisadores(as) pertencentes à comunidade historiográfica brasileira financiados(as) pela Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, por meio de bolsas de doutorado sanduíche e de pós-doutorado. Analisa os registros anuais de bolsas concedidas entre 1998 e 2017 no intuito de observar sua evolução e o percentual anual de bolsistas no exterior. Compara a história com outras áreas do conhecimento e com o total de bolsas concedidas. Finalmente, apresenta os países e as principais instituições de destino desses bolsistas. Constata que essa área segue os mesmos caminhos da ciência brasileira no exterior.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The article collates and presents a wide range of data on the international circulation of doctoral students and researchers belonging to the Brazilian historiographical community funded by the Brazilian Federal Agency for the Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education, through doctoral grants with international internship and post-doctoral grants. It analyzes the annual records of scholarships awarded from 1998 to 2017, observing how they changed over time and the annual percentage of scholarship holders abroad. It compares the total number of scholarships in History and in other disciplines. Lastly, it lists the main countries and institutions where these individuals studied. It notes that this discipline follows the same path as Brazilian science abroad.
  • Josué de Castro and the metamorphoses of hunger in Brazil, 1932-1946 Revisão Historiográfica

    Leme, Adriana Salay

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo O termo fome, apesar de também significar uma sensação biológica, é um conceito multifacetado e historicamente colocado. Assim como outros, ele se transforma conforme a mudança da sociedade na qual está inserido. Este artigo examina, por meio das discussões propostas por Josué de Castro e sua inserção social, as representações da fome entre 1932 e 1946, ano no qual esse autor lançou seu livro Geografia da fome. A proposta é observar o espaço público letrado – literatura, imprensa de grande circulação e discussões científicas – para analisar como a fome era entendida nesse período e como Josué de Castro se inseriu nesse debate.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The term hunger, despite also meaning a biological sensation, is a multifaceted, historically specific concept. Like others, it transforms along with changes in society. This article examines, through the discussions proposed by Josué de Castro and its social context, the representations of hunger between 1932 and 1946, the year in which Castro published his book The Geography of Hunger. The objective is to observe the literate public space – literature, mainstream press and scientific discussions – to analyze how hunger was understood during this period and how Josué de Castro took part in this debate.
  • Capital, empire and photography: evidence from the photo albums of colonial companies in Angola and Mozambique during the scramble for Africa Imagens

    Pereira, Hugo Silveira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Na viragem do século XIX para o XX, Portugal confiou a implementação de sistemas tecnológicos nas suas colónias de Angola e Moçambique a diversas empresas privadas. Essas companhias decidiram preservar para a posteridade as suas atividades por meio da fotografia. Neste artigo, analiso quatro álbuns empresariais de firmas coloniais, combinando uma metodologia semiótica com conceitos de história da tecnologia. Argumento que a fotografia, apesar de publicitada como um instrumento objetivo de registar a realidade, era uma atividade extremamente subjetiva, mas que tomou partido dessa alegada objetividade para criar e fortalecer mitos, pelo impacto da sua visualidade. Contribuo para o debate sobre a importância da cultura visual para estudos coloniais.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In the late 19th-early 20th century, Portugal entrusted the implementation of technological systems in its colonies in Angola and Mozambique to several private companies. These companies decided to preserve their activities through photography for posterity. In this article, I analyze four business albums from colonial firms, combining a semiotic methodology with concepts from the history of technology. I argue that photography, despite being advertised as an objective instrument to record reality, was extremely subjective, but that it took advantage of this alleged objectivity to create and strengthen myths, through the impact of its visuality. I also contribute to the debate on the importance of visual culture for colonial studies.
  • The “milk question” in Latin America: experts, markets, and public policies in the twentieth century Presentation

    Brinkmann, Sören; Buschini, José
  • Conflict and intervention in the milk market in Mexico City, 1902-1952 Análise

    Zazueta, Maria del Pilar

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen En la primera mitad del siglo XX, las autoridades de la Ciudad de México lucharon por regular el mercado de la leche con el fin de aumentar la oferta y la higiene del producto. Este proceso se caracterizó por amargas disputas entre el gobierno y todos los actores involucrados en la producción, venta, distribución y pasteurización de la leche de vaca. En este artículo explico cómo las prioridades económicas y políticas para el gobierno mexicano, es decir, proteger los precios al consumidor así como evitar el descontento entre los actores involucrados en el negocio, tuvieron primacia frente a las medidas de salud pública, como la pasteurización y la lucha contra la adulteración.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In the first half of the nineteenth century, authorities in Mexico City struggled to regulate the milk market in order to increase the product’s availability and sanitation. This process was characterized by bitter disputes between the government and all actors involved in the production, sale, distribution and pasteurization of cow’s milk. In this article I explain how the Mexican government’s economic and political priorities, namely protecting consumer prices and avoiding discontent among the dairy business actors, were prioritized over public health measures, such as pasteurization and the struggle against adulterated milk.
  • The battle over milk: consumption, public health and the industrialization of the milk supply in São Paulo, 1911-1945 Analysis

    Brinkmann, Sören

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen En 1911, la ciudad de São Paulo decidió modernizar su sistema de abastecimiento de leche mediante la apertura del mercado para la importación de leche industrialmente pasteurizada. Pero el producto industrial provocó un amplio rechazo que hizo crecer todavía más la demanda por la leche cruda, producida en pequeños establos bajo condiciones precarias. Este estudio examina, a través de tres décadas, cómo las autoridades públicas afrontaban el doble reto de, a la vez, minimizar los riesgos sanitarios de la leche cruda e impulsar el mejoramiento del producto industrial. El trabajo cierra con un análisis de los efectos de la pasteurización obligatoria, introducida en 1939, que equivalía a la prohibición de la venta de leche cruda en el municipio.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In 1911, the city of São Paulo decided to modernize its milk supply system by opening up the import market for industrially pasteurized milk. But the industrial product was widely rejected, creating even more demand for raw milk produced in small barns under potentially unsafe conditions. This study examines how public authorities handled the double challenge of both minimizing the health risks of raw milk and helping to improve the industrial product, over the course of three decades. The article ends with an analysis of the effects of mandatory pasteurization, introduced in 1939, which equated to a ban on the sale of raw milk in the city of São Paulo.
  • The most nutritious food: debates and practices about milk consumption in Mexico Análise

    Aguilar Rodríguez, Sandra

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen El presente texto explora el consumo de leche en la Ciudad de México entre 1930-1960 a partir de la implementación de políticas públicas y prácticas cotidianas. El texto da cuenta de las estrategias del estado mexicano para incrementar el consumo de leche mediante la importación de leche en polvo, su rehidratación y distribución a precios subsidiados. Médicos, nutriólogos y la industria lechera reprodujeron un discurso de superioridad de la leche, negando o cuestionando el valor nutricional de las dietas bajas en lácteos. Las historias de vida muestran la perspectiva de las mujeres y las dificultades en implementar los ideales de clase media en hogares campesinos y de clase trabajadora.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This text explores milk consumption in Mexico City from 1930-1960, starting with the implementation of public policies and day-to-day practices. The text examines the strategies employed by the Mexican state to increase milk consumption by importing powdered milk, rehydrating it and distributing it at subsidized prices. Doctors, nutritionists and the dairy industry reproduced a discourse of milk’s superiority, denying or questioning the nutritional value of low-dairy diets. Life histories show women’s perspective and the difficulties in implementing middle-class ideals in peasant and working-class homes.
  • Milk “anarchy”: food science, quality and infrastructures in Bogotá, 1938-1960 Análise

    Pohl-Valero, Stefan

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen Este artículo analiza las lógicas, intereses y contingencias presentes en los intentos de expertos y legisladores por fomentar e higienizar el sistema lechero en la ciudad de Bogotá, entre 1938 y 1960. Estos esfuerzos se enmarcaron en una arquitectura institucional que iba de lo municipal a lo nacional, y en un contexto de creciente intervención del Estado en cuestiones nutricionales y de proyectos internacionales de cooperación técnica en salud. A pesar del fracaso en mejorar la calidad de la leche y aumentar su consumo, este estudio de caso nos muestra los efectos de una legislación poco adaptada a las circunstancias locales en la infraestructura material del sistema y los intereses comerciales detrás de las normativas de calidad del producto.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This article analyzes the logics, interests and contingencies present in experts’ and legislators’ attempts to develop and sanitize the dairy system in the city of Bogotá, from 1938 to 1960. These efforts were framed by an institutional architecture from the municipal to the national level, and a context of increasing state intervention in nutrition issues and international technical cooperation on health projects. Despite the failure to improve milk quality or increase milk consumption, this case study shows us the effects of legislation that was ill-adapted to local circumstances in terms of the material infrastructure of the system and the commercial interests behind product quality regulations.
  • The commercialization of dairy milk and the disputes over milk regulations, Buenos Aires circa 1960 Análise

    Buschini, José

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen Este trabajo analiza el proceso de regulación de la comercialización de la leche de consumo en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con eje en la sanción de la ordenanza n.17.342, de 1960, por la cual se estableció con carácter obligatorio la pasteurización de toda la leche comercializada en la ciudad. El trabajo se concentra en una etapa particular de este proceso, en la que se logró una solución hasta entonces demorada por una compleja trama de intereses sectoriales y criterios expertos contrapuestos. En este marco se consideran algunas de las razones que posibilitaron este cambio y las características de la solución adoptada. Junto a ello se plantean interrogantes en torno de algunas de sus consecuencias para el sector.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study analyzes the process of regulating the commercialization of dairy milk in the City of Buenos Aires, focusing on ordinance no.17,342 of 1960, which imposed mandatory pasteurization of any milk sold in the city. This article concentrates on one particular stage of that process, in which a solution was reached that had been delayed by a complex set of opposing sectorial interests and expert opinions. Within this framework, it examines some of the factors that made this change possible and the features of the solution that was adopted. In addition, it raises questions about some of the consequences for the dairy sector.
  • Covid-19, distance education, and the intensification of educational inequalities Testemunhos Covid-19

    Magalhães, Rodrigo Cesar da Silva

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo O presente artigo discute a adoção de modalidades de ensino remoto no contexto da pandemia de covid-19 e a potencialização das desigualdades educacionais no Brasil.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This article discusses the adoption of distance education modalities within the context of the covid-19 pandemic and the intensification of educational inequalities in Brazil.
  • Coronavirus in the United Kingdom: the cost of exceptionalism Testemunhos Covid-19

    Drinot, Paulo

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen Este artículo ofrece una reflexión sobre las políticas iniciales desarrolladas en el Reino Unido durante la pandemia de SARS-CoV-2.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This article offers a reflection on the policies initially pursued in the United Kingdom during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
  • Covid-19 in Cuba, six months later Testemunhos Covid-19

    Beldarraín Chaple, Enrique

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen Cuba tiene una larga tradición en el control de epidemias. En Cuba, se presentó la situación de la covid-19 seis meses después de su comienzo. Se tomaron medidas diferentes para controlar la pandemia: diversas intervenciones comunitarias, el aislamiento de contactos de casos sospechosos y de personas regresando del extranjero, la aplicación de estrategias terapéuticas. La primera fase epidémica tuvo un pico a finales de abril y en mayo presentó el mayor número de casos acumulados. Hubo un control de la epidemia en junio y julio. Se inició la desescalada a mediados de junio. Se constató un aumento de casos en el mes de agosto, que se interpreta como un rebrote de la misma.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Cuba has a long tradition of controlling epidemics. In Cuba, this occurred with covid-19 six months after it started. Different measures were taken to control the pandemic: various community interventions, the isolation of suspected cases and of people returning from overseas, the application of therapeutic strategies. The first phase of the epidemic peaked in late April and the highest number of cases was seen in May. The epidemic was under control in June and July. Cases began to de-escalate in mid-June. There was a rise in cases in the month of August, which was interpreted as another outbreak.
  • Subordinated science: the coronavirus and scientific policy in Brazil Testemunhos Covid-19

    Rodrigues, Rogério Rosa

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo A política científica no Brasil tem negligenciado o papel das áreas humanas e sociais, sobretudo quanto a investimento em pesquisa. Com a pandemia de covid-19, as atenções se voltaram para minimizar o impacto da crise sanitária na vida social e econômica do país. No universo científico, isso se efetivou por meio de editais de fomento a pesquisa e bolsas de qualificação profissional que estabeleceram como prioritárias as áreas tecnológicas, restringindo as oportunidades de pesquisadores de ciências sociais, humanas e artísticas. Argumenta-se aqui que a política científica desenvolvida no Brasil está em descompasso com programas internacionais de desenvolvimento científico, demonstrando uma visão limitada do que é ciência, bem como de seu papel no desenvolvimento de uma nação.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Scientific policy in Brazil has neglected the human and social sciences, especially in terms of investing in research. With the arrival of covid-19, efforts have focused on minimizing the impact of this health crisis on the country’s social and economic life. In the scientific arena, this involved research financing and professional qualification grants that prioritized technological areas while restricting opportunities for researchers from the social, human, and artistic sciences. Here we maintain that Brazil’s scientific policy is out of step with international scientific development programs, and has a limited view of what science is, as well as its role in the nation’s development.
  • All our bones: racial science and sexuality in turn-of-the-century Argentina Resenhas

    Simonetto, Patricio
  • The unlimited paleontology of the country of Ameghino Resenhas

    Lopes, Maria Margaret
  • ERRATA Errata

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