Abstract in English:Abstract To mitigate shock forces in collision events, thin-walled members are used as energy absorber. In this article, crashworthiness of single-cell and multi-cell S-shaped members with various cross-sections including triangular, square, hexagonal, decagon and circular were investigated under axial dynamic loading using finite element code LS-DYNA. Furthermore, crashworthiness of the S-rails with the same outer tubes and different inner ones was studied as well. The multi-cell members employed in this task were double-walled tubes with several ribs connecting the inner and outer tubes together. Modified multi criteria decision making method known as complex proportional assessment (COPRAS) was used to rank the members using three conflicting crashworthiness criteria namely specific energy absorber (SEA), peak crash force (Fmax) and crash force efficiency (CFE). Moreover, the multi-cell S-shaped members were found to perform better than single-cell ones in terms of crashworthiness. In addition, the multi-cell S-rail with decagonal cross-section was found as the best energy absorber, and also the S-rail having the same inner and outer tube with decagonal cross-section displayed desirable crashworthiness performance. Optimum geometry of this S-rail was eventually obtained from the parametric study.
Abstract in English:Abstract A new 3-node triangular hybrid displacement function Mindlin-Reissner plate element is developed. Firstly, the modified variational functional of complementary energy for Mindlin-Reissner plate, which is eventually expressed by a so-called displacement function F, is proposed. Secondly, the locking-free formulae of Timoshenko’s beam theory are chosen as the deflection, rotation, and shear strain along each element boundary. Thirdly, seven fundamental analytical solutions of the displacement function F are selected as the trial functions for the assumed resultant fields, so that the assumed resultant fields satisfy all governing equations in advance. Finally, the element stiffness matrix of the new element, denoted by HDF-P3-7β, is derived from the modified principle of complementary energy. Together with the diagonal inertia matrix of the 3-node triangular isoparametric element, the proposed element is also successfully generalized to the free vibration problems. Numerical results show that the proposed element exhibits overall remarkable performance in all benchmark problems, especially in the free vibration analyses.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the present research, a unified semi-analytical solution that incorporates influence of the auxeticity (negative Poisson ratio) of the material into elastic responses of the variable thickness functionally graded conical and cylindrical shells and circular/annular plates is developed. The top or bottom layers of the shell/plate may be subjected to general non-uniform normal and shear tractions. The mentioned material and loading complexities have not been investigated before and consequently, the presented comprehensive results are quite new. The proposed unified formulation is developed using the principle of minimum total potential energy and solved using Taylor’s transform, for some combinations of the simply supported, clamped and free edge conditions. Accuracy of results of the proposed unified solution is verified by results of the three-dimensional theory of elasticity extracted from the ABAQUS finite element analysis code. Finally, a comprehensive parametric study including evaluation of individual/simultaneous effects of the auxeticity, structure configuration, shear/normal traction, thickness variability, and boundary conditions on the resulting lateral deflection and in-plane stress distributions of the considered shell and plate structures is accomplished.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aiming at multiscale numerical investigations of fibrous connective tissues, the present work proposes a finite strain viscoelastic model suitable to represent the local mechanical response of living cells in conjunction with finite element simulations of nanoindentation tests. The material model is formulated in a thermodynamically consistent framework based on a variational constitutive approach. As a case of study, a numerical investigation of the local compressible response of fibroblast cells is addressed. Moreover, a set of cyclic, stress relaxation and creep experiments are simulated in order to investigate the capability of the model to predict rate dependence of cells, showing sound agreement with experimental data. The proposed model may be used as a suitable tool for a better understanding of stiffness and energetic dissipation of cells.
Abstract in English:Abstract One of the main challenges for engineers in designing high-speed crafts is the evaluation of hydrodynamic loads during the impact of hull to wave’s surface. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the pressure distribution on three wedge-sections with 15°, 20° and 30° deadrise during water-entry. Assessment of pressure distribution on the effects of parameters such as drop heights, deadrise angles and the weights of the models had done. Time histories of impact pressure were recorded. It was showed that, the maximum pressure for 20° wedge had increased 2.4 times in comparison with 30° wedge while this number is 1.23 time for the 15° wedge. But the effects of weight and drop height were not as much as deadrise angle. The results give an appropriate approximation of the maximum pressures by the model resembling high-speed craft’s hull sections, which can be used to estimate impact loads in different operational condition. The condition of water level during the impact process has also been observed in each test. The nature of impact test with non-constant speed can clarify the real behavior of falling objects, which can be assumed as the significance of current study.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper investigates the axial crushing response of concentric expanded metal tubes under impact loading. The study is conducted by means of nonlinear finite element simulations, considering the speed of deformation and the size of the expanded metal cells. In the analysis, two tubes are placed concentrically and then axially crushed with an impact mass at various speed levels. Crushing load-displacement responses are analyzed to investigate the influence of the size of the mesh and the impact speed. The results show that specimens with the same mesh sizes increases their crushing length with increasing speed. Finally the main outcome of this investigation is to add to the state of knowledge information concerning the use of expanded metal meshes in impact attenuation devices.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present paper deals with free vibration of functionally graded fiber reinforced rectangular plates subjected to thermal loads. The rectangular plates are assumed orthotropic. The continuous grading fiber reinforced plates have a smooth variation in matrix volume fraction in the thickness direction. Two different types of volume fraction profiles through the thickness of plate are proposed: classic and symmetric. As the plate is thick, the equations of motion are derived based on three dimensional theory of elasticity. Inevitably, 3D General differential quadrature method is used instead of regular solving methods in order to discretize equations of motion equations as linear set of algebraic equations. The effects of temperature, volume fraction profiles, and boundary conditions are investigated. Some interesting conclusions obtained when the material properties were assumed to be temperature-dependent. It has been observed that temperature and functionality of FG plate have significant effect on the natural frequencies of the plate.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper investigates the effect of different parameters on stress analysis of infinite orthotropic plates with central polygonal cutout using gray wolf optimization algorithm. The important features of gray wolf algorithm include flexibility, simplicity, short solution time and ability to avoid local optimums. The effective parameters on stress distribution around cutouts include load angle, curvature radius of the corner of the cutout, cutout orientation and fiber angle for orthotropic materials. The used analytical solution is the expansion of Lekhnitskii’s solution method. The effect of the aforementioned parameters on the stress distribution around triangular, square, pentagonal and hexagonal cutout is examined. The results showed that these parameters have significant effects on stress distribution around the cutouts and the structural load-bearing capacity will increase without changing the type of material if the parameters are correctly chosen.
Abstract in English:Abstract The thermo-hydro-mechanical problems associated with a poroelastic half-space soil medium with variable properties under generalized thermoelasticity theory were investigated in this study. By remaining faithful to Biot’s theory of dynamic poroelasticity, we idealized the foundation material as a uniform, fully saturated, poroelastic half-space medium. We first subjected this medium to time harmonic loads consisting of normal or thermal loads, then investigated the differences between the coupled thermohydro-mechanical dynamic models and the thermo-elastic dynamic models. We used normal mode analysis to solve the resulting non-dimensional coupled equations, then investigated the effects that non-dimensional vertical displacement, excess pore water pressure, vertical stress, and temperature distribution exerted on the poroelastic half-space medium and represented them graphically.
Abstract in English:Abstract The main aim of this paper is to investigate analytically nonlinear buckling and post-buckling of functionally graded stiffened circular cylindrical shells filled inside by Pasternak two-parameter elastic foundations in thermal environments and under axial compression load and external pressure by analytical approach. Shells are reinforced by closely spaced rings and stringers. The material properties of shell and the stiffeners are assumed to be continuously graded in the thickness direction. Using the Reddy third order shear deformation shell theory, stress function method and Lekhnitskii smeared stiffeners technique, the governing equations are derived. The closed form to determine critical axial load and post-buckling load-deflection curves are obtained by Galerkin method. The effects of temperature, stiffener, foundation, material and dimensional parameters on the stability behavior of shells are shown. The accuracy of the presented method is affirmed by comparisons with well-known results in references. The results shown for thick cylindrical shells, the use of TSDT for determining their critical buckling load is necessary and more suitable.