• How can nutritional strategies and feed technologies in pig production affect the logistical costs of manure distribution? Animal production systems and agribusiness

    Afonso, Esther Ramalho; Nacimento, Rafael Araujo; Palhares, Julio Cesar Pascale; Gameiro, Augusto Hauber

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective with this study was to evaluate the impact of different swine nutritional strategies and technologies, as well as the land spread system, on logistical costs of pig manure distribution. For this, pigs were fed a conventional diet (C0) or a diet supplemented with 0.01% phytase (C1); organic minerals (40% substitution; C2); synthetic amino acids at reduced dietary crude protein levels (C3); or a combination of the three strategies (C4). All pig manure was weighed, then its chemical composition was determined. The mineral values and volume of manure produced were extrapolated to corresponding pig farm sizes in Sao Paulo state (300, 650, and 1000 sows) from real pig manure levels to produce simulations. To determine the logistical cost of manure distribution, two distribution systems were considered: vacuum tank tractor and vacuum tank truck (4.30 and 15 m3, respectively). The land spread truck system had the highest cost/hour worked due to the higher fuel consumption. However, this cost might be different over greater distances. Manure production, as well as the nutrient levels of N, P, and K, were lower for swine fed diets supplemented with nutritional technologies. Therefore, the different nutritional technologies reduced the transportation and distribution cost of pig manure by reducing the area and, consequently, the distances that need to be traveled for distribution. However, from an agronomic point of view (i.e., to meet a crop fertilization demand per hectare), manure from pigs fed diets supplemented with nutritional technologies had a higher application rate on land.
  • Economic gains from crop-livestock integration in relation to conventional systems Animal Production Systems and Agribusiness

    Mendonça, Gabriela Geraldi; Simili, Flávia Fernanda; Augusto, Jeferson Garcia; Bonacim, Pedro Mielli; Menegatto, Leonardo Sartori; Gameiro, Augusto Hauber

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective with this study was to calculate the total cost of maize production and beef cattle in permanent pasture activities in separate production systems (conventional) and integrated systems (maize production plus beef cattle), as well as to verify economic gains explained by the economy of scope. The first step for the development of the research was to obtain field experimental data. Six experimental treatments were studied: corn grain production, beef cattle in permanent pasture, and four integrated systems based on different crop and pasture sowings. The second step consisted in the collection, calculation, and allocation of variable and fixed costs to estimate costs of production in the systems. The crop-livestock integration showed economic gains in relation to conventional systems, which can be explained by the dilution of fixed costs and the presence of shareable inputs, resulting in economy of scope. It was also possible to demonstrate that total unit costs of both crop and livestock were lower in crop-livestock integration, showing that integrated systems resulted in economic benefits as compared with conventional ones.
  • Inherent auction factors that affect the selling price of calves Animal Production Systems and Agribusiness

    Danielce, Maickel Martins; Paris, Wagner; Vismara, Edgar de Souza; Severo, Marcelo Machado; Menezes, Luís Fernando Glasenapp de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was performed to determine and quantify the inherent auction factors that affect the selling price of beef calves (weanlings - from six to nine months old). Data on the selling price, location and month of the auction, genetic group, lot size live weight, and sex of animals were collected in 148 auctions from January 2004 to December 2014. A total of 4,312 lots corresponding to 48,588 calves were classified into seven genetic groups according to their phenotypic characteristics. The values were deflated using the General Price index (IGP-DI) inflation index and met the parametric assumptions. The selling price was standardized by the yearly median, assuming that its value corresponds to 100%, and the other values varied in their function. Path analysis quantified the direct and indirect effects of the variables taken as explanatory of the selling price, followed by regression analysis and Tukey test. Overall, the direct effect of the average weight was the highest (0.7), followed by sex (0.38). The smallest direct effect was the genetic group (−0.075). There was a growing exponential relationship between average weight of the lot and selling price and a decreasing ratio between price per kilo and the average weight of the lot (−0.0003 percentage points per kilogram). Males were generally 15.7% more valued than females. The British × Zebuine crossbreed was the most valued breed, followed by the British breed (8.9 and 3.6%, respectively). The highest premium was in November, followed by February (9.57 and 8.84%, respectively, compared with median year). The selling price increases linearly by 0.3284 percentage points for each additional animal in the lot. The average weight of the lot was found to be the most important variable in the formation of the selling price, followed by the sex of the animals.
  • Association between technical and economic performance indexes and dairy farm profitability Animal production systems and agribusiness

    Ferrazza, Rodrigo de Andrade; Lopes, Marcos Aurélio; Prado, Danielle Gonçalves de Oliveira; Lima, Renato Ribeiro de; Bruhn, Fabio Raphael Pascoti

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the determinant profitability indexes of typical dairy farms located in Brazil. The empirical sample included detailed technical and financial information of 61 Brazilian dairy farms across a longitudinal data set (10 years). Numerous technical and economic indexes were estimated, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationship between each index and profitability. After selecting the significant indexes, regression equations were generated to determine the relationship between each index and profitability. The results of the analysis revealed significant interactions between different combinations of technical and financial indexes. Milk production per lactating cow and area were the indexes most positively correlated with profitability. In contrast, total unit cost in relation to the price of milk, total operating cost in relation to total revenues, and total unit operating cost in relation to the price of milk were the indexes most negatively correlated with profitability. Overall, these results indicate that profits could significantly increase if dairy farm production is conducted with more intensive use of inputs and production factors and better combinations of inputs and outputs.
  • Analysis of technical efficiency in milk production: a cross-sectional study on Turkish dairy farming Animal Production Systems and Agribusiness

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Gelaw, Fekadu; Speelman, Stijn

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We analyzed the efficiency of farmers in the dairy production using cross-sectional data collected from 92 sample dairy farmers in the West Mediterranean Region of Turkey. The study used the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) to measure the technical efficiency of farmers in milk production. The technical efficiency of the sample of dairy farms ranged from 0.30 to 1.00. The mean efficiency of the sample of farmers was 0.55, indicating the presence of substantial scope for improving the competitiveness of dairy sector in the region by improving the efficiency of farmers. While some of these variations could be attributable to random factors, we calculated that 97.3% of the variations was attributable to the inefficient use of inputs, leaving only 2.7% to random factors. This shows the possibility of increasing average output by about 0.45 without the use of additional inputs. The most significant factors affecting the efficiency of dairy production were household size, total number of cattle, and ratio of the total number of dairy cows to total number of cattle, technological level, barn type, and production of maize silage. This study, by measuring the levels of efficiency and by identifying factors explaining the differences in efficiency, gives useful information for designing policy interventions targeting to improve the competitiveness of the Turkish dairy sector.
  • Structure and concentration of the global sheep meat market Animal Production Systems and Agribusiness

    Ramírez-López, Artemio; Figueroa-Sandoval, Benjamín; Figueroa-Rodríguez, Katia A.; Ramírez-Valverde, Benito

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to examine the structure and competitiveness of the global sheep meat market using econometric indices (Balassa's revealed comparative advantage, relative position market [RPM], relative export advantage [RXA], imported specialization index [RMA], relative trade advantage [RTA], and net export index [NEI]), as well as sheep meat production, structure, consumption, and trade volume for 151 countries with sustained participation in the global trade market for sheep meat from 2003 to 2013. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to classify countries. We observed that structure, production, and imports of sheep meat were unconcentrated, e.g., there is no country dominating for those indices; in contrast, the export market was highly concentrated with a duopolistic structure. For trade competitiveness, New Zealand, the Republic of Macedonia, and Sudan were competitive and specialized, while New Zealand and Australia were dominant in the international trade market. The global sheep meat market has become more concentrated, as it has developed as a specialized market. Therefore, there is a need for a holistic vision and understanding of the global sheep meat market so that its impact on farmers can be foreseen.
  • Effectiveness of milking management practices for SCC and TBC levels in milk Animal Production Systems and Agribusiness

    Daneluz, Marina Oliveira; Canever, Mario Duarte; Lima, Helenice González de; Bermudes, Rogério Folha; Ribeiro, Felipe Garcia

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the impact of milking management practices on milk quality though somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacterial count (TBC). By means of a survey that included farmers associated to two cooperatives, namely Cosulati in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and Castrolanda in the state of Paraná, the hypothesis that milking handling practices impact SCC and TBC levels negatively, regardless of the technological development level of the farm, was analyzed. For such, the quantile regression method was used to estimate models for the 10th, 50th, and 90th quantiles. The results confirmed that SCC and TBC levels decrease as the number of practices increases. However, only three practices impact SCC and TBC levels significantly, and their impact is not related to the farm technological level, according to tests performed by quantile regression. Finally, the study showed that some milk quality and management practices affect somatic cell count and total bacterial count more than others, which consists of using the correct active principle during dry cattle, post-dip, and the water temperature control periods.
  • Cow's functional traits and physiological status and their relation with milk yield and milk quality in a compost bedded pack barn system Animal Production Systems and Agribusiness

    Kappes, Roberto; Knob, Deise Aline; Thaler, André; Alessio, Dileta Regina Moro; Rodrigues, Wagner Bianchin; Scholz, Armin Manfred; Bonotto, Ramiro

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We aimed to determine the relationship of milk yield, milk composition, and somatic cell score (SCS) with functional traits (lameness score, udder cleanliness score, udder depth, and teat end hyperkeratosis score) and physiological status (parity and days in milk (DIM) of cows housed in compost bedded pack barn system (CBP) using multivariate analysis. Data were collected in September and October of 2017 and evaluated using factor and cluster analysis. Four factors were formed, with the first factor showing the traits responsible for altering the lactose content in milk, the second factor comprising the effect of DIM, the third factor representing the teat end hyperkeratosis score, and the fourth factor demonstrating the udder cleanliness. The cluster analysis formed three clusters. Clusters 2 and 3 differed for protein and lactose content, SCS, parity, DIM, lameness score, and udder depth. Cluster 1 differed from the others, especially due to the high milk yield. Cow conformation traits and physiological status affected milk yield and composition in CBP. There is an association between udder depth, parity, and SCS with negative impact on lactose content. Parity is also associated with higher milk yield and teat end hyperkeratosis score. Cows with lower lameness score presented dirtier udders due to increased movements on the feed parlor and water troughs areas. Special attention to the improvement of the udder conformation traits, as well as management practices that reduce hyperkeratosis, are necessary to keep high yielding, healthy, and cows with higher longevity. The cleanliness in the feed parlor and water troughs area is very important to preserve milk quality and healthy cows.
  • Association of the forage management practices, weaning rate, and factors that influence technological adoption in beef cattle production Animal Production Systems and Agribusiness

    Dill, Matheus Dhein; Pereira, Paulo Rodrigo Ramos Xavier; Machado, João Armando Dessimon; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Corte, Vitor Francisco Dalla; Teixeira, Odilene de Souza; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify the association of improved native grassland and winter and summer pastures on the weaning rate in beef cattle production. Subsequently, we also verified the socioeconomic and productive characteristics related to the adoption of technologies to increase the weaning rate of the farmers. The survey was conducted with 73 producers of Hereford and Braford cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A data analysis was performed using the minimum ordinal squares method and the regression analysis (Tobit). The results showed that cattle farmers who adopt winter pastures have greater weaning rates, and the factors that influence this adoption are related to a greater number of employees on the farm and the use of a crop-livestock production system. In addition, farmers who receive a greater number of technical assistance visits per year are more likely to adopt winter pastures and improved native grassland. This information can be useful in the formulation of technological dissemination programs that aim at a sustainable production of beef cattle.
  • Determination of optimum agricultural policy for buffalo breeding Animal Production Systems and Agribusiness

    Taşcioğlu, Yavuz; Akpinar, Metin Göksel; Gül, Mevlüt; Karli, Bahri; Bozkurt, Yalçin

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to determine the optimum agricultural policy components for buffalo breeding respecting the welfare of breeders. The data used for the study was composed of microdata retrieved from buffalo breeders in Turkish provinces, where buffalo breeding is widespread. The data retrieved via face to face survey was analyzed and interpreted with descriptive statistics and Conjoint Analysis, which is one of the multivariate analysis techniques. In this study, we investigated and discussed the scope of supporting policies provided to buffalo breeders to promote buffalo breeding and to assure its sustainability. Besides, this research is a preliminary and innovative study that intended to focus on breeders' utility in the evaluation of supports provided to buffalo breeding. According to the findings, the most critical factor for buffalo breeders in terms of producer-oriented policy framework appeared as “subsidy in cash paid per head” (32.10%), which was followed by “investment support” with 21.25%. In addition to these tools, “marketing support” (16.51%), “product support” (16.18%), and “investment credit” (13.96%) appeared as essential and vital policy tools.
  • Public policies for enhancing diffusion of technology: a network analysis for a dairy farmer community in Minas Gerais, Brazil Animal production systems and agribusiness

    Simões, Andre Rozemberg Peixoto; Bueno, Newton Paulo; Almeida, Felipe Miranda de Souza; Nicholson, Charles Frederick; Reis, Janderson Damaceno dos; Leonel, Fernando de Paula

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to apply Social Network Analysis (SNA) approach to improve the understanding of how to shape effective information diffusion policies among small-scale dairy farmers in rural communities of Brazil, for whom milk production is an important source of income. We interviewed 24 dairy farmers representing all participants of a dairy farmer association in a small-scale production community in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two sociograms were built by means of an adjacency matrix representing the two internal networks, friendship (F) and advising (A). The beta-centrality and betweenness centrality measures were calculated to identify central farmers and correlate with efficiency indicators in each network (F and A) using a quadratic assignment procedure (QAP). The two internal networks structures and individual thresholds of adoption were represented in an agent-based model (ABM) to simulate the spread of the information among farmers. Our simulations indicate that the assortativity degree of social networks affects the information diffusion among farmers, highlighting the importance of opinion leaders versus convincing a critical mass to implement innovation strategies. Our analysis suggests that vertical policies focused on local opinion leaders will be more effective for enhancing the adoption of techniques that involve investments in private goods such as the adoption of artificial insemination, whereas horizontal policies, such as broadcasting information, will be more effective in encouraging investments in public and semi-public goods, such as the purchase of community cooling tanks and techniques for enhancing milk quality.
  • Slaughter body weights of Jersey young bulls finished on feedlot Animal production systems and agribusiness

    Stanqueviski, Fernanda; Silveira, André Luís Finkler da; Missio, Regis Luis; Kuss, Fernando; Paris, Wagner; Hill, João Ari Gualberto; Poggere, Julia Maria; Menezes, Luís Fernando Glasenapp de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slaughter body weight (SW) on the performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of Jersey bulls in feedlots from weaning to slaughter. Eighteen Jersey bulls (125.7±15.9 kg; 5±0.6 months old) were used in the study. The treatments corresponded to three slaughter-weights: L360 – light weight, SW of 360 kg, M390 – medium weight, SW of 390 kg, and H420 – heavy weight, SW of 420 kg (n = 6/treatment); the animals were slaughtered at 368, 392, and 422 kg, respectively. The average daily gain was not influenced by SW. The M390 and H420 groups remained in feedlot, on average, 6 and 51 d longer, respectively, to reach a similar SW in relation to the L360 group. The increase in SW did not influence dry matter intake. However, the L360 group exhibited greater dry matter intake relative to body weight compared with the other two groups (29 vs. 26 g/kg). The increase in SW resulted in heavier and longer carcasses, with higher hot carcass yields. However, animals with greater SW had lower fat thickness. In addition, the increase in SW led to greater pistol cut, bone, and muscle weight for the carcasses. Although the meat color of Jersey bulls was darker in the H420 group, the meat was considered softer and more palatable by the consumer panel compared with the meat from the L360 group. The L360 group exhibited less fluid loss during thawing and cooking. Shear force measured by Warner Blatzer Shear was lower for H420. Animals slaughtered in the L390 group had an intermediate carcass weight, similar carcass yield, better cover fat and meat quality (color and shear) than animals slaughtered in the H420. Combining these factors with a shorter feedlot time compared with that of heavier animals, the SW of feedlot Jersey bulls is recommended at 390 kg.
  • Modeling the weight gain of freshwater-reared rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) during the grow-out phase Aquaculture

    Janampa-Sarmiento, Peter Charrie; Takata, Rodrigo; Freitas, Thiago Mendes de; Freire, Licius de Sá; Pereira, Marcelo Menezes de Britto; Lugert, Vincent; Heluy, Guilherme Melgaço; Pereira, Marcelo Maia

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We used five nonlinear models to calculate the weight gain of rainbow trout (122.11±15.6 g) during the final grow-out phase of 98 days under three different feed types (two commercials diets, A and B, and one experimental diet, C) in triplicate groups. We fitted the von Bertalanffy growth function with allometric and isometric scaling coefficient, Gompertz, Logistic, and Brody functions to weight (g) at age data of 900 fish, distributed in nine tanks. The equations were fitted to the data based on the least squares method using the Marquardt iterative algorithm. The accuracy of the fitted models was evaluated using a model performance metrics, combining mean squared residuals (MSR), mean absolute error (MAE), and Akaike’s Information Criterion corrected for small sample sizes (AICc). All models converged in all cases tested. The evaluation criteria for the Logistic model indicated the best overall fit (0.704) under all different feed types, followed by the Gompertz model (0.148), and the von Bertalanffy-I and von Bertalanffy-A with 0.074 each. The obtained asymptotic values are in agreement with the biological attributes of the species, except for the Brody model, whose values were massively exceeding the biologic traits of rainbow trout in 0.556 of tested cases. Additionally, ∆AICc results identify the Brody model as the only model not substantially supported by the data in any case. All other models are capable of reflecting the effects of various feed types; these results are directly applicable in farm management decisions.
  • Dietary histidine requirement of grow-out Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), based on growth performance, muscle development, expression of muscle-growth-related genes, and blood parameters Aquaculture

    Zaminhan-Hassemer, Micheli; Michelato, Mariana; Boscolo, Wilson Rogério; Urbich, Allan Vinnícius; Cruz, Thais Pereira da; Almeida, Fernanda Losi Alves de; Furuya, Valéria Rossetto Barriviera; Furuya, Wilson Massamitu

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This research was conducted to determine optimal dietary histidine requirement of grow-out Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, based on muscle development, expression of muscle-growth-related genes, and blood parameters. Fish (n = 288, initial body weight of 64.17±0.53 g) were fed extruded diets with graded levels of histidine (4.23, 5.44, 7.17, 8.91, and 11.57 g kg−1), containing approximately 289 g kg−1 crude protein and 3565 kcal kg−1 digestible energy. The study followed a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates each, for 65 days. There was a quadratic effect of dietary histidine on final body weight, feed conversion, and net protein utilization, and the best values were optimized at 8.09, 7.88, and 7.33 g kg−1, respectively. Feed intake, hepatosomatic index, survival, body composition, and blood parameters of total protein, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were not affected by dietary treatments. Predominance of hypertrophic growth and higher mRNA levels of myogenin and MyoD were observed in fish fed histidine from 5.44 to 11.57 g kg−1 compared with fish fed histidine at 4.23 g kg−1. The mRNA expression of myostatin was not affected by dietary treatments. The dietary requirement of histidine for grow-out Nile tilapia was determined at 8.09 g kg−1, considering growth performance, muscle development, and gene expression responses.
  • Utilization of rice byproducts as carbon sources in high-density culture of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei Aquaculture

    Leite, Jordana Sampaio; Melo, Caio Servulo Batista; Nunes, Alberto Jorge Pinto

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of rice byproducts on water quality, microbial community, and growth performance of L. vannamei juveniles. Shrimp of 0.98±0.10 g body weight (BW) were reared in 49 tanks of 1.5 m3 under 127 animals m−2 for 77 days. Rice bran, rice grits, and rice hulls were mixed into five different fertilizers varying their fiber content (90, 110, 150, 200, and 250 g kg−1) and compared against sugarcane molasses (MO) and unfertilized tanks (UNF). Rice byproducts and MO were applied in water three times a week at a fixed rate of 4.5 g m−3. Water salinity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen reached 43±2 g L−1, 8.03±0.32, 30.2±0.90 °C, and 5.03±0.53 mg L−1, respectively. Settleable solids (SS) were higher in tanks fertilized with rice byproducts (from 2.5±1.0 to 3.1±1.1 mL L−1) and MO (3.4±1.0 mL L−1). Total ammonia nitrogen (0.19±0.09 mg L−1), nitrite (5.97±2.04 mg L−1), and nitrate (1.29±0.48 mg L−1) were kept low without any significant differences among treatments. The concentration of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi was significantly higher in rice byproducts compared with MO. Water fertilization had no effect on final shrimp survival (85.5±9.5%), weekly growth (0.72±0.11 g), and feed conversion ratio (1.59±0.10). Tanks treated with rice byproducts, except with 90 g kg−1 fiber, resulted in a higher final shrimp BW (from 9.04±1.56 to 9.52±1.89 g) compared with MO (8.75±2.14 g) and UNF (7.74±1.48 g). Gained yield and feed intake were significantly higher for tanks treated with rice byproducts than with UNF. A mix of rice byproducts can be equally or more effective as carbon sources to shrimp culture than MO.
  • Apparent digestibility coefficients for amino acids of feed ingredients in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) diets Aquaculture

    Nascimento, Thiago Matias Torres do; Buzollo, Hellen; Sandre, Lidiane Cristina Gonçalves de; Neira, Ligia Maria; Abimorad, Eduardo Gianini; Carneiro, Dalton José

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of essential (EAA) and non-essential (NEAA) amino acids of 13 ingredients for tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) diets. Proteic and energetic ingredients were analyzed separately. The trial with energetic and proteic ingredients were arranged in a randomized block design, with four replicates: energetic ingredients (corn, wheat bran, broken rice, and sorghum) with four treatments, whereas proteic ingredients (corn gluten meal, soybean meal, poultry byproduct meal, salmon meal, fish meal [tilapia processing residue], wheat gluten meal, feather meal, cottonseed meal, and alcohol yeast [spray dried]) with nine treatments. Each block was considered as one round of fecal collection. A total of 420 tambaqui juveniles (mean initial weight: 70±8.58 g) were used. Among energetic ingredients, corn (94.6%) and wheat bran (91.9%) had the highest ADCEAA, followed by broken rice (75.7%), and sorghum (72.8%). On average, ADCEAA and ADCNEAA values of proteic ingredients were 79.5-98.5%, except for alcohol yeast (ADCEAA: 68.4 and ADCNEAA: 76.7%). Tryptophan was the first limiting amino acid in most ingredients tested and had the lowest chemical scores (0.06-0.51), except for wheat bran, corn gluten meal, and soybean meal, in which lysine was the first limiting amino acid. Soybean meal had the highest digestible essential amino acid index (EAAI: 1.02) and the most balanced amino acid profile, whereas wheat gluten meal had the lowest EAAI (0.48). Overall, tambaqui was very efficient to digest proteic and energetic ingredients.
  • Liver histology and hematological parameters of female Rhamdia quelen fed different lipid sources Aquaculture

    Hilbig, Cleonice Cristina; Nascimento, Nivaldo Ferreira do; Campos, Ana Caroline Sousa; Martins, Leandro Freitas; Ventura, Arlene Sobrinho; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Bombardelli, Robie Allan

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective with this study was to evaluate the liver histology and hematological parameters of female Rhamdia quelen fed diets supplemented with different oils: 5% marine fish oil, 5% refined palm oil, 5% soybean oil, and a combination of the three. The lipid vacuolization (steatosis) in the liver was analyzed according to a score of vacuolization when: 0 = absence, 1 = reduced, 2 = intermediate, and 3 = intense. At the end of the experiment, females (n = 10) were selected from each treatment (two per cage), and the blood was collected for erythrocyte and biochemical analysis. Lower vacuolization indices in the liver were observed at the beginning of the experiment. However, with time, the presence of vacuoles was more evident but presented similar morphology among all treatments. The blood parameters were also not influenced by the different diets, except for glucose levels, which was higher in the treatment with the mixture of oils. The absence of differences regarding liver morphology (steatosis) and hematological parameters indicates that the replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils could be performed without damage to the health of R. quelen females.
  • Animal performance and welfare of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) subjected to feed restriction Aquaculture

    Pontes, Cibele Soares; Arruda, Maria de Fátima; Santana, Vinícius Gabriel da Silva; Santos, Daniele Bezerra dos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Behavior activities of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii juvenile, their performance, and acquired lesions when under temporary feed restrictions were analyzed. Five animals/experimental units (10 prawns/m2) were employed for treatments DFL – daily feed supply in the light phase; DFD – daily feed supply in the dark phase; AFL – alternating feed supply in the light phase; and AFD – alternating feed supply in the dark phase, for a 24-hour period, with four replications each. Prawns were fed a pellet diet, twice a day, with 10% of their biomass/day. Specimens were monitored during 60 consecutive days, with behavior recording daily and weighed every 10 days, with assessment of lesions and/or amputated limbs at the end of the experimental period. Types of behavior comprised exploring, grooming, inactivity, crawling, swimming, excavation, burrowing, agonism, and feed ingestion by scan sampling, with instantaneous registration every 60 s, in 15-min windows, before and after feed, in light and dark phases. Feed restricted in alternate days during light and dark phases did not interfere in growth or survival of the specimens, with increase in apparent feed intake and less feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate. Agonistic behavior was higher in specimens with feed restrictions, with an increase in the number of lesions and amputations. The above demonstrates welfare decrease in farmed M. rosenbergii and depreciation in the quality of the final product.
  • Frequency and intensity of pain symptoms detected during classic massage sessions of selected body parts in purebred Arabian racing horses Biometeorology and Animal Welfare

    Wilk, Izabela; Janczarek, Iwona; Kędzierski, Witold; Pomorska, Agnieszka

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We analysed the frequency of symptoms and degree of muscle pain in selected body parts of racing horses assessed during classic massage sessions. The influence of horse's sex on obtained results was considered. The potential for the early determination of pain in horses by analysing their behaviour and cardiac parameters during a massage session was also evaluated. The study was conducted on 20 three-year-old purebred Arabian horses during one racing season. In the racing season, cyclic classic massage sessions were performed, during which the frequency of symptoms and the degree of pain in the neck, back, croup, front limbs, and hind limbs were analysed. A behavioural assessment of the horses was conducted, and cardiac parameters were analysed. During massage, the frequency of pain symptoms in front limbs amounted to 26, while in croup, it did not exceed 6. The studied horses were most susceptible to pain in the front limbs and in the back, with greater severity in stallions than in mares. An assessment of the frequency and severity of pain symptoms should not be based on changes in behaviour of horses or on cardiac parameters (HR and LF:HF ratio) during massage sessions. However, these methods can be applied after pain reactions intensify. Meanwhile, qualified masseurs can diagnose slight muscle pain during massage sessions.
  • Postural changes, nursing behavior, and production performance of two breeds of sows in enriched environment Biometeorology and Animal Welfare

    Han, Qian; Yi, Ran; Li, Shuang; Wang, Chao; Cui, Shiquan; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Honggui; Bao, Jun

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was performed to compare changes in posture, nursing behavior, and production performance of two breeds of sows. The posture, postural changes, nursing behavior, and production performance of hybrid Damin (Large White × Min pig, n = 32) and Landrace × Large White (n = 32) sows were observed by video recording for 72 h after farrowing and from 07:00 to 09:00 h and 13:00 to 15:00 h within any successive two-day period of each week from the two to five weeks postpartum. The production performances were compared between the two breeds. Except standing at days 1 to 3 postpartum and sitting at day 2 postpartum, there were significant differences in postures between the two breeds of sows. The frequency of ventral-to-lateral recumbency at day 1 and weeks 4 and 5 postpartum and sitting-to-lying at days 1 and 3 and weeks 4 and 5 postpartum was significantly lower for the Damin than for Landrace × Large White sows. The frequency of standing-to-lying in the first 72 h postpartum was significantly higher for the Damin than for Landrace × Large White sows. At days 2 and 3 postpartum, piglet loss was significantly lower for the Damin than for Landrace × Large White sows. The duration of parturition and farrowing interval were significantly longer for the Landrace × Large White than for Damin sows. The number of live piglets was higher for the Damin than for Landrace × Large White sows. The birth weight of litters and weaning weight of piglets were lower for Damin than for Landrace × Large White piglets. These data suggest that the Damin sows showed stronger maternal instincts through their behaviors and postural changes compared with the Landrace × Large White sows.
  • Producers' knowledge and perception about environmental enrichment and materials used in pig farms Biometeorology and animal welfare

    Pierozan, Carlos Rodolfo; Foppa, Luciana; Caldas, Edilson Dias; Michelon, Andre; Ruiz, Gabriela; Duarte, José Vitor Silva; Silva, Camilo Cazetta Rodrigues; Silva, Caio Abércio da

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study investigated the knowledge and perception of Brazilian pig producers in terms of environmental enrichment (EE) for pigs, the materials used, and the forms of presentation, identifying the single conditions that can improve their application on pig farms. A questionnaire was applied to 1340 farms – representing 7.4% of the farms and 12% of the sows in the country. The questions included descriptions of farms and respondents, their knowledge, judgments and level of interest in the use of EE, and frequency of use of the materials. Enrichment was used in 89.1% of farms, but half of the respondents admitted to using it without knowing what was involved. The producers presented an optimistic view (92.3%) about the application of this tool and were interested in receiving more knowledge and guidance on the subject (97.8%). The materials were used mainly to avoid fights (46.3%) and to prevent tail biting (23.3%); on the other hand, the increase in production costs (39.6%) and lack of knowledge about the subject (31.3%) were the main reasons for not using enrichment; concerns about increased management on farms were sporadic (7.1%). Metal chains were the main artifacts used, followed by plastic containers and pieces of wood; the same breeding farm used up to five types of materials. The fact that the respondents stated that they knew what EE was and that they had a good perspective on its use were significant conditions for the use of some kind of enrichment on the farms. Younger farm owners were more likely to use enrichment materials than more experienced ones. The results suggested that Brazilian pig producers use EE even with limited knowledge about the subject and that there is an argument to improve the use of this animal welfare strategy.
  • Population structure and inbreeding of Holstein cattle in southern Brazil Breeding and genetics

    Sieklicki, Michelli de Fátima; Mulim, Henrique Alberto; Pinto, Luís Fernando Batista; Valloto, Altair Antônio; Pedrosa, Victor Breno

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present investigation aimed to evaluate the population structure and inbreeding of Holstein herds in southern Brazil. To carry out the analysis, the Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa (APCBRH) in Brazil provided the data, which consisted of a pedigree file of 206,796 animals born between 1970 and 2014. Results regarding the following parameters were determined: pedigree integrity, effective number of founders, effective number of ancestors, generation interval, inbreeding coefficient, realized effective population size, and average relatedness coefficient. POPREP and ENDOG v.4.5 software packages were employed to estimate these parameters. Based on the data set, the mean generation interval was found to be 6.3 years, and the average inbreeding coefficient, related to inbred animals, was 4.99%. Furthermore, the realized effective population size varied throughout the time period, ranging from 22 to 114, whereas the rate of inbreeding in this same period showed a decreasing trend towards the later years in the period until 2014. Upon evaluation, average relatedness coefficient was estimated to be 0.71%. Moreover, the effective number of founders and ancestors were estimated as 418 and 400 animals, respectively. According to the level of inbreeding observed, it could be noticed that genetic diversity remains elevated, which will be important to the genetic progress in the Holstein breeding program in Southern Brazil.
  • Influence of temperament-related genes on live weight traits of Charolais cows Breeding and genetics

    Garza-Brenner, Estela; Sifuentes-Rincón, Ana María; Rodríguez-Almeida, Felipe Alonso; Randel, Ronald D.; Parra-Bracamonte, Gaspar Manuel; Arellano-Vera, Williams

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract We investigated whether a panel of molecular markers previously associated with temperament has an effect on live growth traits. Phenotypic data from 412 Charolais cows categorized according to their age in adult and young cows were used to determine Pearson's correlations between birth (BW), weaning (WW), and yearling live (YW) weight and temperament traits (measured as exit velocity [EV] and temperament score [TS]). For association analysis, selective genotyping of a group of 80 cows identified as the most docile and temperamental were genotyped with a 151-SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) panel of molecular markers previously associated with temperament. Significant Pearson's correlations between birth weight and weaning weight and the two temperament measurements (EV and TS) were observed only in the young cow group. Significant effects of ten SNP on BW and WW were observed. Four markers located on candidate genes for temperament traits also had an effect on birth weight and weaning weight in Charolais cows, which indicates that both traits could be influenced by the same genes.
  • Genetic study of litter size and litter uniformity in Landrace pigs Breeding and Genetics

    Camargo, Ederson Gomes; Marques, Daniele Botelho Diniz; Figueiredo, Elsio Antonio Pereira de; Silva, Fabyano Fonseca e; Lopes, Paulo Sávio

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We aimed to estimate litter size and litter uniformity genetic parameters and genetic trends of Landrace pigs at birth and at three weeks by using multitrait analyses for 2,787 litters. The following litter traits were evaluated: number of piglets born alive (NBA), within-litter weight mean at birth (MBW), within-litter weight standard deviation at birth (SDB), within-litter weight coefficient of variation at birth (CVB), number of piglets at three weeks (NT), within-litter weight mean at three weeks (MT), within-litter weight standard deviation at three weeks (SDT), and within-litter weight coefficient of variation at three weeks (CVT). Heritability estimates for NBA, MBW, SDB, and CVB were 0.09±0.04, 0.31±0.08, 0.01±0.04, and 0.07±0.05, respectively, greater than those obtained at three weeks (0.06±0.04, 0.10±0.06, 0.01±0.04, and 0.02±0.04 for NT, MT, SDT, and CVT, respectively). The genetic correlations between NBA and MBW and between MBW and CVB (−0.73±0.20 and −0.93±0.21, respectively) were of moderate to high magnitudes, as well as the genetic correlations between CVT and SDT (0.85±0.39). Genetic correlations between MBW and MT, SDB and SDT, CVB and CVT, and NBA and NT were 0.73±0.16, 0.69±0.54, 0.36±0.80, and 0.95±0.06, respectively. The genetic trends were linear for NBA and CVB and quadratic for MBW and SDB, whereas for all traits at three weeks, they were close to zero. Within-litter weight coefficient of variation (CV) may be the most appropriate variation measure for application in breeding programs, especially at birth, due to its greater heritability estimate and high and negative genetic correlation with MBW. The genetic trends show that NT does not follow the increase in NBA, emphasizing the need to review the breeding goals.
  • Identifying parents and generating hybrids with high combining ability for yielding fresh cocoon and raw silk in silkworm (Bombxy mori L.) Breeding and Genetics

    Sahan, Umran

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was carried out to identify parents and hybrids by determination of general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), and heterosis in pure lines and their hybrids, which were selected from our gene sources, to determine new hybrid combinations that could be alternative or higher in yielding compared with M × N hybrid used in production. Combining ability and heterosis effects were studied for the eight quantitative characters through line × tester mating design. Chinese origin lines (KZ, ZF) were identified as females and Japanese origin lines (BR, ZB) as males, and by these, four hybrids were derived. M, N, and their hybrid were both used as control genotypes and to calculate the heterosis and commercial heterosis as well. All the genotypes were reared in standard conditions, in three replications. ZF (for pupa survival rate) and ZB (for hatching and filament length) presented significantly higher and positive GCA effects. In addition, ZB had negative GCA effect for infertile egg rate. Effects of SCA were not significant for all the characters. In conclusion, ZF × ZB hybrid could have a potential for the higher cocoon and silk production in Turkey.
  • Markers and antibodies for characterization of goat mammary tissue and the derived primary epithelial cell cultures Breeding and genetics

    Mihevc, Sonja Prpar; Ogorevc, Jernej; Dovč, Peter

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT A selection of commercially available antibodies, targeted against markers employed in studies of mammary gland biology, was tested to determine their reactivity in goat mammary tissue and the derived tissue cultures. Expression of the markers smooth muscle actin ( SMA ), selected keratins ( KRT ) 5, 14, 18 , and 19 , CD24 molecule ( CD24 ), epithelial cell adhesion molecule ( EPCAM ), mucin 1 ( MUC1 ), integrin subunit alpha 6 ( ITGA6; CD49F ), integrin subunit beta 1 ( ITGB1; CD29 ), cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A ( CDKN1A; p21 ), membrane metalloendopeptidase ( MME; CD10 ), progesterone receptor ( PGR ), estrogen receptor 1 ( ESR1 ), and vimentin ( VIM ) was first assessed on mRNA level, using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The reactivity of the antibodies in the tissue sections and the derived tissue cultures was determined using immunofluorescence. The result of this study is a list of commercially available antibodies, raised mostly against human antigens, which also recognize orthologous goat antigens and are useful for characterization of different mammary cell types. Additionally, primers that are functional in detecting expression of mammary lineage markers in goat mammary mRNA isolates were validated. The suggested antibodies, PCR primers, and the described methods are of practical value for researchers interested in characterization and isolation of cell types comprising mammary tissue of goats and probably other ruminants.
  • Developmental expression patterns and correlation analysis of TLR4 and its downstream genes in the intestinal and immune tissues of Meishan pigs Breeding and Genetics

    Qin, Weiyun; Gao, Zhongcheng; Cao, Yue; Wu, Zhengchang; Bao, Wenbin; Wu, Shenglong

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT To understand the developmental expression patterns of key genes in the Toll-like receptor 4 ( TLR4 ) pathway and their regulatory characteristics in the immune response in pigs, we examined TLR4 and its downstream genes expression levels in the intestinal and immune tissues of Meishan pigs. The genes were expressed in all examined tissues at the different developmental stages. TLR4 expression was higher in spleen and lower in other tissues. Spleen and lymph TLR4 expression was significantly lower in 7- and 35-day-old pigs; in the intestinal tissues, it was significantly lower in 21- and 35-day-old pigs. IFNA, IL1B , and TNFA expression varied greatly with developmental stage; expression was significantly higher in most tissues in 21-, 134-, and 158-day-old pigs. TLR4 was highly positively correlated with TNFA in the immune tissues and was significantly correlated with all downstream genes in the spleen; there was no significant correlation in the intestinal tissues. There was near significant positive correlation among the downstream genes in the intestinal tissues, but almost no significant correlation in the immune tissues. We speculated that the TLR4 pathway genes may have an anti-lipopolysaccharide invasion effect during weaning, and the high expression of the downstream genes is beneficial for improving immunity in adult pigs. Our results may contribute to better understanding the TLR4 signaling pathway and its molecular mechanisms and could provide a reference and basis for appropriate-age experimental animal selection for relevant future research.
  • Identification of candidate genes associated with milk yield trait in buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis ) by restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing Breeding and genetics

    Ye, Manhong; Xu, Mengting; Lu, Manran; Zhou, Bin; El-Kader, Heba Abd; Alam, Sally Said; Mahrous, Karima Fathy

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objectives of our present study included the screening of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that show significant differences in allelic frequencies between two buffalo populations (Egyptian and Chinese buffaloes), categorization of functional genes associated with these SNP by gene ontology, and pathway analyses to further understand their potential values as candidate genes closely associated with milk yield trait in buffaloes. In this study, double digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing was performed on Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform for 20 and 25 female buffaloes from Egypt and China, respectively. Approximately 118 Gb of sequencing data were obtained, and a total of 110,129 and 150,535 putative SNP were detected in Egyptian and Chinese buffaloes, respectively. Focused only on those SNP that differed significantly in allelic frequencies between the two populations, we found that genes associated with these SNP were significantly over-represented in the ionotropic glutamate receptor pathway, the endothelin signaling pathway, and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor pathway, which contained a total of 29 genes. Of these, nine genes ( ADCY5, CACNA1A, CREB1, INHBA , INHBB, PIK3R1, PLCB1, PRKCE , and SMAD2 ) participating in the hormonal regulation of lactation, were considered to be promising candidate genes worthy of further investigations for favorable alleles associated with milk yield. Our results provide useful information about genetic variations in Egyptian and Chinese buffaloes. The potential influences of nine candidate genes and their associated SNP on milk yield need to be validated in more buffalo populations.
  • Methods for obtaining the enriched fraction of ram seminal vesicle proteins (RSVP14) Breeding and Genetics

    Felix, Bruna Alves; Otávio, Kamila de Sousa; Martins, Jorge André Matias; Santos, Fágner Cavalcante Patrocínio dos; Velho, Ana Luiza Malhado Cazaux de Souza; Vasconcelos, Fábio Roger; Bezerra, Maria Júlia Barbosa; Moura, Arlindo A.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to develop a methodology to obtain the enriched fraction of ram seminal vesicle protein 14 (RSVP14). The study was developed using Morada Nova rams, from which semen samples were collected weekly. Seminal plasma proteins were precipitated with cold ethanol, and then 6.15 mg/mL of total proteins were subjected to liquid gelatin affinity chromatography using a Gelatin-Sepharose matrix coupled to an automated chromatographic system. Proteins were eluted into four fractions (A, B, C, and D), in which A and B contained non-gelatin-binding proteins, and C and D fractions contained gelatin-binding proteins. Gels were analyzed by Quantity One software, in which five protein bands were detected in fraction D, with molecular weights between 12 and 30 kDa. The gelatin-binding proteins (fraction D) were loaded into a HiTrap™ Heparin HP affinity column. Two chromatographic fractions were separated (D1 and D2), in which D1 contained non-heparin-binding proteins, and D2 contained heparin-binding proteins. Proteins from the last two peaks were subjected to 12.5% SDS-PAGE and Western Blot. Two bands with molecular weight of 14 and 24 kDa, contained in fraction D1, were excised from gel and subjected to tandem mass spectrometry, identifying the proteins RSVP14 and RSVP24. Thus, the chromatographic methods of the present study are efficient to capture the enriched fraction of RSVP14.
  • Identification of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the growth hormone ( GH ) gene in Anatolian water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) populations in Turkey Breeding and genetics

    Ünal, Emel Özkan; Işık, Raziye; Soysal, Mehmet İhsan

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the growth hormone ( GH; somatotropin-like) gene polymorphisms in 150 water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) from different regions of Turkey. 404 bp long partial intron 4, exon 5, 3’ UTR regions of the GH gene (also called GH/Alu I locus) and 347 bp long exon-intron 3 and partial exon 4 regions of the GH gene (also called GH/Msp I locus) were amplified, and their PCR products analyzed via DNA sequencing method. Seven genotypes due to twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and one deletion/insertion were identified in a 347 bp long region of the GH/Msp I locus. A missense mutation from glycine to glutamate amino acid and four silent mutations in the serine, threonine, and asparagine amino acids were determined in the exon 3 region of the GH gene. Four genotypes due to eight SNP were identified in a 404 bp long region of the GH/Alu I locus. A missense mutation from lysine to arginine amino acid and six silent mutations in Leucine, aspartate, histidine, lysine, arginine, and cysteine amino acids were revealed in the exon 5 region of the GH gene. The partial DNA sequence of the GH gene in water buffalos was reported, and these sequences were deposited at the NCBI Genbank database with the accession numbers MN266903-MN266909 and MN530973-MN530976. These SNP may have an effect on economic (such as body composition) and carcass traits, reproduction, and milk yield and content in water buffalo populations and may prove to be useful for water buffalo breeding.
  • Preliminary screening of intestinal barrier genes associated with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection in pigs Breeding and genetics

    Qi, Xiaoyi; Xu, Yafei; Qin, Weiyun; Wang, Haifei; Wu, Shenglong; Bao, Wenbin

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT To screen intestinal barrier genes associated with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection, in the present study we first detected PEDV-infected piglets ( Sus scrofa ) with intestinal damage using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Then, we used qPCR to identify expression differences of intestinal barrier genes between the PEDV-infected and control groups. The results showed that the expression levels of most genes were significantly different between the two groups. Hierarchical clustering and correlation analysis were performed for the expression levels of 25 candidate genes to reveal the key gene that may be involved in PEDV resistance. Two important candidate genes, GLP2 (glucagon–like peptide 2) and AQP3 (aquaporin 3), have their expression positively correlated (r = 0.84). We speculated that decreased expression of GLP2 and AQP3 might play an important role in the process of PEDV infection of piglets by reducing the expression of tight junction proteins and disrupting the junctions between intestinal epithelial cells. There may be an underlying biological interaction between the two genes, which together affect the functional integrity of the intestinal barrier.
  • Effect of okara levels on corn grain silage Forage Crops

    Tres, Tamara Tais; Bueno, Antonio Vinicius Iank; Jobim, Clóves Cabreira; Daniel, João Luiz Pratti; Gritti, Viviane Carnaval

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We ensiled different levels of okara and ground corn to evaluate the effects on the fermentative pattern, aerobic stability, and chemical composition of resulting silages. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates per treatment. The okara levels were (dry matter basis): control (without okara) and 200, 300, 400, and 500 g kg−1 okara, with four replicates per treatment. Control silage did not contain okara, but water was added to adjust the moisture content (400 g kg−1 as fed). Mixtures were ensiled in lab-scale silos and stored for 150 days. Compared with the control silage, okara inclusion linearly increased crude protein (from 89.1 to 251 g kg−1 DM), ether extract (from 39.6 to 136 g kg−1 DM), neutral detergent fiber (from 79.9 to 174 g kg−1 DM), acid detergent fiber (from 22.4 to 119 g kg−1 DM), and ash (from 12.2 to 32.4 g kg−1 DM), whereas decreased dry matter content and in vitro dry matter digestibility (from 830 to 730 g kg−1 DM). The use of okara linearly increased lactic acid concentration but also intensified secondary fermentation. On the other hand, aerobic stability of silages increased due to okara inclusion because of the higher amount of short-chain fatty acids, such as butyric and acetic acids, which accumulated during fermentation. Okara inclusion in corn grain silage must be conditioned to the dry matter content at ensiling, but must not exceed 200 g kg−1 on dry matter basis.
  • Storage length interacts with maturity to affect nutrient availability in unprocessed flint corn silage Forage Crops

    Bueno, Jonatas Lopes; Bolson, Dheyme Cristina; Jacovaci, Fernando Alberto; Gomes, Ana Luiza Mendonça; Ribeiro, Matheus Gonçalves; Bueno, Antonio Vinicius Iank; Jobim, Clóves Cabreira; Daniel, João Luiz Pratti

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Our objective was to determine the effects of maturity and storage length on the fermentation pattern, ruminal disappearance of nutrients, and recovery of digestible nutrients in flint corn (Zea mays L.) silage harvested with a pull-type machine without a kernel processor. Corn plants were harvested at 300 g kg−1 DM (low dry matter, LDM) or 400 g kg−1 DM (high dry matter, HDM) and stored for 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 d in laboratory silos. Corn harvested at HDM had a higher proportion of long particles (>19 mm), more intact kernels, and lower kernel processing score. There was an interaction between maturity and storage length for several fermentation end-products, DM recovery, ruminal disappearance of nutrients, and recovery of digestible DM. Overall, the concentrations of fermentation end-products were higher in LDM than in HDM silage. The DM recovery decreased over time, mainly for LDM silage. Ruminal disappearance of nutrients (starch, CP, and DM) increased with storage length, with greater values for LDM silage at shorter storage, but closer values among LDM and HDM at longer storage periods. The recovery of digestible DM (DM recovery × ruminal disappearance) slightly increased in LDM silage up to 26 d of fermentation, but it markedly increased in HDM silage, mainly up to 60 d of storage. Storing for longer periods is a strategy to partially offset the negative impact of maturity on the digestibility of flint corn silage harvested with pull-type machines without kernel processor.
  • Minerals and potentially toxic elements in corn silage from tropical and subtropical Brazil Forage Crops

    Motta, Antonio Carlos Vargas; Araujo, Eloá Moura; Broadley, Martin R.; Young, Scott D.; Barbosa, Julierme Zimmer; Prior, Stephen A.; Schmidt, Patrick

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Our aim was to assess the mineral composition of corn silages produced in four states of Brazil: Goiás, Minas Gerais, Paraná, and Santa Catarina. In total, seventy-three samples were analyzed. Total element content was extracted by HNO3 and H2O2 microwave-assisted digestion, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine concentration. Of the 31 elements analyzed (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl, U, V, and Zn), 21 had concentrations above equipment detection limits. No elements reached the maximum tolerable concentration, but concentrations of Ca (0.14-0.15%), Cu (3.4-5.6 mg kg−1), P (0.13-0.16%), S (0.06-0.08%), and Zn (13-19 mg kg−1) were below the adequate concentration for good nutritional balance. The strong and consistent correlation observed between Fe and Ti in silage samples indicated contamination by soil. Mean concentrations of Cu, Mn, Mo, P, S, and Zn were different among states, and canonic analyses successfully discriminate samples according to their state of origin. Minerals from corn silage should be considered when formulating balanced cattle diets. To ensure silage quality, farmers must adopt strategies that reduce contamination by soil during the ensiling process.
  • Fermentative parameters and aerobic stability of orange peel silage with pelleted citrus pulp Forage Crops

    Grizotto, Regina Kitagawa; Siqueira, Gustavo Rezende; Campos, Andressa Fernanda; Modesto, Rodolfo Toga; Resende, Flávio Dutra de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effects of pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) added to orange peel on fermentative parameters and aerobic stability of orange peel silages. The treatments were based on different levels of PCP: 0 (control), 10% PCP, 20% PCP, and 30% PCP calculated according to the weight of orange peel (w/w), with five experimental silos per treatment stored for 60 days. Chemical composition, fermentative parameters, microbial population, and dry matter (DM) losses were performed in silages after opening the experimental silos. Furthermore, aerobic stability was evaluated for 12 days. Silages with 10 and 20% PCP presented suitable levels of DM, 226 and 302 g kg−1, respectively, and probably adequate water activity that benefited the lactic acid fermentation, but it jeopardized their aerobic stabilities. The inclusion of 10% PCP did not reduce the effluent loss compared with the control silages. Yet, 30% PCP silage showed the lowest effluent loss (93%), in contrast to the low lactic acid content (35 g kg−1) and short aerobic stability (49 h). Control silages remained stable for a longer period (115 h), but showed greater loss of N as NH3, and higher losses of DM through gas (354 g kg−1) and effluents (114 g kg−1). In short, we highlighted 20% PCP silage because of its high lactic acid bacteria (6.3 cfu g−1), high lactic acid:acetic acid ratio (1.41), low nitrogen degradation as NH3, and reduced gas (67%) and effluent (80%) productions. With the highest lactic acid (66.42 g kg−1), these well-preserved silages showed a more intense aerobic degradation, starting after 42h. The inclusion of PCP to orange peel improves the fermentation process probably due to the decrease of water activity, but decreases the aerobic stability of the silage as well.
  • The quality of crude glycerine influences the fermentation and nutritive value of Piatã grass silage Forage Crops

    Schwingel, Alice Watte; Fernandes, Tatiane; Orrico, Marco Antonio Previdelli; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim; Lucas, Jorge de; Reis, Ricardo Andrade; Souza, Ronaldo Omizolo de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the effects of crude glycerine purity and levels of glycerol on the fermentative profile, microorganisms counting, and nutritional value of Piatã grass silage. The experiment was carried out in a 3×3+1 completely randomized factorial design using three different types of crude glycerine [low purity (40% of glycerol), medium purity (60% glycerol), and high purity (80% glycerol)], three doses of glycerol (20, 40, and 60 g/kg DM), and a control (no crude glycerine added) as an additional treatment, which were stored for 80 days. Statistical differences were not observed on fermentative losses of the treatments tested. The increase of glycerol doses resulted in higher levels of non-fibrous carbohydrates and lower levels of fibre components. The addition of low-purity crude glycerine increased the levels of fat and in vitro digestibility of silages. The highest levels of lactic acid and acetic acid occurred in the treatments with 60 g/kg of glycerol when using crude glycerine with a low purity. The lowest lactic acid content was observed in the control treatment and in the lowest dose of glycerol. The highest glycerol dose (60 g/kg), associated with the lowest degree of crude glycerine purity (40%) resulted in the greatest nutritional value and provided the best silage conservation.
  • Natamycin as a potential silage additive: A lab trial using sugarcane to assess greenhouse gas emissions Forage crops

    Bueno, Antonio Vinicius Iank; Vigne, Gabriela Letícia Delai; Novinski, Charles Ortiz; Bayer, Cimélio; Jobim, Clóves Cabreira; Schmidt, Patrick

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate natamycin, Lactobacillus buchneri (LB), or their combination on the chemical composition, loss, fermentative profile, and aerobic stability as well as gas production and composition of sugarcane silages. The treatments were (wet basis): no additive (control), 10 g t−1 of natamycin (N10), 5 × 104 cfu g−1 of LB, and the combination of 4 g t−1 of natamycin and 2.5 × 104 cfu g−1 of LB (NLB). Sugarcane was chopped (10 mm), treated with the additives, and ensiled in experimental silos (four replicates). The silos remained stored for 51 days. The LB inoculation, alone or in combination with natamycin, increased the acetic acid content (by 105 and 78% respectively) and decreased ethanol content (by 83 and 71% respectively) when compared to N10 treatment and the control. A decrease in both dry matter and gas losses was observed in the LB (by 72 and 78%, respectively) and N10 (by 69 and 77%, respectively) silages compared with the control, but not the combination. The N10 treatment reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emission by 86% compared with the control silage. Control and N10 silages deteriorated to the same extent with aerobic exposure, whereas LB and NLB presented higher aerobic stability. The use of natamycin alone is not recommended when ethanol and aerobic stability are concerns. However, natamycin may be considered for the composition of blend additives to decrease greenhouse gas emission and fermentative loss in silages. Further studies must be carried out to optimize doses of natamycin in blend additives.
  • Evaluation of olive leaf extract as a growth promoter on the performance, blood biochemical parameters, and caecal microflora of broiler chickens Non-ruminants

    Erener, Guray; Ocak, Nuh; Ozturk, Ergin; Cankaya, Soner; Ozkanca, Resit; Altop, Aydın

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to examine the effects of an alcoholic liquid olive leaf extract (OLE) obtained from fresh leaves on the growth performance, carcass weight, caecal microflora, and some plasma variables, such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in broiler chickens. A total of 375 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly divided into five treatments with five replicate pens (15 birds each) per treatment. The birds were fed either a basal diet with no supplement (control), with 75 (OLE75), 150 (OLE150), 300 (OLE300), and 600 (OLE600) mg kg−1 oleuropein, provided by 0.66, 1.33, 2.65, and 5.32 g kg−1 of the OLE. The dietary supplementation of OLE linearly increased daily body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and carcass weight and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR). Although the OLE600 broilers had the highest daily FI among the treatments, there were significant increases in their BWG and improvements in FCR compared with the control, OLE75, and OLE150 birds. The carcass weights of OLE150, OLE300, and OLE600 birds were higher than those of the control group. The OLE600 diet increased the dressing percentage compared with the OLE75, OLE150, and OLE300 diets. The abdominal fat weight and the plasma HDL concentration of the control broilers were lower than those of all OLE birds. All doses of OLE supplementation decreased the caecal E. coli content. A growth-promoting effect is obtained from the dietary supplementation of 600 mg kg−1 oleuropein due to its beneficial effect on growth performance and caecal microflora populations of broilers.
  • Occurrence of heat waves and the prediction of feed intake of sows raised in a tropical environment Non-ruminants

    Brito, Amanda Aparecida; Silva, Ricardo Braga da; Bueno, João Paulo Rodrigues; Nascimento, Fernanda Gatti de Oliveira; Moraes, Cíntia Amaral; Nascimento, Mara Regina Bueno de Mattos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective with this study was to estimate the voluntary feed intake (VFI) of sows during the occurrence of heat waves in the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba mesoregion, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET) database was used to calculate the temperature-humidity index (THI) from 2008 to 2017 for Araxá, Frutal, Ituiutaba, Patos de Minas, Patrocínio, Uberaba, and Uberlândia, and the estimated VFI with and without effective occurrence of heat waves (EOH). An economic estimation of the revenue based on the VFI was performed. The data were analyzed by Friedman's non-parametric test (two-way non parametric analysis), using the significance level of 5%. The sows raised in Patrocínio showed a higher average prediction of VFI (6.611 kg without EOH and 5.743 kg with EOH) than Ituiutaba (6.424 kg without EOH and 3.969 kg with EOH) and Frutal (5.868 kg without EOH and 4.648 kg with EOH). In the classification “without EOH”, the microregions of Araxá (6.502 kg), Uberaba (6.452 kg), and Uberlândia (6.478 kg) did not differ from the other cities, but “with EOH”, Araxá (4.864 kg) differed from Patrocínio (5.743 kg). The reduction of VFI due to thermal stress represented a revenue reduction of R$ 74.60 per litter. The averages for predicted VFI were lower in the EOH category than in the probable occurrences of heat waves category for all cities. The predominance of heat waves reduces the VFI of sows, particularly in Ituiutaba and Frutal.
  • Alternative procedure for determining lysine maintenance requirement in poultry Non-Ruminants

    Dorigam, Juliano Cesar de Paula; Silva, Edney Pereira da; Sakomura, Nilva Kazue; Peruzzi, Nelson José; Lima, Michele Bernardino de; Fernandes, João Batista Kochenborger

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective with this study was to determine the lysine maintenance requirements (LMR) of male and female broilers as animal models. A total of 252 birds were used for nitrogen balance trials during three periods (I: 6-21, II: 22-37, and III: 38-53 days). Six lysine levels were used (2.76, 5.88, 8.99, 12.1, 15.2, and 18.3 g kg−1) with six replications. A control group also included, totalizing seven treatments for males and females for each assay. The experimental period was 15 days. The response variables included nitrogen intake (NI) and excretion (NEX), and their difference was assumed to be deposited as nitrogen. An exponential regression between NEX and lysine intake (LI) was fitted, and LMR was estimated when LI = 0. The daily values for LMR were 9.29, 33.4, and 40.2 mg BW0.67 kg−1 for males and 9.36, 30.0, and 39.4 mg BW0.67 kg−1 for females. The final value for both sexes were 10.1 (period I), 31.5 (period II), and 39.8 mg BW0.67 kg−1 (period III). Expressed as body protein weight at maturity (BPm), the LMR were 172 and 148 (period I), 216 and 207 (period II), and 189 and 180 mg BPm0.73 kg−1 (period III) for males and females, respectively. The results provided ranges of LMR values recommended in previous studies, validating this procedure. The procedure to estimate the requirements presented here provides new insights into the model of amino acid requirement estimations.
  • Non-linear mixed models in the study of growth of naturalized chickens Non-ruminants

    Ibiapina, Vicente; Barbosa, Firmino José Vieira; Campelo, José Elivalto Guimarães; Sarmento, José Lindenberg Rocha

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to examine the inclusion of random effects in non-linear models, identify the most suitable models, and describe the growth of naturalized chickens. Live-weight records of 166 birds of the Graúna Dourada, Nordestina, and Teresina ecotypes were estimated. The asymptotic weight (A), integration constant, related to animal initial weight (B), and the maturing rate (k) parameters of the non-linear Gompertz, Logistic, and von Bertalanffy models were estimated and adjusted using the Gauss-Newton method. Residual variance decreased by more than 50% when random effects were added to the model. The best fits in the estimate of the growth curve of females were obtained by associating the random effects with the three parameters of the Gompertz and Logistic models. The association of random effects with two parameters (asymptotic weight and maturing rate) and with the three parameters of the Logistic model provided the best fits for the males. The Teresina ecotype has the highest adult weight in both sexes, despite its slower growth. The opposite is true for the Graúna Dourada ecotype, formed by lighter and earlier-growing animals. The inclusion of random effects in models provides greater accuracy in the estimate of the growth curve.
  • Effect of green propolis on the productivity, nutrient utilisation, and intestinal morphology of Japanese laying quail Non-ruminants

    Pieroni, Carolina Alves; Oliveira, Maria Cristina de; Santos, Willian Lucas Rodrigues dos; Mascarenhas, Laryssa Bezerra; Oliveira, Matheus Andrade Dias

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary inclusion of ethanolic extract of green propolis (EEGP) on productivity, egg quality, nutrient utilization, and duodenal morphology of 120 Japanese laying quail. The quail were randomly distributed into five treatment groups: one group with no EEGP in the diet (control diet) and four groups with increasing EEGP levels (500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg EEGP/kg diet) in the diets. Excreta and diet samples were collected on day 40 and were analyzed for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), ash, gross energy (GE), calcium, and phosphorus to evaluate the nutrient and energy use. At the end of the study period, productive performance, egg quality, and duodenum morphology were evaluated. Duodenal sections were obtained from four birds per treatment and were processed for optical microscopy. The EEGP did not affect DM, GE utilization, apparent metabolizable energy, ash retention, feed intake, feed conversion, egg mass, egg quality, crypt depth, or villus height:crypt depth ratio in the duodenum. However, EEGP did increase laying rate, CP, EE, calcium, and phosphorus utilization, as well as villus height and absorption surface area in the duodenum when provided to birds at 1500 and 2000 mg/kg in the diet. Thus, the inclusion of EEGP at 1500 ppm in the diet of Japanese laying quail improves productivity, egg quality, nutrient utilization ability, and duodenal morphology.
  • Effect of fermented soybean meal supplementation on some growth performance, blood chemical parameters, and fecal microflora of finishing pigs Non-ruminants

    Feng, Haiyue; Qu, Huan; Liu, Yin; Shi, Yinghao; Wu, Shenglong; Bao, Wenbin

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effect of fermented soybean meal (FSBM) supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, blood biochemical parameters, and fecal microflora of finishing pigs. Thirty-two crossbred pigs (Duroc × Landrance × Yorkshire) (66-day-old, 67.95±0.25 kg) were randomly allocated to two treatments and fed diets containing soybean meal and FSBM. The average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), blood biochemical parameters, and meat quality index were measured. At the end of experiment, the fecal microflora of finishing pigs was analyzed with 16S rDNA techniques. Results revealed that pigs fed FSBM had a greater ADG and lower cooking loss relative to control group (basal diets). Compared with the control group, the triglyceride content in the serum of the group fed FSBM increased significantly, and the creatinine content in the serum decreased notably. Fermented soybean meal enhanced the abundance of Bacteroidetes, Prevotellaceae, Bcteroidales, Bacteroidia, but inhibited the growth of Firmicutes, Clostridia, Clostridiales, and Ruminococcaceae in the intestine of pigs. Therefore, we can speculate that FSBM may play an important role in animal production. Dietary FSBM supplementation may be beneficial to some aspects of growth performance and the diversity of fecal microflora in finishing pigs.
  • Effects of placement time on performance and gastrointestinal tract growth of male broiler chickens Non-Ruminants

    Cardeal, Paula Costa; Rocha, Júlia Sampaio Rodrigues; Pompeu, Mariana André; Pereira, Luiz Felipe Pinho; Saldanha, Mariana Masseo; Baião, Nelson Carneiro; Araújo, Itallo Conrado Sousa de; Lara, Leonardo José Camargos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of placement time on the performance of broiler chickens and the development of their gastrointestinal tract. Two methodologies for measuring broiler performance were compared, one considering day of pulling as the first day, the other considering day of placement as the first day. A total of 1,056 one-day old male Cobb® 500 broiler chicks were subjected to treatments of different placement times after pulling from the hatchery: 3, 24, 48, and 72 h. The studied traits were: feed intake, body weight, feed conversion, viability, and gastrointestinal tract development. When day of pulling was considered the first day, feed intake and body weight at 39 days decreased as placement time increased. However, when day of placement was considered the first day, fasting up to 72 h did not have any negative effect on broiler performance at 39 days post-placement. Placement time did not affect yolk sac utilization or liver weight. At nine days post-placement, weights of gizzard + proventriculus, pancreas, and small intestine increased with increasing placement time. At seven days of age, there was no effect of placement time on villus height or crypt depth. It is possible to place broiler chicks up to 72 h post-hatching with no negative effects when day of placement is considered the first day for evaluating broiler performance.
  • Performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal histomorphometry of broilers fed diet supplemented with chondroitin and glucosamine sulfates Non-Ruminants

    Martins, Julyana Machado da Silva; Santos, Lindolfo Dorcino dos; Gomides, Larissa Paula Silva; Fernandes, Eder de Sousa; Sgavioli, Sarah; Stringhini, José Henrique; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca; Café, Marcos Barcellos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal histomorphometry of broilers fed diet supplemented with chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate. The experiment was carried out with 320 male broiler chicks distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×2 factorial scheme (0 and 0.1% chondroitin sulfate and 0 and 0.3% glucosamine sulfate), with eight replications of 10 birds. Performance was evaluated at 7 and 21 days of age, nutrient digestibility of the diet was performed from 18 to 21 days of age, and small intestine histomorphometry was evaluated at 21 days of age. Broilers fed diet supplemented with 0.3% glucosamine sulfate showed high final weight and weight gain. A significant interaction was observed between sulfates for digestibility coefficients of nitrogen, mineral matter, and calcium. The use of 0.1% chondroitin sulfate without glucosamine sulfate resulted in a reduced digestibility of nitrogen but increased digestibility of total minerals and calcium. Diets without chondroitin sulfate with 0.3% glucosamine sulfate increased the digestibility coefficients of mineral matter and calcium. A significant interaction was found for jejunum villus height, which was higher in broilers fed diet supplemented with 0.3% glucosamine sulfate, regardless of the inclusion of chondroitin sulfate. Thus, supplementation with glucosamine sulfate in broiler diets contributes to high weight gain and villus height. Sulfates used in isolation promote high digestibility of minerals.
  • Production, egg quality, and intestinal morphometry of laying hens fed marine microalga Non-ruminants

    Fernandes, Raimunda Thyciana Vasconcelos; Gonçalves, Alex Augusto; Arruda, Alex Martins Varela de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate production and egg quality as well as the intestinal morphometry of laying hens fed diets supplemented with marine microalga Dunaliella salina. Six hundred laying hens were allocated based on a completely randomized design into five treatments (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1% inclusion of D. salina biomass) with 12 replicates of 10 hens per treatment. The experiment was divided into three periods of four weeks each, totaling 84 days. During this period, the productive performance of laying hens, the physical-chemical quality of the eggs, and the morphometric alterations of the small intestine and liver were determined. The inclusion levels of D. salina biomass had a linear effect on the performance (egg weight, egg mass, and feed conversion), qualitative parameters (yolk weight and yolk index), and physicochemical parameters of eggs (total carotenoids, TBARS, and yolk color). At the same time, villi lengths and the villus:crypt ratio of the duodenum and ileum segments and the metabolization of carotenoids in the liver were increased as an effect of Dunaliella salina dietary supplementation. Thus, the inclusion of marine microalgae D. salina biomass in experimental diets for laying hens improves the performance, the intestinal health, the physical-chemical quality of the eggs, and at the same time increases carotenoid content and improves egg oxidative stability.
  • Performance of brown layers fed reduced dietary protein levels in two rearing systems Non-ruminants

    Viana, Eduardo de Faria; Souza, Wesley José de; Costa, Miliane Alves da; Arnhold, Emmanuel; Carvalho, Fabyola Barros de; Mello, Heloisa Helena de Carvalho; Café, Marcos Barcellos; Stringhini, José Henrique

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted aiming to evaluate the effect of different levels of crude protein, based on the ideal protein concept and two rearing systems, on productive performance of brown laying hens. A total of 400 Hisex Brown laying hens between 30 and 45 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized design and a 2×4 factorial arrangement, with main effects including two rearing systems (cage and floor) and levels of crude protein (140, 150, 160, and 180 g kg−1), totalizing eight treatments. Five replicates with 10 birds each were used per experimental unit. The following parameters were evaluated: egg production, feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and quality traits such as dirty, cracked, or broken eggs. No interaction effect was observed between dietary protein levels and rearing systems for body weight gain, feed intake, egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio. Feed intake and egg production were higher in the floor rearing system. Feed conversion ratio (kg/dz) was improved in birds reared in the cage system. The rate of cracked and broken eggs was higher in the cage system. The layers reared in the floor system produced a higher percentage of dirty eggs. The dietary protein level did not affect the evaluated parameters. Thus, we conclude that a floor rearing system is an option for layers, and the dietary protein level can be reduced up to 140 g kg−1 for Hisex Brown hens from 30 to 45 weeks of age.
  • Feather and blood meal at different processing degrees in broiler pre-starter and starter diets Non-ruminants

    Laboissière, Michele; da Costa, Miliane Alves; Jardim, Roberto de Moraes; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca; Café, Marcos Barcellos; Stringhini, José Henrique

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of feather and blood meal (FBM) in broiler pre-starter and starter diets according to the processing method used. Performance, digestibility, and intestinal morphometry of broilers fed diets containing FBM were evaluated in two experiments, in the pre-starter (1-7 d) and starter (8-21 d) phases in a randomized block design with four treatments and five replicates of 12 birds, totaling 20 experimental units per trial. The criteria used for block formation was the battery floor. The meal was processed under different degrees of hydrolysis pressure (2.0 kgf/cm2 for 40 min; 2.5 kgf/cm2 for 30 min; and 3.0 kgf/cm2 for 20 min) and added at 9% to the pre-starter (Experiment I) and starter (Experiment II) diets. In each experiment, 480 male Cobb 500® chicks were allocated to batteries. The following variables were measured: live weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and digestibility and retention of dry matter, nitrogen, and ether extract. Performance was not influenced by the dietary inclusion of the ingredient. However, FBM subjected to the highest hydrolysis pressure resulted in the worst overall nutritional balances. The chickens were more susceptible to FBM processing in the pre-starter phase, when the hydrolysis pressure of 2.5 kgf/m2 for 30 min provided the best results. In the starter diet, FBM processed at a hydrolysis pressure of 2.0 kgf/m2 for 40 min provided the best performance results up to 14 days of age, without changing nutrient metabolism. Up to 9% feather and blood meal can be included in broiler pre-starter and starter diets as long as the ingredient processing method is well-known.
  • Effects of an antibiotic and two phytogenic substances (cinnamaldehyde and 1,8-cineole) on yolk fatty acid profile and storage period-associated egg lipid peroxidation level Non-ruminants

    Cimrin, Tulay; Tunca, Rahsan Ivgin; Avsaroglu, M. Dilek; Ayasan, Tugay; Küçükersan, Seher

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was aimed at determining the effects of two phytogenic antioxidants, namely, cinnamaldehyde and 1,8-cineole, and an antibiotic added to laying hen feed on the fatty acid profile of egg yolk and the weight loss and lipid peroxidation levels of eggs stored for different periods. Ninety-six 48-week-old Bovans White hens were randomly assigned to four groups, each with four replicates of six hens per replicate. The four groups were provided with the following feeds: maize and soybean-based laying hen feed, basal ration (control group); basal ration added 500 mg/kg of an antibiotic; basal ration added 100 mg/kg of cinnamaldehyde; and basal ration added 100 mg/kg of 1,8-cineole. At the end of an eight-week feeding schedule, 48 eggs, including 12 from each group, were used for yolk fatty acid analysis. In total, 240 eggs, including 48 eggs for each of the five different storage periods tested (1, 14, 28, 42, and 56 days), were collected for the detection of egg weight loss and yolk malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The feed supplements cinnamaldehyde and 1,8-cineole were determined to have significantly reduced lipid peroxidation in the yolk of eggs stored for 14, 28, 42, and 56 days, when compared with the results of the control group and antibiotic-treated group. Furthermore, dietary cinnamaldehyde supplementation was determined to have decreased the yolk level of myristic acid, a saturated fatty acid, and to have increased the yolk level of oleic acid, the major unsaturated fatty acid found in egg yolk (46.28%) in comparison with the levels measured in the other three groups. Cinnamaldehyde and 1,8-cineole were determined to extend the shelf life of eggs by providing protection against free oxygen radicals. Cinnamaldehyde could be used as an alternative feed supplement to enrich the yolk fatty acid profile in unsaturated fatty acids.
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus reduces Listeria monocytogenes infection by inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase genes in growing rabbits Non-ruminants

    Zhao, Heping; Zhang, Feike; Chai, Jun; Wang, Jianping

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus ACCC11073 on the growth performance, oxidation, inflammation, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family genes of rabbits infected with Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) using antibiotic enrofloxacin hydrochloride (EH) as a reference. There were four treatments including negative control, positive control with L. monocytogenes infection on the first day of feeding trial (PC), PC + EH at 40 mg kg−1, and PC + L. acidophilus at 108 CFU kg−1 of diet using 240 weaned growing rabbits. The results showed that L. monocytogenes infection worsened growth performance of rabbits, whereas EH or L. acidophilus supplementation partially recovered body weight gain, but did not reach the levels of the negative control. Listeria acidophilus and EH decreased L. monocytogenes loads in caecum, liver, spleen, and lymph node, serum oxidative markers including diamine oxidase, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl, serum IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. The decreased effects of EH on IL-1β and TNF-α were more pronounced than that of the probiotic. Treatments EH and probiotic also de-regulated the mRNA levels of MAPK1, 3, 6, and 14. Listeria acidophilus exhibits a similar effect to EH against L. monocytogenes in rabbits, and the regulation on inflammatory process is via MAPK family genes. The results suggest that L. acidophilus can be used as a feed additive against L. monocytogenes infection.
  • Effects of xylanase and probiotic supplementation on broiler chicken diets Non-ruminants

    Machado, Noédson de Jesus Beltrão; Cruz, Frank George Guimarães; Brasil, Ronner Joaquim Mendonça; Rufino, João Paulo Ferreira; Freitas, Leonardo Willian de; Dilelis, Felipe; Quaresma, Débora Vaccari; Lima, Cristina Amorim Ribeiro de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of xylanase and probiotic supplementation on the performance, carcass characteristics, intestinal pH, intestinal viscosity, and ileal microbiota of broiler chickens fed diets containing wheat bran. The study animals were kept in metal cages, and the study was performed using a completely randomized design, with four treatments, six birds per treatment, and six replicates. The four treatments included a control group, a probiotic-supplemented group, a xylanase-supplemented group, and a group that received both xylanase and probiotic supplementation. The diets of all four groups contained wheat bran (50 and 30 g/kg for the starter and grower phases, respectively) and phytase, and at 10 d after hatching, the experimental birds were challenged orally with Eimeria sp commercial vaccine. During the initial phase, supplementation with xylanase, probiotics, or their combination yielded greater weight gains than the control diet; however, considering the period from 10-35 d, the chickens receiving xylanase + probiotic and the diet without the additives showed lower weight gain (2.746 and 2.600 kg, respectively). All the supplemented diets reduced cecum viscosity, and supplementation with probiotic showed a significantly lower pH (6.11). The ileal microbiota was also influenced by xylanase and probiotic supplementation, modulating the frequencies of the genera Lactobacillus and Clostridium. The positive effects of supplementation with xylanase or probiotics alone were similar to those of co-supplementation, and no associative effect was observed.
  • Effect of the supplementation of biocomplexed minerals in diets for free-range chickens on performance and carcass characteristics Non-ruminants

    Cruz, Fábio Loures; Miranda, Diogo Alvarenga; Marçal, Joanna Oliveira; Fernandes, Allan Alves; Lopes, Marcos Aurélio; Geraldo, Adriano; Faria, Peter Bitencourt

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We intended to evaluate the influence of supplementation with biocomplexed minerals on the performance and carcass characteristics of Label Rouge broilers of both sexes, as well as on the feed efficiency and feed costs. The experimental design was completely randomized arranged in factorial scheme (3×2) – three experimental diets (control, 0.50 ppm of selenium, and 0.40 ppm of chromium) and two sexes (male and female). Each treatment was composted of three plots, each one represented by 21 birds. The average weight (g/bird), weight gain (g/bird), feed intake (g/bird), and feed conversion in periods of 1 to 7, 1 to 21, 1 to 35, 1 to 49, 1 to 63, and 1 to 90 days were calculated. Weight and yield of carcass and cuts were determined. Both average feed cost (AFC, R$/bird) and cost per kg of weight gain (CWG, R$/kg weight gain) as well as economic efficiency index (EEI) were estimated. There was no influence of the diet on performance, carcass characteristics, and feed costs of the birds. The males presented higher means of average weight (3819.2 g/bird), weight gain (3780.9 g/bird), feed intake (11030.2 g/bird), and better feed conversion index (2.9) in the period of 1 to 90 days, besides presenting higher values of live weight at slaughter (3740.2 g), carcass weight (3117.5 g) and carcass yield (83.4%), breast weight (832.4 g), thigh weight (432.5 g), and thigh yield (13.9%); the females presented higher breast yield values (28.1%). The males presented higher AFC and lower CWG. The addition of minerals in the diet does not change performance, carcass characteristics and feed costs. The males present better performance and better carcass characteristics, in addition to being economically more viable.
  • Effects of chitosan coating and different storage periods of broiler breeder eggs on growth performance and carcass characteristics Non-ruminants

    Köseman, Abdurrahman; Akdemir, Fatih; Şeker, İbrahim

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was carried out to determine the effects of coating with chitosan film and storing at different periods (7, 14, and 21 days) of broiler breeder eggs on growth performance and carcass characteristics of the chicks. The present study was arranged as three different storage periods (7, 14, and 21 days) and coating or not the eggs with chitosan film. In total, 1800 hatching fertilized eggs were used. These eggs were divided into six groups with 100 eggs in each and 600 eggs in each replication. A total of 751 chicks obtained from the hatching were used as material in this study. As a result, all chicks in the coated chitosan groups were alive during the 42-day growth period. The average hatching weight was determined as 42.7±0.1 g. The mean body weight (BW) of chicks on the 42nd day was determined as 2541.8±12.3 g in all groups. The effect of repetition on weekly BW and body weight gain (BWG) was found to be significant in the growth period. The differences between the groups for the BW were significant on day 1. While the weekly BWG varied, the growth performance was similar in the growth period in all groups. The differences between the groups in terms of slaughter weight and carcass characteristics were insignificant. It was determined that coating broiler eggs with chitosan and storing them in different periods does not have significantly negative effect on growth performance and carcass characteristics.
  • Feed efficiency and loin meat quality in Iberian pigs Non-ruminants

    Rauw, Wendy Mercedes; Casco, Juan María García; Carballar, Fernando Gómez; Fito, Eduardo de la Serna; Granados, Patricia Palma; Barroso, Miguel Ángel Fernández; Raya, Luis Gomez

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We investigated the ability to predict production performance in Iberian pigs in an extensive production system from measurements of feed efficiency measured intensively. The second objective of this work was to study the relationship between feed efficiency and meat quality (composition, juiciness, tenderness, color, and subcutaneous fatty acid composition) and if cooked and cured quality properties can be predicted by properties in fresh meat. Thirty Iberian sows received successively a restricted diet of concentrate (P1concentrate) and acorns (P2acorn) intensively and an ad libitum diet of acorns supplemented with a restricted amount of concentrate (P3montanera) extensively. Pigs that were more feed efficient on concentrate were less feed efficient on acorns and had higher body weight gain during the montanera . Improved feed efficiency on acorns reduced the concentration of α-linolenic and linoleic fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat. Faster body weight gain in montanera resulted in a desirable reduction in cooking loss and a reduction in palmitic acid content in subcutaneous fat, and a potentially undesirable reduction in meat redness. Tenderness in cooked or cured loin was not significantly related to tenderness in the raw product. Cooking loss was positively related to purge and centrifugal drip loss and to color coordinates a*24 and b*24 in raw samples. We conclude that feed efficiency and body weight gain may be improved in the traditional Iberian production system, with a positive effect on cooking loss but potentially resulting in paler meat.
  • Effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation on growth performance and physiology of broiler chickens under pre- and post-inflammatory challenge Non-ruminants

    Kreuz, Bruna Strieder; Rocha, Gabriel Cipriano; Campos, Paulo Henrique Reis Furtado; Fonseca e Silva, Fabyano; Hannas, Melissa Izabel; Albino, Luiz Fernando Teixeira; Borges, Samuel Oliveira; Calderano, Arele Arlindo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation on growth performance, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and uric acid levels, immune-related organs, and intestinal morphometric parameters of broiler chickens under pre- and post-inflammatory challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Ninety-six seven-day-old male broiler chicks were randomized in a 2×2 factorial design composed of two dietary types (supplemented with 0 and 0.3 g of purified nucleotides/kg of feed) and two inflammatory conditions (with and without LPS administration) with eight replicates per treatment and three birds per cage. The experimental period was divided into two phases: 7-20 days of age (pre-LPS challenge) and 21-35 days of age (post-LPS challenge). Data were analyzed using one-way and two-way ANOVA for the pre- and post-challenge phases, respectively. During the pre-challenge phase, dietary nucleotide supplementation improved body weight (982 vs. 1009 g/bird), daily weight gain (58.1 vs. 60.1 g/bird), feed conversion rate (1.28 vs. 1.25 g/g), and serum concentration of IgG (1.17 vs. 1.76 mg/mL) of broilers. During the post-challenge phase, nucleotide supplementation increased serum IgG of broilers at 28 days of age (3.01 vs. 4.34 mg/mL). For the intestinal morphometric parameters, nucleotide supplementation increased villus height (299.3 vs. 315.6 μm). Dietary nucleotide supplementation improves the performance of broilers from seven to 20 days of age (pre-LPS challenge). However, from 21 to 35 days of age, supplementation of 0.3 g of purified nucleotides/kg of feed, independent of inflammatory challenge, does not contribute to improve performance of broilers. Additionally, nucleotide supplementation increases IgG production and villus height in the jejunum of broilers.
  • Effects of different proteases on commercial laying hens at peak production Non-Ruminants

    Barbosa, Silvana Alves Pedrozo Vitalino; Corrêa, Gerusa Silva Salles; Corrêa, André Brito; Oliveira, Cleber Franklin Santos de; Vieira, Bruno Serpa; Figueiredo, Érika Martins de; Caramori, João Garcia; Lima, Hélio Rezende

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We evaluated the effect of adding proteases in diets of laying hens at peak production on the performance, egg quality, relative weight of digestive organs, and intestinal morphometry. Hy-Line W36 layer hens (390; 28-39 weeks old) were distributed in five treatments, with 13 animals each, with six replicates. The treatments were: control (standard formulation without nutritional reduction or protease inclusion), negative control A - NCA (nutritional reduction according to protease A matrix, without protease), negative control B - NCB (nutritional reduction according to protease B matrix, without protease), NCA + protease A, and NCB + protease B. The experimental period lasted 12 weeks, divided into three cycles of 28 days. Hens subjected to treatments (NCA and NCB) showed a decrease in feed intake. However, the addition of proteases A and B promoted improvement in this trait. The diets NCA and NCB had a negative influence on the production rate of the hens, but the diet supplementation with protease B resulted in significant improvement on egg laying rate. Hens subjected to nutritional reduction presented the worst results regarding mass and conversion by egg mass. However, the addition of enzymes reversed these results. Although the diets did not affect the relative weights of yolk, albumen, eggshell, Haugh unit, and specific gravity of the eggs, a higher eggshell thickness was observed in hens that received NCA, NCB, and NCB + protease B diets. The diets did not influence the relative weights of digestive organs and the small intestine morphometry. Hens fed diets supplemented with A and B have performance recovered in relation to those that received diets with reduced levels of nutrients.
  • Effects of dietary xylo-oligosaccharide on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, antioxidant function, and immunological function of nursery piglets Non-Ruminants

    Hou, Zhenping; Wu, Duanqin; Dai, Qiuzhong

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of dietary xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, antioxidant function, and immunological function of nursery piglets. In total, three groups including 72 nursery piglets were designed and fed one of three diets: a control basal diet, basal diet supplemented with 0.2% ZnO, or basal diet supplemented with 0.04% XOS, for 28 days. Compared with the control group, the XOS group significantly increased the final body weight and average daily weight gain. No significant differences were found about these parameters between the control and ZnO groups. Compared with the control group, the ZnO group showed no changes in the serum content of total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), albumin:globulin (ALB:GLB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol (TC), or in the serum activity of amylase and alkaline phosphatase. However, in the XOS group, serum glucose content increased and blood urea nitrogen and triglyceride content decreased significantly. Compared with the control group, dietary supplementation with XOS significantly increased the serum activity of total antioxygenic capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase and decreased the serum activity of malondialdehyde. At the same time, serum IgG content in XOS group was significantly higher than that in control group. From the current study, supplementation of 0.04% XOS in the diet could improve the antioxidant and immune function of piglets, promotes nitrogen deposition, and accelerates lipid and glucose metabolism, thereby improving piglet growth performance.
  • Corrections to prediction of backfat thickness and relationships among model parameters in INRAPORC® Non-Ruminants

    Magagnin, Sebastião Ferreira; Hauptli, Lucélia; Warpechowski, Marson Bruck

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We evaluated whether the procedure for correcting backfat thickness (BT) equation coefficients and lipid mass (LM) initial values in animal profiles, as well as actual model parameter (MP) data and their interrelationships, could reduce errors in predicting body weight (BW) and BT in pigs reared in Southern Brazil. Because different combinations of actual and estimated MP values in advanced system calibration mode (ACM) give rise to distinct calibration procedures, their BT and BW prediction errors were compared with those obtained by INRAPORC® default mode calibration based on different parameter combinations. Correlations among MP were also verified. The BT prediction correction (BTcor) procedure reduced the BT standard deviation of the estimate (σ) from 3.25 to 2.42 mm, but the correction had no effect on BW. Actual BT and feed intake data at 50 kg BW (FI50), reported in ACM, reduced prediction errors of BW and BT, in which their σ values were reduced from 5.29 to <4.08 kg and 2.42 to <2.12 mm, respectively. Mean protein deposition (MeanPD), FI50, and feed intake at 100 kg BW (FI100) were strongly and positively correlated (r>0.98). In addition, initial BW (BWi) was strongly negatively correlated with these parameters (r<–0.87) but positively correlated with the maintenance adjustment factor (MAINT) (r = 0.75). The inclusion of actual or default MP values in the ACM strongly influenced the estimation of other values, as well the predicted outcomes for BW and BT. The BTcor procedure and the input of actual or default MP values into the ACM of INRAPORC® is justified to reduce prediction errors, as it yields considerably greater accuracy in a pig nutritional adjustment system.
  • Evaluation of dried apple pomace on digestibility and palatability of diets for cats Non-Ruminants

    Brito, Cleusa Bernardete Marcon de; Lima, Daniele Cristina de; Souza, Camilla Mariane Menezes; Vasconcellos, Ricardo Souza; Oliveira, Simone Gisele de; Félix, Ananda Portella

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate increasing levels of dried apple pomace on cat diets and its effects on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and diet metabolizable energy (ME) and palatability. Fecal characteristics of cats were also evaluated. Four experimental diets were produced to contain 0, 30, 60, and 90 g kg−1 of dried apple pomace. Two experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, the diets were offered to twelve adult cats distributed in a completely randomized block design (n = 6). Two evaluation periods (blocks) of 11 days were used to analyze diet digestibility and fecal characteristics. In experiment 2, the palatability of diets containing 0 (control) vs. 90 g kg−1 of dried apple pomace was compared using 20 adult cats on two consecutive days (n = 40). Increasing dietary dried apple pomace levels (0-90 g kg−1) linearly reduced the ATTD of crude protein (834.0-798.0 g kg−1 of dry matter) and ME (4290.1-4161.0 kcal). There was a quadratic effect of the increasing dried apple pomace levels on the ATTD of the other nutrients, as well as on fecal dry matter (fDM) content and output. The dietary inclusion of 90 g kg−1 of dried apple pomace promoted a greater intake ratio (0.61) in relation to the control diet. The inclusion of up to 90 g kg−1 of dried apple pomace reduces diet digestibility, ME, and fDM of cats. However, it improves diet palatability. These results indicate that the dried apple pomace is a palatable fibrous component and its inclusion can be used to reduce the energy content of cat foods.
  • Supplemental protease improves in vitro disappearance of dry matter and crude protein in feather meal and copra meal for pigs Non-Ruminants

    Ha, Dong Uk; Choi, Hyunjun; Kim, Beob Gyun

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of supplemental protease on in vitro disappearance of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) in feed ingredients for pigs. The test ingredients were three sources of feather meal (FM 1, FM 2, and FM 3), meat and bone meal, soybean meal, corn dried distillers grains with solubles, copra meal (CM), palm kernel meal, wheat, and corn. In experiment 1, in vitro ileal disappearance (IVID) of DM and CP were determined to represent the digestion and absorption of the stomach and small intestine of pigs. In experiment 2, in vitro total tract disappearance (IVTTD) of DM was determined to represent the digestion and absorption of the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine of pigs. The control group had 99% of a test ingredient and 1% of wheat bran. Protease originating from Bacillus spp. was supplemented to the control diet at the expense of wheat bran to make a treatment group (100,000 U/kg of sample). Protease supplementation increased the IVID of DM in FM 1 (39.8 vs. 37.5%) and CM (45.0 vs. 42.2%). In the protease supplementation group, the IVID of CP also increased in FM 1 (48.0 vs. 43.8%) and CM (85.3 vs. 77.5%). The supplemental protease increased the IVTTD of DM in FM 1 (43.9 vs. 42.1%), FM 3 (55.6 vs. 52.7%), and meat and bone meal (85.9 vs. 84.3%). Therefore, nutrient utilization of FM and CM can be improved by supplemental protease originating from Bacillus spp. based on in vitro assays.
  • The epiphyseal plate closure phenomena for male and female Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ): histological and biochemical alterations Non-ruminants

    Karakoç, Zelal; İrak, Kıvanç

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the effect of sex on ossification processes in quail by determining the exact closure timing of the epiphyseal plate in the proximal region of the femur. This was done by investigating the histological and biochemical parameters affecting the osteogenesis process that takes place following quail hatching to observe if any variation existed between males and females in this regard. For this purpose, blood samples were collected from six male and female specimens via IV catheters every week for the first 42 days that followed hatching. The samples were transferred into serum tubes, and PTH (PTH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), inorganic phosphorus, calcium, and vitamin D values in the samples, which are known to have an impact on ossification, were analyzed. The specimens from which the blood samples were collected were then euthanized, and histological cut-sections that covered the epiphyseal growth plate were collected, along with the bone sections of the proximal regions of the right femur. Considering decalcification, these histological sections were kept in an ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) solution. Routine histological examinations were then conducted on these sections, after which they were embedded in paraffin. Crossman's modified triple staining method was used to prepare them, and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test was used to statistically evaluate whether the inspected biochemical parameters played a role in the ossification process of quail and whether a statistical difference existed between sexes in this regard. The findings of our study revealed that poultry animals also have five zones in the epiphyseal plate as do mammals, and they have calcified cartilage areas. The findings also indicate that, while ossification starts to occur both in male and female quail specimens, calcification occurs more frequently in females. It was determined that the proximal epiphyseal plate regions of the femur close at the end of the sixth week in both sexes of quail, although the calcification and ossification are more advanced in some females compared with males.
  • Effects of corn processing on piglet performance and intestinal parameters Non-ruminants

    Scalco, Tiago; Valini, Graziela Alves da Cunha; Silva, Caroline Brito da; Calderano, Arele Arlindo; Rodrigues, Gustavo de Amorim; Campos, Paulo Henrique Reis Furtado; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto; Sanglard, Letícia Maria Pereira; Rocha, Gabriel Cipriano

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of corn processing on performance and intestinal parameters of weanling piglets. To accomplish our goal, 42 piglets (21 days-old, 7.18±1.0 kg body weight) were randomly allocated (seven pens/treatment; three pigs/pen) to one of two treatments: ground corn – corn ground through a hammer mill with a 1.0-mm screen after being ground by a hammer mill with a 3.0-mm screen, and extruded corn – corn was wet extruded after being ground by a hammer mill with a 2.0-mm screen and, after extrusion, it was ground by a hammer mill with a 1.0-mm screen. In both methods, corn from the same batch was used. Results were considered statistically significant when P<0.05 and a tendency when P<0.10. Analyses were performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Pigs fed ground or extruded corn diet had similar growth performance. Duodenum and jejunum of pigs fed extruded corn had greater villus height compared with those of pigs fed ground corn. Crypt depth was not influenced by corn processing. Duodenum and jejunum of pigs fed extruded corn had greater villus:crypt ratio compared with those of pigs fed ground corn. In the duodenum, the expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) was greater, and the expression of Occludin-1 tended to be greater in pigs fed the extruded corn diets. There was no effect of corn processing on ZO-1 and Occludin-1 expression in the jejunum, nor TGF-β1 expression in duodenum and jejunum. There was no effect of the type of corn processing on colonic total bacteria or Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus abundance. Piglets fed diets with ground corn or extruded corn have similar growth performance. However, piglets fed diets with extruded corn present improved intestinal morphology and tight junction protein expression compared with those fed ground corn.
  • Effects of stocking density and climate region on performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, blood constitutes, and economical parameters of broiler chickens Non-ruminants

    Gholami, Majid; Chamani, Mohammad; Seidavi, Alireza; Sadeghi, Ali Asghar; Aminafschar, Mehdi

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking density and climate region on performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, blood plasma, and economic parameters of the Ross strain of broiler chickens. The effects of four climates (mild and humid, semi-arid, alpine, and hot and dry) and four densities (10, 15, 17, and 20 chicks/m2) were studied as a completely randomized design with 4×4 factorial arrangement of treatments. The results showed that the density had a significant effect on feed intake and feed conversion ratio in the starter period and on body weight gain in the grower and the whole periods of the experiment. Moreover, both climate and density had a significant impact on economic performance (live weight, survival rate, production index, meat production/m2, and profitability). The mild and humid climate and the density of 17 chicks/m2 had the most economic benefit compared with other treatments. The climate type had a significant effect on the relative weights of the breast, wings, neck, proventriculus, and ileum. The effects of climate and density on glucose, triglyceride, very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), LDL/low-density lipoproteins (HDL), total protein and globulin were significant. In addition, the effect of climate on the antibody titer against sheep red blood cells (except for immunoglobulin G on day 28) was significant.
  • Performance responses of broilers and pigs fed diets with β-mannanase Non-ruminants

    Kipper, Marcos; Andretta, Ines; Quadros, Vinícius Rodrigues de; Schroeder, Bruna; Pires, Paula Gabriela da Silva; Franceschina, Carolina Schell; Hickmann, Felipe Mathias Weber; França, Ismael

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was developed using meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of β-mannanase on both poultry and pig performance. Two databases were constructed using information from previous studies that evaluated the β-mannanase supplementation in diets for broilers (30 papers; 19,643 birds) and pigs (20 papers; 5,319 animals). The meta-analysis followed three sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance. The effect of β-mannanase supplementation on performance considerably varied in both databases. Data analysis considering the study effect showed that β-mannanase supplementation did not influence feed intake. Diets supplemented with β-mannanase did not influence weight gain, but improved feed conversion (−1%) of broilers compared with the control group. Feeding pigs diets supplemented with β-mannanase improved weight gain (+5%) and feed conversion (−6%) compared with pigs fed non-supplemented diets. β-mannanase supplementation increased the digestibility coefficient of dry matter, crude protein, and energy in both species. The inclusion of β-mannanase also improved the metabolizable energy content in broiler diets and enhanced the digestibility of energy in pig feeds. Current results indicate that β-mannanase can be considered as an important tool for nutritionists who search for improved feed conversions and nutrient digestibility coefficients.
  • Calving probability in the first and second reproductive years of beef heifers that reached the recommended body weight at first breeding season Reproduction

    Pacheco, Rangel Fernandes; Restle, João; Brondani, Ivan Luiz; Alves, Dari Celestino; Cattelam, Jonatas; Mayer, Andrei Retamoso; Martini, Ana Paula Machado; Machado, Diego Soares

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate factors that influence calving probability in the first and second reproductive years of beef heifers that reached the minimum recommended body weight (BW) in the first breeding season. Two hundred twenty-seven 24-month-old Charolais × Nellore heifers that mated between 2003 and 2012 were analyzed. The parameters evaluated were: year effect; individual and maternal heterozygosis; percentage of Charolais genotype; average daily gain (ADG) from weaning to the end of the first breeding season; BW at 18 and 24 months of age, end of breeding season, parturition, and weaning; Julian date of calving; and adjusted calf weight at weaning. These variables were subjected to logistic regression. Calving rates in the first and second reproductive years were 58.1 and 49.5%, respectively. Performance until the end of the first breeding season, BW before the first breeding season, and individual heterozygosis affected the calving probability in the first breeding season. In the second breeding season, BW variation from the first breeding season and calving, Julian date of calving, and BW at the end of the second breeding season influenced calving probability. Until the end of the first breeding season, ADG of beef heifers responded positively to the calving probability, even after reaching the usually recommended BW for the first breeding season. Primiparous cows calving at the beginning of the breeding season and gaining more BW between the first and second breeding season are more likely to give birth in the second breeding season.
  • Evaluation of the libido of Pantaneiro stallions Reproduction

    Rua, Miguel Alejandro Silva; Ribas, José Antonio Silva; Silva, José Frederico Straggiotti; Cunha, Isabel Candia Nunes da; Bartholazzi, Aylton; González, Araceli Rocio Marisel; Quirino, Celia Raquel

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective with this study was to evaluate the libido and sexual behavior of Pantaneiro stallions in Brazil in two periods, the rainy and dry seasons. Their sexual behavior was evaluated during mating with mares in estrus, and the libido was scored for statistical analysis. The reaction time and time to mount and ejaculate were 78.1±64.6 s and 289.0 s, respectively. The most relevant events of sexual behavior observed in the Pantaneiro stallions were mounting without erection, mounting without ejaculation, smelling, and vocalizing. In general, the season did not affect the libido of stallions. Even with the high temperatures and humidity, which could cause thermal stress, the stallions showed good libido score during most of evaluations, with some individual differences. Pantaneiro stallions are able to breed mares during the entire year and could facilitate the breeding management to raise the number of Pantaneiro horses of the herds and optimize the use of the stallions during the breeding season, with more females per male.
  • Influence of age and weight of Girolando heifers on uterine and ovarian development Reproduction

    Fernandez, Hellen de Sousa; Freitas, Daniela Cristina Rocha de; Grillo, Gustavo Fernandes; Silenciato, Lara Nogueira; Camargo, Sérgio Trabali; Ferreira, Joaquim Esquerdo; Palhano, Helcimar Barbosa; Mello, Marco Roberto Bourg de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to correlate the age and weight of Girolando heifers with uterine and ovarian development. Sixty heifers between 12 and 36 months old were weighed and subjected to ultrasound assessment to measure the diameters of each uterine horn and ovaries, monthly. These measures continued until their first ovulation. The animals were divided, for data analysis, according to their age into five groups: GI (12 to 14 months), GII (15 to 18 months), GIII (19 to 24 months), GIV (25 to 30 months), and GV (31 to 36 months). The dispersion diagram was used to assess the correlation between data collected monthly from uterus/ovaries and weight/age. An average daily growth of 0.0032 mm was recorded for the right ovary (RO) and 0.0051 mm for the left ovary (LO). The average size of the RO in GI was 17.58 mm and the LO was 15.28 mm; in GII, the RO was 16.72 mm and the LO was 15.89 mm; in GIII, the RO was 18.37 mm and the LO was 16.55 mm; in GIV, the RO was 19.09 mm and the LO was 17.49 mm; and in GV, the RO was 19.89 mm and the LO was 18.96 mm. The uterine horns showed an average daily growth of 0.0064 mm and 0.0071 mm for the right (RU) and left (LU) uterine horn, respectively. The average sizes of the uterine horns per group were: RU, 11.46 mm and LU, 11.48 mm; RU, 12.41 mm and LU, 12.63 mm; RU, 13.16 mm and LU, 13.19 mm; RU 14.30 mm and LU, 14.58 mm; and RU, 16.12 mm and LU, 16.68 mm for the groups GI, GII, GIII, GIV, and GV, respectively. The heifers showed an average daily weight gain of 0.224 kg and the groups GI, GII, GIII, GIV, and GV had an average weight of 220.5, 239.3, 287.6, 332.9, and 380.1 kg, respectively. Therefore, weight growth correlates with the growth of the ovaries and uterine horns; furthermore, these data correlate positively as the animals age.
  • Weaning weight and optimization of reproductive efficiency in Nellore females subjected to timed artificial insemination Reproduction

    Ferreira, Joaquim Esquerdo; Mello, Marco Roberto Bourg de; Silva, Otávia Reis e; Silenciato, Lara Nogueira; Couto, Samuel Rodrigues Bonamichi do; Mello, Raquel Rodrigues Costa

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of timed artificial insemination (TAI) on pregnancy rates, reproductive efficiency, and mean weaning weight of calves at the end of breeding season in Nellore females. In this work, 744 Nellore females were divided into two groups: in group I (n = 396), the females were subjected to natural service during the breeding season, which lasts for 180 days. In group II (n = 348), a hormonal protocol was performed for synchronization of ovulation, and the females were subjected to TAI. Afterwards, these latter females were then serviced by a cleanup bull until the end of the breeding season. The group II obtained a higher pregnancy rate as well as higher reproductive efficiency compared with group I. The weaning weight of group II calves was greater than that of group I. The use of TAI combined with cleanup bulls enables higher pregnancy rates and a better reproductive efficiency in relation to the use of only natural service. In addition, weaning calves born from TAI are heavier than calves born from natural service.
  • Effects of flushing with rehydrated corn grain silage on follicular development in tropical Santa Inês ewes Reproduction

    Figueira, Lucas Machado; Faria, Letícia Rodrigues; Campos, João Pedro Araújo; Silva, Débora Regina da; Furusho-Garcia, Iraides Ferreira; Leite, Rafael Fernandes; Lima, Renato Ribeiro de; Alves, Nadja Gomes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing ground corn (402 g kg−1 of dry matter) with rehydrated corn grain silage (RCGS; 425 g kg−1 of dry matter) in a flushing diet on follicular development in tropical Santa Inês ewes. Fifteen ewes were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: a diet with ground corn (control, n = 7) or a diet with RCGS (n = 8). The first day of the diets was designated d0, and the diets were fed for 30 days, up to two days after the end of the estrus synchronization protocol. The estrus synchronization protocol (intravaginal progestogen sponge for 11 days plus 300 IU eCG and 37.5 µg d-cloprostenol IM two days before sponge removal) started on d17 of the diets. The number and diameters of ovarian follicles ≥3 mm were assessed by ultrasound on the day before the diets were provided (d−1), on d14, and then daily from two days before sponge removal until ovulation or up to the eighth day after sponge removal. Blood samples were collected on days −1, 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 for glucose and urea analyses. There was no effect of the treatments on dry matter intake, plasma glucose, and urea nitrogen concentrations, or on the percentage of ewes that ovulated and on the number of ovulations. The number of follicles ≥3 mm did not differ between treatment groups; the number increased between d−1 and d14 and did not differ between d14 and d28. The diameter of ovulatory follicles at sponge removal, the interval from sponge removal to estrus, and the growth rate of the ovulatory follicles were greater in the RCGS group than in the control group, resulting in larger follicles at ovulation. Replacement of ground corn by RCGS in the flushing diet does not increase the number of ovulations but results in delayed onset of estrus and ovulation of larger follicles.
  • Trehalose addition to a Tris-fructose egg yolk extender on quality of ram sperm preserved at 0 °C Reproduction

    Zhao, Jianqing; Xiao, Guoliang; Zhu, Wenliang; Fang, Di; Li, Na; Han, Chunmei; Gao, Qinghua

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study investigated the effects of various concentrations of trehalose in Tris-fructose egg yolk diluent on ram semen preservation at 0 ℃. Semen was collected by artificial vagina ejaculation from six rams of proven fertility. High-quality ejaculates were diluted with 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, and 20 mM trehalose of Tris-fructose egg yolk extender and control (tris-fructose egg yolk extender without trehalose), respectively. Then, the ejaculates were diluted to a concentration of 5×108 sperm/mL, cooled to 0 ℃ for 90 min, and maintained at that temperature for twelve days. The diluted semen samples were examined, and their sperm progressive motility, membrane functionality, and acrosome integrity recorded at 0, 24, 72, 144, 216, and 288 h. Two hundred ninety-six ewes were transcervically inseminated with the 216-h control (without trehalose) or the optimal trehalose concentration group semen, and the pregnancy and lambing rates were measured. No significant differences were established in the sperm progressive motility and membrane functionality among the control and 5, 10, 15, and 20 mM groups. The sperm samples of trehalose addition groups had no significant difference in the acrosome integrity of sperm, but they were, nonetheless, significantly higher than those in the control. No significant difference was detected in the lambing and pregnancy rates between the 5 mM and control groups. These results suggest that ram sperm is capable of fertilization after cooling and preservation at 0 ℃ by the use of 5 mM trehalose for Tris-fructose egg yolk diluent. Under these conditions, ram sperm can be more effectively preserved than under other four concentrations of diluents.
  • Alternative adjustment of scrotal circumference for growth traits in Nellore cattle Reproduction

    Nascimento, Bárbara Mazetti; Silva, Gisele Ferreira da; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Teixeira, Rodrigo de Almeida; Dias, Laila Talarico

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to estimate adjustment factors of scrotal circumference for growth traits in Nellore cattle. Measurement at post-yearling of scrotal circumference from 100,107 Nellore was adjusted for six traits: age (A), body weight (BW), hip height (HH), conformation (C), precocity (P), musculature (M), and simultaneously for age and the other five traits (A-BW, A-HH, A-C, A-P, A-M), body weight and the other four traits (BW-HH, BW-C, BW-P, BW-M), and hip height and the other three traits (HH-C, HH-P, HH-M). Standard values were 500 days, 300 kg, 135 cm, and 3, for age, body weight, hip height, and visual scores, respectively. Amplitudes of adjustment factor of scrotal circumference for age, body weight, and hip height were 0.6028, 0.4869, and 0.1572, respectively. Scrotal circumference is expected to grow, on average, 8.71 cm per 100 days of age, 6.51 cm per 100 kg of body weight, and 4.81 cm per 10 cm of hip height. The results showed higher amplitude in the adjustment factor of scrotal circumference for age and body weight (0.3429) compared with age and hip height and body weight and hip height (0.1271 and 0.0443, respectively). The amplitude observed in adjustment factor of scrotal circumference for conformation, precocity, and musculature were 0.1328, 0.1175, and 0.1160, respectively. Considering different adjustment factors of scrotal circumference can be useful for identifying better selection criteria for growth and/or sexual precocity in Nellore.
  • Prediction of Girolando cattle weight by means of body measurements extracted from images Ruminants

    Weber, Vanessa Aparecida de Moraes; Weber, Fabricio de Lima; Gomes, Rodrigo da Costa; Oliveira, Adair da Silva; Menezes, Geazy Vilharva; Abreu, Urbano Gomes Pinto de; Belete, Nícolas Alessandro de Souza; Pistori, Hemerson

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective with this study was to analyze the body measurements of Girolando cattle, as well as measurements extracted from their images, to generate a model to understand which measures further explain the cattle body weight. Therefore, the experiment physically measured 34 Girolando cattle (two males and 32 females), for the following traits: heart girth (HGP), circumference of the abdomen, body length, occipito-ischial length, wither height, and hip height. In addition, images of the dorsum and the body lateral area of these animals allowed measurements of hip width (HWI), body length, tail distance to the neck, dorsum area (DAI), dorsum perimeter, wither height, hip height, body lateral area, perimeter of the lateral area, and rib height. The measurements extracted from the images were subjected to the stepwise regression method and regression-based machine learning algorithms. The HGp was the physical measure with stronger positive correlation with respect to body weight. In the stepwise method, the final model generated R² of 0.70 and RMSE of 42.52 kg and the equation: WEIGHT(kg)=6.15421*HWI (cm)+0.01929*DAI (cm2)+70.8388. The linear regression and SVM algorithms obtained the best results, followed by discretization regression with random forests. The set of rules presented in this study can be recommended for estimating body weight in Girolando cattle, at a correlation coefficient of 0.71, by measurements of hip width and dorsum area, both extracted from cattle images.
  • Selectivity and feeding behavior of Saanen goats subjected to three nutritional levels Ruminants

    Gomes, Helen Fernanda Barros; Souza, Samuel Figueiredo de; Oliveira, Daiana de; Biagioli, Bruno; Teixeira, Izabelle Auxiliadora Molina de Almeida; Resende, Kleber Tomás de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective feeding habits on the quality of the ingested diet and the effect of feed restriction on the selectivity and behavior of goats in feedlots. Differences were found only in the amount of feed given to the animals, with a difference in the amount of feed rejected as a function of the nutritional level. Higher levels of orts were measured for those animals that received the ad libitum diet. For the composition of orts, differences were measured only in the ether extract fraction. Animals fed the ad libitum diet increased their intake of ether extract and energy, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. Thus, they had a preference for consuming the fibrous and energetic portions of the diet to the detriment of the mineral matter. The granulometry influenced the leftovers for the male and female treatments only in the diet that contained the 2.00- and 0.063-mm sized particles, with larger leftovers for the females. There were statistical differences as a function of feeding level for time spent in rumination, with stereotypical behavior, and in time spent standing up or lying down. As a function of sex, the differences were the same variables, including the time spent with agonistic behavior. Animals that received the ad libitum diet had a greater gain and final weight, whereas the animals that received the 60% restricted diet had the lowest performance, as did the females. Feed restriction changed the natural feeding behavior of goats, with smaller feed particles preferred. The feed restriction and sex also influenced the time spent on nonproductive activities, and the animals became more restless, with females having a higher social behavior than males.
  • Effects of rice bran and glycerin supplementation on metabolic and productive responses of beef cows Ruminants

    Clariget, Juan Manuel; Quintans, Graciela; Banchero, Georgget; Álvarez-Oxiley, Andrea; Bentancur, Oscar; López-Mazz, Carlos Rafael; Pérez-Clariget, Raquel

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Fifty-seven primiparous Angus, Hereford, and crossbred cows were used to study the effect of strategic supplementation on metabolic, productive, and reproductive responses. The experiment had two periods including four phases: prepartum supplementation (phase I; 52 days), early postpartum (phase II; 43 days), pre-mating supplementation (phase III; 21 days), and the last phase including mating, gestation, and lactation until weaning (phase IV; 103 days). Phases I and II were considered as period 1, and phases III and IV were considered as period 2. During phase I (−52±2 days before calving to birth), half of the cows received a supplement (S-), and the rest only grazed native swards (C-). For phase III (59±2 days postpartum [DPP] until mating), cows from the previous treatments (C- or S-) were sorted in two levels of pre-mating supplementation, supplemented (-S) or not supplemented (-C), resulting in four treatment combinations (CC, CS, SC, and SS). The supplement was 1 kg dry matter/cow per day of whole rice bran and 550 mL/cow per day of crude glycerin. In period 1, cows receiving prepartum supplementation increased concentration of cholesterol, glucose, and albumin and decreased concentration of non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and urea. This improvement in energy balance was reflected in a higher body condition score at calving. Alternatively, in period 2, pre-mating supplementation only increased cholesterol concentration. None of the supplementation periods affected the weaning weight of calves. Prepartum, but not pre-mating, supplementation increased total pregnancy rate. A short prepartum supplementation improves pregnancy rate of primiparous cows managed under extensive production systems. However, there is no additional benefit of supplementation during the pre-mating period.
  • Short-term use of monensin and tannins as feed additives on digestibility and methanogenesis in cattle Ruminants

    Perna, Flavio; Vásquez, Diana Carolina Zapata; Gardinal, Rodrigo; Meyer, Paula Marques; Berndt, Alexandre; Friguetto, Rosa Toyoko Shiraishi; Demarchi, João José Assumpção de Abreu; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique Mazza

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective was to assess the effects short-term use of monensin and Acacia mearnsii tannins as feed additives on nutrient intake, digestibility, and CH4 production in cattle. Six rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were distributed in two 3×3 Latin square experimental design, and each experimental period lasted 21 days. The basal diet was composed of corn silage and concentrate in a 50:50 dry matter (DM) basis proportion. Treatments were control, monensin (18 mg kg−1 of DM), and tannin-rich extract from Acacia mearnsii (total tannins equivalent to 6 g kg−1 of DM). Nutrient intake and apparent digestibility coefficients were not affected by the addition of monensin or tannins to diets. However, tannins showed a tendency to reduce crude protein digestibility. Monensin decreased CH4 emission by 25.6% (g kg−1 of body weight) compared with the control treatment. Monensin is more effective than Acacia mearnsii tannins in reducing CH4 emissions in the short term, considering a diet of the same roughage:concentrate proportion for cattle.
  • Evaluation of mathematical models to describe gas production kinetics of some tropical and temperate forages Ruminants

    Oliveira, Jhone Gleison de; Henrique, Douglas Sampaio; Abreu, Matheus Lima Corrêa; Fluck, Ana Carolina; Mayer, Lilian Regina Rothe; Costa, Olmar Antônio Denardin; Atoji-Henrique, Katia

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Our objective was to identify the best fit mathematical models for in vitro gas production kinetics using rumen fluid and forage plants commonly used in ruminant feed to obtain better estimates of parameters that describe the rumen fermentation. Four mathematical models were tested, two unicompartmental (M1 = first order, M2 = Gompertz) and two bicompartmental (M3 = M1 + M2; M4 = M2 + M2). Two temperate grasses were evaluated, as well as four tropical grasses and three temperate forage legumes. The fit of the models was verified by the corrected Akaike information criterion (AICcr) and the difference among AICcr values (Δr), likelihood probability (Wr), and relative likelihood (ERr). Temperate forages reached maximum gas production between 48 and 72 h. In the tropical forages, it occurred only after 72 h. In profiles in which M3 was the best choice, the values of parameters Vf 1 were higher than those of Vf 2, and k1 values were higher than k2 values. The only exception was for Tifton 85 profile, whose Vf 2 value was higher than Vf 1. The model M3 has a better fit for tropical forages with higher fiber content and lower levels of nonfibrous carbohydrates and crude protein. The model M1 has a better fit for forage with higher nonfibrous carbohydrate contents and low lignin content.
  • Nutritive value of Saanen goat diets with dried distillers grains with solubles as a replacement for soybean meal Ruminants

    Pontes, Vanessa Pereira; Alcalde, Claudete Regina; Pili, Fernanda Maraquena Soares; Altero, Jennifer Braga; Duarte, Vanessa; Teixeira, Ubiara Henrique Gomes; Zambom, Maximiliane Alavarse; Santos, Geraldo Tadeu dos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective with this study was to evaluate the effect of including dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement for soybean meal on feed intake, digestibility, and total digestible nutrients (TDN), as well as plasmatic glucose and serum urea concentrations. Fifteen Saanen goats were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments and five replicates. Treatments were soybean meal (SBM), SBM+DDGS (12.28% of dry matter [DM]), and DDGS (23.16% of DM), as protein source in diets, common to all corn ground and mineral-vitamin supplement, and corn silage (60% of DM). Response variables were evaluated every 30 d, from 1 to 120 d after parturition. Measurements included body weight, DM intake, DM and nutrient digestibility, and blood samples. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used to estimate fecal excretion. There was a difference in neutral detergent fiber intake from 1 to 30 d after parturition. In the four phases of lactation evaluated, there were treatment effects on DM, organic matter, ether extract, and total carbohydrate digestibility, as well as on TDN concentration. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility was affected by treatments, except from d 61 to 90. There was no treatment effect on non-fibrous carbohydrate digestibility, regardless of period. Therefore, SBM+DDGS (12.28% of DM), as protein source on diets may be used in Saanen goat diets from 1 to 120 d of lactation without negative effects on feed intake, digestibility, and plasma glucose and urea concentrations.
  • Degradation of biogenic amines and in vitro evaluation of ruminal parameters of the ruminal fluid of Charolais sheep Ruminants

    Kolackova, Ivana; Skladanka, Jiri; Skalickova, Sylvie; Horky, Pavel; Cernei, Natalia; Lackova, Zuzana; Trinacty, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In this study, we reported the evaluation of ruminal parameters and the rate and degree of degradation of biogenic amines (BA) in vitro, using ruminal fluid from sheep fed two different diets (meadow hay and silage of Medicago sativa L.). Herein, the Charolais sheep breed with a ruminal cannula was used to gather samples. Multiple rumen parameters were evaluated after 10 days of the feeding period. Samples were processed using fermenters inoculated by BA (histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, and spermidine) during 8-h fermentation. Levels of BA were determined using ion-exchange chromatography, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were determined using gas chromatography. More rapid BA degradation was noticed in hay than in haylage. Overall, VFA levels increased with duration of the fermentation, while pH lowered. The rapid increase was observed after 4 h of fermentation. Ammonia concentration had a decreasing trend in silage and increasing in the hay. Hypotheses on BA degradation were accepted. Important knowledge of the development of ruminal parameters in time was obtained, and based on gathered information, it is possible to say that other parameters and their impacts on BA in rumen need to be examined further.
  • Use of banana (Musa sp.) pseudostem hay in feedlot sheep feeding Ruminants

    Silveira, José Assunção; Pedreira, Márcio dos Santos; Rei, Antonio Jorge Del; Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Silva, Henrique Almeida da; Soares, Maxwelder Santos; Oliveira, Alana Alves de; Hora, Fernanda Ferreira da

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective with this study was to evaluate intake, feeding behavior, rumen fluid characteristics, performance, and nutrient digestibility of sheep fed banana pseudostem hay (BPH) with and without virginiamycin (VM). Thirty-two uncastrated male crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês lambs at approximately five months of age, with an average initial body weight of 25.00±1.95 kg, were used in the experiment. Four diets were tested, as follows: Tifton grass hay (TGH) plus concentrate with VM; BPH replacing 60% of TGH plus concentrate with VM; TGH plus concentrate without VM; and BPH replacing 60% of TGH plus concentrate without VM. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized design in a 2×2 factorial arrangement, in which the factors were represented by BPH and TGH with and without VM, organized in an orthogonal contrast. Banana pseudostem hay inclusion influenced nutrient intake, except for non-fibrous carbohydrates corrected for ash and protein. Neither idling nor water intake times were changed by VM inclusion or banana pseudostem hay addition. Rumen fluid pH did not differ among the contrasts (THV+BHV) vs. (TH+BH), THV vs. TH, and BHV vs. BH, which were used to evaluate VM influence. Banana pseudostem increased rumen fluid pH in the contrast THV vs. BHV, both treatments including VM. Mean temperature of rumen fluid was 34.07 °C, and it did not change by inclusions of VM or banana pseudostem hay. No difference was observed for crude protein digestibility in the evaluated contrasts. When associated with virginiamycin, banana pseudostem hay provides satisfactory performance and nutritional parameters for feedlot sheep. Virginiamycin does not change the performance or nutritional parameters of these animals when Tifton grass hay is used as the only roughage source.
  • Effect of the injection of trace minerals on growth performance, health, antioxidant enzymes activity, and immune system of newborn Boer kids Ruminants

    Vedovatto, Marcelo; Cortada, Ibrahim Miranda; Pereira, Camila da Silva; Bento, Anderson Luiz de Lucca; Rocha, Raizza Fátima Abadia Tulux; Moriel, Philipe; Franco, Gumercindo Loriano

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of injectable trace minerals (ITM) on growth, health, antioxidant enzyme activity, and immune system of newborn Boer kids. Newborn kids (n = 125) were assigned to one of two treatments: injection (0.1 mL 4.5 kg-1) of saline or ITM. Injectable trace minerals had 60, 10, 5, and 15 mg mL-1 of Zn, Mn, Se, and Cu, respectively. Kids were evaluated daily for the presence of diarrhea and weighted on d 0, 28, and 56. Blood samples were obtained on d 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56. The ITM injection increased the plasma concentration of superoxide dismutase (d 14), glutathione peroxidase (d 3 and 7), and blood platelets (d 7) compared with saline injection. Kids receiving ITM showed greater amount of blood eosinophils and less mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; d 3) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) compared with kids receiving saline injection. The ITM injection did not affect other components of leukogram and erytogram. The ITM-injected kids tended to have less diarrhea incidence compared with saline-injected kids (20.7 vs. 34.8±7.10% respectively). The ITM injection did not affect mortality rate and growth. Therefore, a single ITM injection administered to newborn Boer kids increases the plasma concentration of antioxidant enzymes, platelets, and eosinophils, reduces MCH, MCHC, and tends to reduce the incidence of diarrhea, but does not affect mortality and growth.
  • Effect of different feeding methods on rumen microbes in growing Chinese Tan sheep Ruminants

    Fu, Zilin; Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Lili

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We evaluated the difference between rumen bacteria in Tan sheep fed either by grazing or in a feedlot. The aim was to provide a theoretical basis for ruminant nutrition and meat quality based on rumen fermentation. Twenty-four three-month-old Tan sheep were randomly and equally divided into two groups, the grazing group and ration group. Five sheep of each group were selected for slaughter at six months of age. Ruminal contents were collected and assessed to identify rumen bacteria, based on 16S rDNA sequencing analysis. A total of 17 phyla were identified, among which Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were dominant in both groups. The abundance of Firmicutes was higher in grazing group than in the ration group, while that of Proteobacteria was opposite. Besides the dominant phyla differences, the abundance of Fibrobacteres, Tenericutes, Elusimicrobia, and Cyanobacteria was significantly higher in the grazing group compared with the ration group. At genus level, a total of 174 genera were identified. The abundance of Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, Dialister, Lachnospiraceae_NA, Catonella, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014, Lachnospiraceae_NK3A20_group, and Fibrobacter in the grazing group was higher than in the ration group. However, the abundance of Succinivibrionaceae_NA was lower in the grazing group, and Succinivibrionaceae_UCG-001 showed a decreasing trend in the grazing group. The two feeding methods may influence the rumen bacterial composition, including the abundance of dominant bacteria, as well as the cellulolytic- and carbohydrate-degrading bacteria in the rumen of Tan sheep.
  • Detoxified castor in the diets of dairy goats: II. Lactation curves, composition, and fatty acid profile of milk Ruminants

    Araújo, Ricardo Alves de; Pompeu, Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco; Cândido, Magno José Duarte; Rogério, Marcos Cláudio Pinheiro; Lucas, Ronaldo Carlos; Maranhão, Samuel Rocha; Santos, Clemente Fernandes dos; Neiva, José Neuman Miranda

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the lactation curves, composition, and fatty acid profile of milk of lactating goats fed diets containing detoxified castor cake (DCC) by alkaline solutions during 150 days of lactation. Twenty-four Saanen and Anglo Nubian goats, approximately 17 months old (first lactation) and 43±2.97 kg body weight, were distributed in a completely randomized block design with eight replicates. Treatments consisted of three diets, one containing soybean meal (SM) and two others containing DCC, with calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The lactation curves showed greater persistence of lactation in Saanen goats. There were significant effects of diets on the profile of some fatty acids present in the milk. We observed that the NaOH DCC diet led to an increase in desirable fatty acid content. Both Ca(OH)2 and NaOH DCC diets led to decreased milk production during the lactation period; however, the NaOH DCC diet led to high productive efficiency. Furthermore, NaOH DCC did not negatively affect the desirable fatty acid content, unlike Ca(OH)2 DCC. Diets formulated with detoxified castor decrease the production of milk from goats during lactation phase. It should be emphasized that milk produced by goats fed DCC diets does not contain unwanted waste.
  • Detoxified castor in the diets of dairy goats: I. Effects on intake, digestibility, and renal and hepatic parameters Ruminants

    de Araújo, Ricardo Alves; Pompeu, Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco; Cândido, Magno José Duarte; Rogério, Marcos Cláudio Pinheiro; Lucas, Ronaldo Carlos; Maranhão, Samuel Rocha; Santos, Clemente Fernandes dos; Neiva, José Neuman Miranda

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, and metabolic profile of lactating goats fed diets containing detoxified castor cake (DCC) by alkaline solutions during 150 days of lactation. Twenty-four Saanen and Anglo Nubian goats, approximately 17 months old (first lactation) and body weights of 43±2.97 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized block design with eight replicates. Treatments consisted of three diets, one containing soybean meal (SM) and two others containing DCC, with calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The diets significantly influenced the intake of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and total digestible nutrients (TDN). We observed a higher dry matter intake (DMI) in goats fed SM, similar to that of goats fed Ca(OH)2 DCC. Intake of nutrients followed the same trend as DMI. There was no significant effect of diets on digestibility of DM, CP, EE, and NDF; however, we observed a significant effect of diets on the levels of nitrogen intake (NI) and urinary nitrogen (UN). The goats fed SM consumed a larger quantity of nitrogen, but all had the same nitrogen balance, indicating that goats fed DCC were more efficient. The diets did not influence renal and hepatic parameters. Inclusion of castor cake in the diet of goats in confinement is an attractive option, considering that goats fed DCC present lower feed conversion, and its use does not cause hepatic and renal alterations, suggesting that SM can be completely replaced.
  • Ruminal and morphometric parameters of rumen and intestine in lambs fed guava (Psidium guajava L.) agroindustrial waste Ruminants

    Nobre, Priscila Torres; Costa, Roberto Germano; Guerra, Ricardo Romão; Oliveira, Juliana Silva de; Ribeiro, Neila Lidiany; Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos de; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes de; Saliba, Eloisa de Oliveira Simões

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of guava agroindustrial waste (GAW) on ruminal parameters (pH, N-NH3, and microbial protein), volatile fatty acid (VFA), and morphometry of the rumen and intestine of sheep. A total of forty Santa Inês sheep (120 days old and 21.3±2.62 kg) were used. The animals were fed diets with 0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% inclusion of GAW. The pH, ammonia nitrogen, microbial protein, and VFA were evaluated in the ruminal fluid, alongside the morphometric characteristics of the rumen and intestine. The inclusion of GAW linearly increased fasting and postprandial pH, N-NH3 only showed a quadratic effect for fasting animal, whereas MP presented a quadratic effect for pre- and post-prandial animals. There was a quadratic effect for papilla width, with a maximum value of 393.33 μm at the level of 34.43% GAW in the diet. The papilla absorption area showed a linear effect, in which increasing levels of GAW in the diet had a smaller area of papillae absorption. The inclusion of GAW in the diet of Santa Inês sheep favored pH neutrality, reduced N-NH3 and ruminal MP concentrations, decreased the thickness of the rumen muscular layer, and increased the intestinal mucosa, favoring greater absorption of nutrients.
  • Effect of dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on stress parameters in goat kids Ruminants

    Sowińska, Janina; Milewski, Stanisław; Witkowska, Dorota; Ząbek, Katarzyna; Miciński, Jan; Wójcik, Anna; Mituniewicz, Tomasz

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) on live weight loss and selected blood parameters in goat kids after transportation to the slaughterhouse. The study was performed with goat kids that were weaned at 30 days of age and divided into two groups (GK): a control group and an experimental group whose diet was supplemented with HMB (at 50 mg kg−1 of BW) for 60 consecutive days. At the end of the 90-day rearing period, the animals were fasted for 12 h (with access to water) and were transported to the slaughterhouse in the following morning. Blood for analysis was sampled before transportation (BST1) and after unloading in the slaughterhouse (BST2). The animals were weighed on the same dates to determine live weight loss. Red blood cell counts (RBC), white blood cell counts (WBC), hemoglobin concentration (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L) ratio, and cortisol and glucose concentrations were determined in the sampled blood. The experimental goat kids were characterized by lower weight loss after transportation. Group of kids and BST did not induce variations in RBC, WBC, HGB, and HCT. Cortisol concentration was affected by both GK and BST. Cortisol levels increased after transportation in both groups, but this parameter was significantly higher in the control than in experimental animals at BST2. Glucose levels and the N:L ratio did not differ significantly between GK, but glucose concentration and the N:L ratio were higher at BST2 than at BST1 in both groups. The experimental goat kids were characterized by lower weight loss and lower cortisol concentration after transportation, which could point to the efficacy of HMB in boosting immunity and alleviating transportation stress in goat kids.
  • Dynamics of biochemical parameters in lambs during the first four months of life Ruminants

    de Souza, Damaris Ferreira; Reijers, Thayla Sara Soares Stivari; Gilaverte, Susana; da Cruz, Thiago Augusto; Hentz, Fernando; Castilhos, Bruno de Queiroz; Dittrich, Rosangela Locatelli; Monteiro, Alda Lúcia Gomes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We aimed to verify whether age influences the biochemical profile of healthy lambs during the first four months of life by characterizing the dynamics of its parameters and verifying whether there are differences between the profiles of growing animals and the reference values established for adults. Blood samples of 34 ½ White Dorper × ½ Suffolk female lambs were collected at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age, and the serum concentrations of total proteins, total globulins, albumin, urea, creatinine, bilirubins (total, conjugated, and unconjugated), total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase were determined. Descriptive statistics of these parameters were performed to compare them with the reference intervals used for adult sheep. Age influenced the dynamics of all the biochemical parameters between 30 and 120 days of age. Moreover, except for the total, conjugated and unconjugated bilirubins, total cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase means, the values of the lambs differed from the reference intervals established for adults. In conclusion, there is an influence of age on biochemical parameters in healthy female lambs in the first four months of life, and often the biochemical parameters of young animals differ from those of adults. Therefore, the interpretation of tests performed on growing animals should be made based on specific reference intervals for this age group.
  • Suitability of different levels of sunflower cake from biodiesel production as feed ingredient for lamb production Ruminants

    Monteiro, Lidiane Fagundes da Silva; Melo, Aline Moreira Portella de; Serrano, Martina Pérez; Costa, Roberto Germano; Lima, Valdi de; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes de; Lorenzo, José Manuel

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate performance traits, intake, nutrient apparent digestibility, and economic analysis of lambs fed diets containing different levels of sunflower cake (SFC) with a certain chemical composition. Thirty-six Santa Inês × Dorper lambs (n = 9 per treatment diet) with an average body weight (BW) of 19.5±2.19 kg at the beginning of the study were randomly allocated to four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets for 63 days. A control diet without SFC was compared with diets containing 5, 10, and 15% of dietary dry matter (DM) of SFC replacing soybean meal and corn. Growth performance and economic indicators were calculated. Moreover, individual faeces were collected using canvas bags to evaluate the apparent digestibility of nutrients between days 30 and 45 of study. The total BW gain linearly decreased with the inclusion of SFC in the lamb diet. However, no differences among treatments were observed for final BW, average daily gain, average daily feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. The inclusion of different levels of SFC in the diet reduced the intakes of DM as g/kg BW and non-fibre carbohydrates on DM basis. The apparent digestibility of all nutrients studied improved with the inclusion of 5% SFC but decreased with diets containing 10 or 15% of SFC. Moreover, the higher benefit:cost ratio was obtained for diet containing 5% SFC. Therefore, SFC from biodiesel production could be used at levels of 5% in lamb rations, reducing feeding costs without worsening productive performance, nutrient intake, and digestibility at the ages studied.
  • Sugarcane and cactus cladodes plus urea: a new option for Girolando dairy heifers Ruminants

    Cruz, Antonio Ariclezio Carlos; Véras, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves; Oliveira, Júlio César Vieira de; Santos, Djalma Cordeiro dos; Chagas, Juana Catarina Cariri; Neves, Maria Luciana Menezes Wanderley; Monteiro, Carolina Corrêa de Figueiredo; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was performed to identify the ideal amount of concentrate required for a diet based on cactus cladodes, sugarcane, and urea used to feed heifers. Twenty Girolando heifers (160±8.39 kg) were randomly distributed into four experimental treatments with 0, 0.40, 0.80, or 1.20 kg day−1 of concentrate. The basal diet contained [on dry matter (DM) basis] 38.1% sugarcane, 56.5% cactus cladodes [ Opuntia stricta (Haw). Haw.], 0.5% common salt, 1.1% mineral mixture, and 3.8% urea plus ammonium sulfate. The concentrate contained [on DM basis] 87% corn meal and 13% soybean meal. The basal diet and the concentrate were formulated to provide 13% crude protein (CP). The intake of DM (4.34-4.96 kg day−1), organic matter (3.96-4.98 kg day−1), CP (0.57-0.64 kg day−1), non-fibrous carbohydrates (2.20-2.61 kg day−1), and metabolizable energy (10.3-12.4 Mcal day−1) increased linearly with concentrate amount. Final body weight (196-224 kg), total body weight gain (36.9-61.2 kg), and average daily body weight gain (0.51-0.85 kg day−1) increased linearly with concentrate amount. The nitrogen balance was positive and increased linearly (54.8-62.3 g day−1) with concentrate amount. Based on the data, we recommend supplying six-month-old Girolando heifers (160 kg body weight) 1.20 kg concentrate day−1 added to a diet based on sugarcane and cactus cladodes plus urea for better productive and economic performance.
  • Chlorella pyrenoidosa supplementation increased the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen fluid of cattle fed a low-quality tropical forage Ruminants

    Costa, Diogo Fleury Azevedo; Quigley, Simon Paul; Isherwood, Peter; McLennan, Stuart Ross; Sun, Xiao Qiao; Gibbs, Steven James; Poppi, Dennis Paul

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of algae and cottonseed meal (CSM) supplementation on the fatty acid (FA) profile in the rumen fluid (RF) of steers fed a low-quality forage. Five Bos indicus crossbred steers, 187±7.5 kg liveweight (LW; mean±SD), were fed a low crude protein speargrass (Heteropogon contortus) hay as the basal diet alone or supplemented with either Spirulina platensis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa , Dunaliella salina , or CSM in Latin square design. The proportion of individual FA in the RF of steers varied in response to supplement, and these were most likely due to differences in the FA profile in supplements. Steers supplemented with Chlorella pyrenoidosa and CSM had a higher concentration of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) in RF than unsupplemented steers or steers offered the other supplements, but there was no difference in the concentration in RF in steers supplemented with Chlorella pyrenoidosa and CSM. The concentration of linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) was higher in the RF of unsupplemented steers compared with supplemented steers. Steers receiving Chlorella pyrenoidosa supplementation showed an increase in total unsaturated FA in the RF compared with other supplemented and unsupplemented steers, which if transferred to meat, could have health related benefits to consumers. None of the supplements led to the formation of isomers known to inhibit fat synthesis.
  • The geometry of the lactation curve based on Wood's equation: a two-step prediction Ruminants

    Oliveira, Jhone Gleison de; Sant'Anna, Daniel Furtado Dardengo; Lourenço, Matheus Celestiano; Tavares, Davi Simões Tavares; Rodrigues, Marcelo Teixeira; Tedeschi, Luis Orlindo; Vieira, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Lactation records from cows of the southwestern Paraná state, Brazil, form the dataset of this study. We applied the information-theoretic approach to evaluate the ability of the nonlinear Wood, Brody, Dijkstra, and Gamma functions to fit to these data by employing a two-step technique based on nonlinear mixed-effects models and generalized linear mixed-effects models. Wood's equation was fitted with the combination of a first-order autoregressive correlation structure and a variance function to account for heteroscedasticity. This version was the best choice to mimic lactation records. Some geometric attributes of Wood's model were deduced, mainly the ascending specific rate from parturition to peak milk yield and the descending specific rate as a measure of the lactation persistence of the milk yield at peak production. Breed and parity order of the cows were assumed as fixed effects to obtain a reliable model fitting process. Regardless of breed, first-order parity cows had greater persistency than their older counterparts, and the greater the ascending rate of milk yield from the parturition to the peak, the sharper the decrease in milk yield post-peak; therefore, the rates (absolute values) of ascending and descending phases correlated positively. Nonetheless, the actual estimated values of the descending phase rates are negative. Wood's equation was flexible enough to mimic either concave- and convex-shaped lactation profiles. The correlations between both peak milk yield and random estimates for β with total milk yield per lactation were positive. However, peak milk yield might not be the only variable used for ranking cows; the total milk yield integrates all information of the lactation profile through the estimated parameters of Wood's equation.
  • Use of crosses for sustainability in livestock farming in the Brazilian Meio-Norte region Ruminants

    Afonso, Taís Maciel; Carvalho, Geraldo Magela Cortes; Hadlich, Janaina Conte; Rodrigues, Viviany de Sousa; Barros, Dayse Andrade; Vasconcelos, André Belico de; Igarasi, Mauricio Scoton

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study evaluated different crosses for sustainable beef production in the Meio-Norte, Brazil. Thirty-four cattle [seven Curraleiro Pé-duro (CPD), six Nellore (NEL), seven F1 (½ NEL+½ CPD), seven F2A (¼ CPD+¼ NEL+½ Angus), and seven F2S (¼ CPD+¼ NEL+½ Senepol)] were evaluated on natural pastures in the states of Piauí and Maranhão. The animals were weighed at birth (BW); weaning (WW); 12 (W12), 18 (W18), and 24 months (W24); and slaughter (SW). The morphometric measurements of rump height (RH), withers height (WH), body length (BW), and heart girth (HG) were assessed. Hot carcass weight (HCW), cold carcass weight (CCW), loin-eye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BFT), carcass dressing percentage (DP), water-holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL), shear force (SF), pH, meat color (L*M, a*M, and b*M), and fat color (L*F, a*F, and b*F) were also analyzed. The three-cross animals (F2A and F2S) showed heavier weights from weaning to slaughter as well as higher HCW and CCW. The three-cross cattle produced less methane per kg of meat. The lack of differences between the NEL, F1, F2A, and F2S animals indicates that crossbreeding did not increase their size, which could be detrimental to reproductive efficiency. Loin-eye area, BFT, and DP differed between the genetic groups, with the highest LEA obtained by F2A. Backfat thickness and DP were low in all animals, suggesting a need for increased carcass fatness. Water-holding capacity, CL, SF, pH, a*F, b*F, L*M, and a*M did not differ; therefore, crossbreeding did not affect qualitative or visual aspects of meat and fat. The use of crosses in meat production systems in the Meio-Norte region of Brazil is a viable option to improve sustainability. In this respect, three-cross animals have the best performance.
  • Influence of supplementing Guinea grass with differently processed African yam bean on gas production and in vitro digestibility Ruminants

    Sanni, Toibudeen Adesegun; Jesuyon, Oluwatosin Mawunapn Adegoke; Adejoro, Festus Adeyemi; Baiyeri, Samuel Olorunfemi; Boluwaji, Oluwapelumi Victoria; Akanmu, Abiodun Mayowa; Hassen, Abubeker

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study evaluated the potential utilisation of African yam bean (AYB) seed as a supplement to Guinea grass on in vitro gas and methane (CH4) production, as well as the effect of processing on AYB nutritive value. In experiment 1, unprocessed AYB meal at 10, 15, 20, and 25% inclusion levels was added to Guinea grass substrate and evaluated for in vitro gas production, CH4, and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). In experiment 2, the effect of soaked, boiled, toasted, and fermented AYB meal at 20% inclusion on in vitro fermentation was evaluated. In vitro gas production as well as in vitro organic matter digestibility of Guinea grass increased with AYB supplementation. The associative effect of Guinea grass with AYB showed an increase in gas and CH4 production. At 20% inclusion level, AYB processing methods did not affect the gas production, CH4, and IVOMD of the substrate. Fermentation improved the crude protein, iron, and zinc contents, reduced acid detergent fibre concentration but did not reduce the concentrations of alkaloid, total phenol, saponin, and trypsin inhibitors of AYB. Seed soaking for 48 h reduced the total phenol, tannin, oxalate, and phytate content, while seed boiling reduced the concentrations of alkaloid, total phenol, tannin, and trypsin inhibitors. Compared with the raw AYB, boiling is the most effective processing method to reduce the investigated phytochemicals, followed by soaking, toasting, and fermentation, in that order.
  • Effects of cutting height and bacterial inoculant on corn silage aerobic stability and nutrient digestibility by sheep Ruminants

    Mendonça, Rita de Cássia Almeida de; Cardoso, Marcus Vinicius Santa Brígida; Pantoja, Sarah Oliveira Sousa; Souza, Melany Simões de; Domingues, Felipe Nogueira; Faturi, Cristian; Silva, Thiago Carvalho da; Rêgo, Aníbal Coutinho do

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of cutting height (25 or 40 cm above ground) and bacterial inoculation (a combined inoculant of Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici) on the chemical and microbial compositions, fermentative profile, and aerobic stability of whole-plant corn silage and nitrogen balance, intake, and apparent nutrient digestibility by sheep. To evaluate silage characteristics and sheep metabolism, we performed analyses based on a completely randomized block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two cutting heights, with or without bacterial inoculant). We evaluated the chemical and microbial compositions, pH, fermentation end-products, and aerobic stability of silage. To examine nutrient digestibility of silage, we used 24 male sheep over a 21-day period. We found that the aerobic stability did not differ among the silages. Sheep fed silages produced from corn harvested at 40 cm had increased intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrients, whereas the non-fiber carbohydrate intake of inoculated corn silages was found to be higher than that of uninoculated silage. Furthermore, the amounts of nitrogen retained by sheep fed silage produced from corn harvested at 40 cm were higher than those of sheep fed silage produced from corn harvested at 25 cm. Collectively, our findings indicate that, despite the observed effects, a difference of 15 cm in cutting height results in relatively small changes in the chemical composition of corn silage and a limited effect on the nutrient intake and nitrogen balance of animals fed this silage. Moreover, although bacterial inoculation promotes an efficient fermentation, it has no marked effects on the aerobic stability of silage.
  • Predicting the carcass characteristics of Morada Nova lambs using biometric measurements Ruminants

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Lima, Anny Graycy Vasconcelos de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Neila Lidiany; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes de; Medeiros, Geovergue Rodrigues de; Gonzaga, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to use biometric measurements to predict carcass characteristics of lambs of the Morada Nova breed. We used 48 lambs with mean initial body weight (BW) of 15.0±0.04 kg and slaughter body weight (SBW) of 26.37±2.43 kg. The animals were weighed weekly and underwent a period of adaptation of 15 days before slaughter. The biometric measurements were obtained the day before slaughter, comprising body length, withers height, rump height, thigh length, breast width, rump width, thigh perimeter, rump perimeter, thorax perimeter, leg length, and body condition score. Additional measurements included slaughter BW and empty BW (EBW). The data recorded at slaughter comprised the weights of the viscera, carcass, and internal fat and offal. The in vivo measurements of body length were present in most of the equations for predicting the SBW, EBW, hot carcass weight (HCW), and cold carcass weight (CCW). The SBW and EBW presented a variation of approximately 9%. The variables that evaluated the carcass, HCW, and CCW demonstrated less data variation than SBW and EBW, which was probably because these measurements were obtained following evisceration and skinning, thus removing factors of more significant variation in vivo . The prediction models found in the present study varied with an R² of 0.49-0.93, indicating high levels of variation. In sum, biometric measurements can be used to predict the carcass characteristics of Morada Nova lambs with different body conditions.
  • Characterization of carcasses of Zebu cattle raised in a semiarid region according to sex Ruminants

    Ferraz, Filipe Martins; Vieira e Silva, Fredson; Oliveira, Laura Lúcia dos Santos; Borges, Iran; Alves, Dorismar David; Rocha, Vicente Ribeiro

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective was to group and characterize Zebu cattle carcasses according to sex. Data from 15,002 carcasses of cattle raised in the semiarid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used. The carcass characteristics analyzed were weight, conformation, subcutaneous fat, number of permanent incisor teeth (PIT), and sex (uncastrated males, castrated males, females (up to six PIT), and cows (eight PIT)). Cluster analysis was applied to establish the relationship between sex and carcass characteristics. Four clusters were identified according to sex, and 60% of the total variance in the data set is explained by the clusters. Uncastrated males appear together in a single group (Cluster 1), which demonstrates homogeneity in their carcass characteristics. The heaviest group was Cluster 1. The castrated males appear in three groups, some of them (33.58%) grouped with the majority of cows (92.85%), which indicates that these carcasses did not achieve the quality required by the industry. Another part of the castrated males (41.84%) presented characteristics required by the industry. The females appear in all clusters. Except for uncastrated males and cows, the effect of sex (castrated males and females) on the carcass characteristics of Zebu cattle from the semiarid region of the Minas Gerais does not assure similar characteristics. Therefore, the improvement of carcass quality, using castration as the central grading criterion, should be reviewed not to overemphasize this item.
  • Effects of combining immunocastration and β-adrenergic agonists on the blood metabolites and their correlations with performance and carcass traits of finished Nellore cattle Ruminants

    Antonelo, Daniel Silva; Gómez, Juan Fernando Morales; Cônsolo, Nara Regina Brandão; Mazon, Madeline Rezende; Nubiato, Keni Eduardo Zanoni; Souza, Camilla de; Saran, Arlindo; Silva, Saulo da Luz e

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of combining immunocastration and β-adrenergic agonists (β-AA) on blood metabolites and their correlations with performance and carcass traits of Nellore cattle. Ninety-six Nellore males were distributed in a randomized block design with a 2×3 factorial arrangement. The factors were two sexual conditions (immunocastrated and non-castrated), and three diets (control, with no inclusion of β-AA; RH, with 300 mg of ractopamine hydrochloride/d; and ZH, with 80 mg of zilpaterol hydrochloride/animal/d). The trial was conducted during 100 d, during which animals were fed ZH and RH for the last 30 and 33 d, respectively. Blood metabolites related to lipid and protein metabolism were assessed at the baseline (0 d of β-AA supplementation) and after 13 and 30 d of β-AA supplementation. No effect of sexual condition × β-AA supplementation × time on feed interaction was observed. Combining immunocastration with β-AA supplementation modified cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids concentrations without affecting protein metabolism. Immunocastration enhances lipogenesis and reduces skeletal muscle accretion by increasing high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides concentrations and decreasing creatinine and creatine kinase concentrations, respectively. Zilpaterol hydrochloride enhances skeletal muscle accretion by decreasing urea and total protein concentrations and increases creatinine and creatine kinase concentrations without modifying lipid metabolism.
  • Effects of Parkia platycephala on feeding behavior, rumen health, blood markers, and physiological responses of lactating goats Ruminants

    Batista, Ianete Lima; Dias-Silva, Tairon Pannunzio; Marques, Carlo Aldrovandi Torreão; Torreão, Jacira Neves da Costa; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Edvan, Ricardo Loiola; Sejian, Veerasamy; Araújo, Marcos Jácome de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Parkia platycephala pod meal (PP) on feeding behavior, rumen health, blood markers, and physiological responses in lactating goats. Eight apparently healthy, adult, multiparous Anglo-Nubian goats, with an average body weight of 42.06±3.5 kg and approximately 52±4 days in lactation, were randomly assigned into two Latin squares (4×4) composed of four levels of PP (0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100% of dry matter) for four periods. Daily feed intake, feeding behavior, rumen health, blood markers (hemogram and biochemical parameters), and physiological responses (rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, and sweating rate) were assessed. Intake, feeding efficiency, and rumination efficiency were not affected by the replacement of ground corn with PP. At these replacement levels, the goats significantly spent more time feeding and ruminating. There was a significant decrease in the number of chews (number/day and number/min) with an increase in PP inclusion. Rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, and sweating rate were higher in the afternoon for the three periods measured. There were no negative changes in blood markers or rumen health with the use of PP. The current findings indicate that PP can be used to replace up to 100% of the corn in the diet of lactating goats without causing significant changes in animal health, feeding behavior, or physiological parameters.
  • Different profiles of fatty acids in Ca soaps on dissociation and modification by biohydrogenation in vitro Ruminants

    Cappellozza, Bruno Ieda; Ferraretto, Luiz Felipe; Vedovatto, Marcelo; Moriel, Philipe

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effects of rumen pH on in vitro Ca dissociation of different sources of Ca soaps of fatty acids (CSFA). Treatments were distributed in a 6×4 factorial design and consisted of six CSFA sources and four rumen fluid pH. The CSFA sources were: two sources of palm oil (PO1 and PO2), soybean oil (SO), palm + soybean oil (PSO), palm + cottonseed oil (PCO), and palm + cottonseed + soybean oil (PCSO). All CSFA samples were added to a pool of rumen fluid and adjusted to four different pH (5.5, 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0), and then, incubated at 37 °C for 1 h. This procedure was replicated over three consecutive days. Effect of CSFA source × rumen pH was detected for in vitro relative Ca dissociation and change (Δ) in concentrations of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. Calcium dissociation did not differ among CSFA sources in pH 7.0 or 6.5, but was greater for SO vs. PO2, PSO, PCO, and PCSO in pH 6.0. Relative Ca dissociation in pH 5.5 was lower for PO1 and PSO vs. SO, but greater for PO1 and PSO vs. PCO and PCSO. The Δ of oleic acid was greater for PO2 vs. PCO in pH 6.5 and PO1 and PCSO vs. PO2 and SO in pH 7.0. The Δ of linoleic acid was greatest for SO across all pH evaluated and did not differ between PO1 and PO2, but both had a reduced Δ of linoleic acid than other CSFA sources in pH 5.5 and 7.0. The Δ of linolenic acid concentrations did not differ between PO1 and PO2, but both had less Δ of linolenic acid concentrations than other CSFA sources across all pH. Besides, SO had greater Δ of linolenic acid compared with PSO, PCO, and PCSO in pH 5.5, 6.0, and 6.5. Combining palm + cottonseed oil and palm + cottonseed + soybean oil reduces Ca dissociation and maintains the original fatty acid profile of the CSFA source.
  • Crude glycerin in corn grain-based diets for dairy calves Ruminants

    Maciel, Raylon Pereira; Restle, João; Missio, Regis Luis; Bilego, Ubirajara Oliveira; Cunha, Maryanne Silva; Sousa, Luciano Fernandes; Araújo, Vera Lúcia; Neiva, José Neuman Miranda

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate performance, apparent digestibility, blood parameters, and quantitative characteristics of carcass and internal organs of crossbred dairy calves fed different levels of crude glycerin in corn grain-based diets. Twenty-four calves of three months of age and average initial weight of 95.5±11.8 kg were used. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments (0, 80, 160, and 240 g kg−1 of crude glycerin of DM of diets). The calves were fed in feedlot until six months of age (195.68±2.38 kg of BW). Dry matter (4.14, 4.11, 3.80, and 3.49 kg day−1) and apparent digestible energy intake (0.43, 0.41, 0.37, and 0.35 MJ kg−1 BW) decreased with increasing levels of glycerin in the diets. There was no effect on the apparent digestibility of nutrients, average daily gain, feed efficiency, carcass characteristics, and blood parameters. The diets did not influence the weights [g kg−1 of empty body weight (EBW)] of lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, omasum, abomasum, and large intestine. The reticulorumen weight (g kg−1 EBW) increased, whereas the small intestine weight decreased with increased levels of glycerin in the diets. The area, height, and width of the rumen papillae were not changed with increasing levels of glycerin. The rumen wall thickness increased with increasing levels of glycerin in the diets. The inclusion up to 240 g kg−1 DM of crude glycerin of in corn grain-based diets for the production of dairy calves does not alter animal performance, carcass characteristics, and weights of internal organs.
  • Inclusion of Opuntia stricta (Haw.) in sheep diets affects nutrition and the physicochemical characteristics of the rumen content Ruminants

    Araujo, Cintia Mirely de; Batista, Ângela Maria Vieira; Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos de; Silva, Márcia Pereira da; Ramos, Alenice Ozino; Souza, Anaiane Pereira; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of the cactus Opuntia stricta (Haw.) in sheep diets on the feed intake, digestibility, fermentation, and physicochemical characteristics of the ruminal digesta. Five sheep cannulated in the rumen (61.5±9.5 kg body weight) were assigned in a Latin square design (5×5), with five diets and five experimental periods of 21 days each. The first 14 days were the adaptation period, and data were collected over the following seven days, making the total duration of the experiment 105 days. The diets included a control diet and four diets containing cactus at 121, 245, 371, and 500 g/kg of dry matter (DM). The diets had a forage:concentrate ratio of 65:35. The inclusion of cactus increased the DM intake and non-fiber carbohydrates, but reduced the neutral detergent fiber intake. It also increased the apparent digestibility of the DM, reduced the digesta density 4 h after feeding, and increased the production of ruminal fluid foam. The inclusion of cactus quadratically affected the DM rumen turnover, with the lowest value observed in the 336.5 g/kg cactus diet. The DM ruminal disappearance rate increased with the inclusion of cactus to the diets and quadratically affected the ruminal pH, with the highest value found in the 150 g/kg cactus diet. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) increased, but the acetate:propionate ratio decreased with the inclusion of cactus at 500 g/kg DM. Taken together, our findings indicate that the evaluated spineless cactus can be added to sheep diets up to the level of 500 g/kg DM. The inclusion of O. stricta (Haw.) improves feed intake, DM digestibility, and SCFA and modifies the physicochemical characteristics of the ruminal digesta.
  • Yield, composition, and fatty acid profile of milk from Anglo Nubian goats fed a diet supplemented with vegetable oils Ruminants

    Chávari, Andréia Cristina Toniolo; Marques, Raquel Ornelas; Cañizares, Gil Ignacio Lara; Brito, Evelyn Prestes; Gomes, Helen Fernanda Barros; Lourençon, Raquel Vasconcelos; Meirelles, Paulo Roberto de Lima; Gonçalves, Heraldo Cesar

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the inclusion of three sources of vegetable oil in the diet of lactating goats on production in 120 days of lactation and the effect of these sources and lactation stage on fortnightly composition and fatty acid profile of goat milk at 20, 50, 80, and 110 days of lactation. A completely randomized design was adopted and 32 Anglo Nubian goats were used, distributed in four treatments: control diet and diets with inclusion of 30 g/kg of dry matter of diet of canola, sunflower, or soybean oil. The dairy production was 182.75 kg, and there was no difference for treatments. Among the constituents, only urea nitrogen was influenced by treatment and presented lower content for control treatment. Day of lactation had an effect on lactose. Defatted dry extract and somatic cell count had a quadratic effect with minimum values around 100 and 33 days of lactation, respectively. The content of urea nitrogen, also with a quadratic effect, was higher at 93 days of lactation. For protein, there was an interaction between treatments and period and, at the end of lactation, its content was increased. The inclusion of vegetable oils promoted reduction in total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and increased the total content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and conjugated linoleic acid. The proportions MUFA:SFA and PUFA:SFA, the atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes, and the relation hypocholesterolemic fatty acids:hypercholesterolemic fatty acids improved with oil addition in animal diets. The addition of vegetable oil to diets for lactating goats improve the fatty acid profile with no impairment on milk production and composition, and the milk from early stages of lactation has better nutritional quality of the lipid fraction.
  • Chemical composition, hygiene characteristics, and coagulation aptitude of milk for Parmigiano Reggiano cheese from herds yielding different milk levels Ruminants

    Franceschi, Piero; Malacarne, Massimo; Formaggioni, Paolo; Righi, Federico; Summer, Andrea

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective with this research was to compare milk quality parameters among herds characterized by different levels of milk production. The research involved 1080 bulk milk samples collected from 30 dairy herds, which produce milk for Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, during three years. Each milk sample was analysed for fat, crude protein, titratable acidity, total bacterial count, somatic cells, coliform bacteria, and Clostridia spores. Least mean values were obtained by ANOVA using milk production intervals from 6000 to 7999 (L-group), from 8000 to 9999 (M-group), and from 10000 to 12000 kg/cow/lactation (H-group) as fixed milk production classes. Increased milk production was associated with a reduction in milk fat content (from 3.54 in the L-group milk to 3.29 g/100 g in the H-group milk). An improvement in the hygienic-sanitary quality of milk was observed with increasing milk production. In fact, a progressive decrease in the total bacterial count (from 95 in the L-group milk to 45 103 cfu/mL in the H-group milk), number of coliforms (from 2294 in the L-group milk to 1342 cfu/mL in the H-group milk), and somatic cell number (from 382 in the L-group milk to 209 103 cells/mL in the H-group milk) was observed with the increase in milk production level. Finally, it appears that higher milk yield is connected with significant positive effects on the lactodynamometric properties of milk.
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